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Full text of "Transactions of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society"



m 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 




assac|usetts porfknltaral Societg, 



FOR THE YEAR 1890. 



PART I. 




BOSTON: 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY. 

189 0. 



m** SEE LAST PAGE OF COVER. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 




WKtfjttfttis Iflrtkiilteal Stocidj, 



FOR THE YEAR 1890. 



PART I. 




BOSTON : 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETT. 

189 0. 



The following papers and discussions have been circulated to 
some extent in the form of slips reprinted from the reports made 
by the Secretary of the Society in the Boston Transcript. As here 
presented, the papers are printed in full, and the discussions are 
not only much fuller than in the weekly reports, but, where it 
appeared necessary, have been carefully revised by the speakers. 

The Committee on Publication and Discussion take this oppor- 
tunity to repeat what they have before stated, that the Society 
is not to be held responsible for the certainty of the statements, 
the correctness of the opinions, or the accuracy of the nomencla- 
ture in the papers and discussions now or heretofore published, all 
of which must rest on the credit or judgment of the respective 
writers or speakers, the Society undertaking only to present these 
papers and discussions, or the substance of them, correctly. 

O. B. Had wen, ^ Committee on 

William H. Hunt, > Publication and 

Francis H. Apfleton, J Discussion. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OP THE 



^mmlMttte *§mtun\tM%\ f mt% 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday January 4, 1890. 

A duly notified stated meeting of the Society was holden at 
half past eleven o'clock. The chair was taken by the President, 
Dr. Henry P. Walcott. 

President Walcott, after thanking the Society for the kindness 
always shown him and the hearty support given him during the 
four years in which he had presided over the Society, introduced 
the President elect, William H. Spooner, who delivered the fol- 
lowing inaugural address. 

Address of President Spooner. 

Ladies and Gentlemen: — As we meet together today at the 
commencement of a new year, united in our interest in all that 
this Society exists to promote, shall we consider briefly at first 
what the condition of our affairs is, and in what measures lie our 
best possibilities of advancement ? From the excellent reports of 
our Standing Committees, so far as presented, it appears that the 
exhibitions of the past year have been, with a few exceptions, up 
to the usual standard, but it also appears that they have not 
proved so attractive to the public as could be desired. As this 
age demands novelty in every department of life, it has occurred 
to me that the cause of the apparent lack of interest may be in 
the exhibitions themselves ; there is toe much sameness in them, 
and if some special novelties could be introduced into the four 
principal shows, particularly the Annual one, renewed interest 



b MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

might be aroused. Ex-President Parkman wisely cautioned us 
against "getting into ruts and staying there," and we shall do 
well to keep pushing that we may avoid this error. In corrobo- 
ration of this idea, we recall the financial success of that exhibition 
in which Mr. Sturtevant's beautiful collection of Nymphaeas was 
introduced, and the Rose Exhibitions at which Mr. Hayes or Mr. 
Moore presented unusually beautiful specimens, eliciting substan- 
tial marks of public favor ; or again, the last Chrysanthemum 
Show, to which Mr. Simpkins, from the sandy soil of Cape Cod, 
contributed, through his skilful gardener, blooms that far exceeded 
any of the kind ever seen in our Hall, raising the standard for 
future emulation, and leaving our receipts perceptibly enlarged. 
Do not these facts prove that the lack of interest must arise from 
lack of attraction in the exhibitions, and will not the intelligence 
of eur committees be able to devise a remedy? While the work 
of the Society in the future is undoubtedly largely to encourage 
the improvement of standard collections, there is perhaps a still 
broader field for progress in stimulating the production of seed- 
lings of hardy flowering plants and fruits, in which latter depart- 
ment we have the example of Mr. Dana, who has left us the well- 
known pear, which received the Society's commendation, and holds 
its place among the most desirable varieties. 

Messrs. Hovey, Wilder, and Heustis have displayed their skill 
by giving us new and improved kinds of strawberries, receiving 
the Society's approval ; and in seedling grapes, Mr. Bull, in his 
famous Concord, has made it possible for every citizen to sit 
under his own vine and eat of its fruit. Among plants, from the 
experiments of the Messrs. Hovey and Mr. Parkman, we have 
had rare improvements in the Lily family ; in pinks and carna- 
tions by Messrs. Hyde, Tailby, and Fisher ; and in chrysanthe- 
mums, Dr. Walcott has shown his skill by productiens of great 
merit. I cite these instances of what has been accomplished by 
effort in the past ; and they can probably be exceeded in the 
future, as inventive genius is continually surprising us on every 
side with its marvellous developments, and whosoever shall be the 
scribe of the Society at the end of its next half-century will have 
wonders to record far beyond our fairest imaginings. 

Who is to be the pioneer of seedlings in the Rose department? 
The opportunity is wide for the production of seedlings of free- 
blooming varieties which shall be hardy enough to withstand the 



ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT SPOONER. 7 

difficulties of our changeable climate. We hear that experiments 
have been made in New York by crossings with Rosa rugosa, 
which is undoubtedly a true basis to work from. Judging from 
experience, it would seem wise to promote interest in this depart- 
ment by offering liberal prizes. 

As another measure conducive to interest in our work, I would 
suggest that members should be furnished b} r mail with copies of 
the programmes for the discussions of the season, and with the 
Schedule of Prizes, and should be informed that the published 
Transactions of the Society can be obtained by application to the 
Secretary. Members should also be notified of the quarterly meet- 
ings. The Treasurer should give due notice to annual members 
of their assessment dues, and new members should be furnished 
with a copy of the Constitution and By-Laws. With the modern 
facilities for supplying wrappers and superscriptions, the extra 
expense would not be very large, and the labor need not fall 
upon the Secretary, to add to his duties. It seems to me that 
this might prove helpful as a reminder to members of what is going 
on here. 

I regret that the special Committee on Window Gardening has 
not yet reported, but from the preliminary statement of its 
Secretary, we can judge that the work has made rapid progress 
during the past year, and would seem to be worthy of continued 
support. 

During the past year the Society has lost by death several 
prominent members, one of whom, Aaron D. Weld, of West Rox- 
bury, joined this organization in 1829, the year of its formation. 
Other valuable members were Henry Weld Fuller, of Roxbury, 
so long identified with our affairs as Vice President, and at the 
time of his death a member of the Executive Committee ; Charles 
L. Flint, of Boston, for many years Secretary of the State Board 
of Agriculture ; Henry Shaw of St. Louis, a Corresponding Mem- 
ber, well known as the distinguished philanthropist who gave so 
large a sum to further the cause of botanical education in St. 
Louis ; and William C. Harding, of Stamford, Conn., formerly a 
large contributor to our exhibitions, for each of whom suitable 
memorials have been offered. Two other valuable members have 
passed from us, James Cartwright of Wellesley, for several years 
a very efficient member of the Committee on Plants and Flowers, 
an honest man of most reliable judgment ; and James O'Brien of 



8 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Jamaica Plain, also a member of the same Committee, well 
informed in his profession, a good cultivator, and one who would 
have been of service to the Society hac) his health permitted. 

The* finances of the Society are in as prosperous condition as 
can reasonably be expected after the unusual expenditure forced 
upon us by the fire in our building about a year ago, which 
reduced our income from the halls, during the time occupied in 
repairs. The opportunity was, however, improved for making 
various needful changes and additions in the Halls and Library 
Room, which are greatly to our advantage, but which necessitated 
larger expenditures than was covered by the insurance received. 
The Halls are much improved, and will undoubtedly be more in 
demand. The Library Room is especially benefited by the 
changes made, giving additional space for books, which was one 
of its needs ; the Library Committee now consider it sufficiently 
commodious for present purposes. 

These drafts upon our income have prevented any addition to 
the Sinking Fund, but we can reasonably hope to add something 
to this Fund, (which now amounts to about $5,000) during the 
coming year. The mortgage debt of the Society is $25,000. 

The Treasurer's report will show gross receipts for the year of 
$51,098.31, including a balance on hand January 1, 1889. The 
total expenditures have been $40,477.75, leaving a balance of 
$10,620.56 ; of this $1,000 should be reserved for the John Lewis 
Russell Fund, making the net balance on hand January 1st, 1890, 
$9,620.56. There has been received from Mount Auburn Ceme- 
tery $4,322, included in the above. 

Ladies and Gentlemen : In assuming the duties of the office 
with which you have honored me, I realize fully its large responsi- 
bilities, and my own shortcomings ; but, recalling in retrospect 
the many distinguished men, whose wise counsels have heretofore 
directed us and aided the growth of our Society, I can only strive 
in some degree to emulate their zeal, and earnestly hope for your 
suggestions and support to strengthen my efforts. 

John G. Barker, Chairman of the Committee on Gardens, made 
a report of the awards by that Committee for the year 1889, 
which was accepted. Mr. Barker asked to be allowed until the 
first Saturday in February, to prepare the remainder of his report, 
which was granted. 



APPROPRIATIONS FOR 1890. J* 

Mrs. H. L. T. Walcott, Chairman of the Committee on Window 
Gardening, read the Annual Report of that Committee, which 
was accepted and referred to the Committee on Publication. 

The President, as Chairman of the Executive Committee, 
reported a recommendation that the Society make the following 
appropriations for the year 1890 : ' 



For Prizes for Plants and Flowers, . 


$3,000 


u « u Fruits, 


. . 


1,700 


" " " Vegetables, 


. . 


1,000 


" " " Gardens, . 


. . 


300 


Total for Prizes, 


. . 


$6,000 



For the Library Committee, for the purchase of maga- 
zines and newspapers, binding of books and incidental 
expenses of the Committee, ..... $300 

For the Committee on Publication and Discussion, . 250 

For the Library Committee, to continue the Card Cata- 
logue of Plates, 100 

For the Committee of Arrangements, this sum to cover 

all extraordinary expenses of said Committee, . 300 

For the compensation of the Secretary and Librarian and 

Assistant, . . . . . . .' 1,700 

For Prizes for the Promotion of Window Gardening, 150 

These appropriations were unanimously voted by the Society. 

The President also reported from the Executive Committee the 
appointment of Robert Manning to be Secretary and Librarian, 
and W. Wyllys Gannett to be Treasurer and Superintendent of 
the Building for the year 1890. 

On motion of E. H. Hitchings it was voted that, agreeably to 
the rules of the State Board of Agriculture three prizes of $10, $8, 
and $6, be given for the best reports of awarding committees, and 
that the Committee on Publication and Discussion be requested to 
award these prizes. 

On motion of Benjamin G. Smith it was voted that a committee 
of three be appointed to procure a portrait of the retiring Presi- 
dent, Dr. Henry P. Walcott, and Mr. Smith, Francis H. Appleton 
and Leverett M. Chase, were appointed as that Committee. 



10 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Mr. Smith also, as Treasurer of the American Pomological 
Society, presented to the Library a copy of the Proceedings of 
that Society at its Twenty-second Session, in Ocala, Florida, 
February, 1889, for which the thanks of the Society were voted. 

A letter from F. Lyford, in regard to a claim on the Society, 
was read and referred to the Finance Committee. 

Ex-President, James F. C. Hyde stated that much dissatisfac- 
tion existed among the members of the Society in regard to the 
appointment of Treasurer made by the Executive Committee, and 
moved that a committee of five be appointed by the Chair to 
confer with the Executive Committee on the subject. The motion 
was unanimously carried, and the Chair appointed as that Com- 
mittee, Mr. Hyde, Leverett M. Chase, E. W. Wood, Patrick 
Norton, and John G. Barker. 

Hon. Eugene H. Clapp, of Roxbury, 

having been recommended by the Executive Committee as a mem- 
ber of the Society, was on ballot duly elected. 

O. B. Hadwen, Chairman of the Committee on Publication and 
Discussion, announced that the first of the meetings for discussion 
the present season would be held on the next Saturday, at half 
past eleven o'clock, when Professor Gr. H. Whitcher, director of 
the New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station, Hanover, 
N. H., would read a paper on the " Growth and Nutrition of 
Plants." 

Adjourned to Saturday, January 11, at half past eleven o'clock. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 



Saturday, January 11, 1890. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at half past 
eleven o'clock, the President, William H. Spooner, in the chair. 

The Secretary read a letter from W. W. Dunlop, Secretary of 
the Montreal Horticultural Society, containing the information 
that a Convention of Fruit Growers of the Dominion of Canada 



HORTICULTURE OF CALIFORNIA. 11 

would be held in the City of Ottawa, on the 19th, 20th, and 21st 
of February, and extending a cordial invitation to this Society to 
send one or more delegates to the meeting. Also that in connec- 
tion with this Convention, an exhibition of winter fruits would be 
held, and asking this Society to appoint a competent judge to act 
with another, to be appointed by the Western New York Horticul- 
tural Society, in awarding the prizes. It was voted to accept the 
invitation of the Montreal Horticultural Society, and O. B. 
Had wen was appointed Delegate and Judge. 

Adjourned to Saturday, January 18, 1890, at half past eleven 
o'clock. 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

A lecture was expected from Professor G. H. Whitcher, of the 
New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station, on the " Growth 
and Nutrition of Plants." Professor Whitcher was, however, 
owing to the delay of a railroad train, not present. In place of 
that paper there was given an impromptu talk, from recent 
observations in the Golden State, upon the 

Horticulture of California. 

By Benjamin P. Ware, Clifton, Mass. 

Mr. Ware said that, being entirely unprepared to speak, his 
remarks might be somewhat rambling. The subject is so vast 
that it would require some time to give a full account of it. 
Everything connected with California is on a vast scale, and the 
people express themselves largely, and he did not wonder at it. 
He began by giving a description of a ranch, as they call a farm 
in that State. He selected the estate of General John Bidwell, 
who went to California in 1847, and soon acquired possession of 
one of the great Spanish grants — probably forty thousand acres. 
Here he began a town, called Chico, which now has six thousand 
inhabitants. It is beautifully located and can be thoroughly 
irrigated. As you enter the estate by a long avenue lined with 
beautiful trees, you first come to a cherry orchard, where there is 
one tree five feet through at the base. Next there is an apricot 
orchard of hundreds of acres, the rows of trees extending as far 
as one can see. To utilize these fruits, General Bidwell has a 



12 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

canning factory of his own. There is also a large olive orchard ; 
the cultivation of this fruit and the manufacture of oil is destined 
to be one of the leading interests of California. A superior 
variety of prune, known as the French prune, has been introduced, 
and from the fruit dried prunes of superior quality are manufac- 
tured. In the summer the climate is warm and there is no rain or 
dew, so that prunes and raisins can be dried by the sun alone. 
There is a large peach orchard, containing the varieties of best 
quality for canning and transportation. Gen. Bid well had a 
large vineyard for wine, but being a prohibitionist he pulled up 
the vines, and now grows grapes only for raisins. He makes five 
hundred barrels of cider annually, all of which is made into 
vinegar. 

Mr. Ware saw acres and acres of squashes, or, as they are 
called there, pumpkins, producing at the rate of twenty tons per 
acre ; they are valued at $2 per ton. There is no frost there, 
and they are piled up in the fields until wanted for use. He saw 
a photograph of a field which was said to have produced eighty tons 
to the acre. The peach, apricot, prune, and fig require only four 
years to make good, thrifty bearing trees. Almonds and English 
walnuts thrive there ; indeed, all the fruits now imported from 
Europe find a congenial home in California, and our whole coun- 
try will undoubtedly before long be supplied from thence with all 
the fruits and nuts now imported. It is only about twelve years 
since it was known that the various fruits could be grown in Cali- 
fornia to advantage. Soon after the discovery of gold, in 1849, 
oats were found growing there, having stalks six feet high, and it 
was argued that if oats would grow there wheat would also. Last 
year a surplus of fifteen millions of bushels of superior wheat was 
exported. Wheat and barley are grown without irrigation. 

Oak trees are found growing naturally in various parts of the 
State and forming park-like scenery. The principal species are 
the live oak, water oak and a variety resembling our white oak, 
but producing timber much inferior to that. The atmosphere is 
very peculiar ; standing thirty miles away from the Sierra Nevada, 
it looks as if there were a descent to the foot-hills instead of a 
rise. The lumber interest is a very important one at Chico ; a 
flume thirty-eight miles long has been built to float down the 
lumber, which travels that distance in four hours and a half, and 
the same water is afterwards used for irrigation. 



HORTICULTURE OF CALIFORNIA. 13 

Fruit and alfalfa require more or less irrigation in the larger 
portion of California, but the idea that irrigation must be contin- 
uous has been found erroneous ; continuous irrigation may be 
required for alfalfa, but it is not for fruit. The fruit in California 
is of poor flavor compared with that grown here. The cherry 
orchards are irrigated when the fruit is about ready to swell off. 
It has been learned that stirring the surface soil forms a mulch 
which prevents rapid evaporation and is much better than constant 
irrigation. After irrigation if the surface is stirred with a cultiva- 
tor it will be dry for two or three inches and keep moist below 
that ; if it is not stirred a crust forms on the surface and the 
ground is dry for a foot or more in depth. 

General Bidwell has on his ranch a colony of Digger Indians, 
supposed to be the lowest and meanest of all, but the men are 
among his best workmen, especially as ploughmen. The women 
and children he employs in picking fruit, etc., and they look tidy 
and respectable. Mrs. Bidwell has a Sunday school and a day 
school among them. But Indians in general who have been sent 
to schools in various parts of the country are apt to return to 
savage life, and the better educated die of consumption, caused 
by confinement which is so contrary to their nature. 

General BidwelPs farm comprises 2,200 acres ; the dairy prod- 
ucts amount to $1,200 per month, and' there are six thousand 
sheep and thousands of cattle and horses. But although all the 
products are carefully put on the market, the farm is not profit- 
able ; it is too large. Such farms must be divided into small 
holdings and managed by the owners ; no one man can conduct 
such an estate to advantage. 

Henry Miller, known as the great cattle king, began in San 
Francisco as a butcher. He bought Spanish grants and owns 
about one million acres, which he has divided into ranches of 
20,000 acres each ; he drives around day and night to look after 
them, and has no rest. He is estimated to be worth $40,000,000. 
He has no children, and his partner, who died, had none, and the 
case is the same with General Bidwell and other large land- 
owners. The holding of such great estates is against the spirit of 
republican institutions, and it seems as if Providence were step- 
ping in to insure that they should be sold and divided. It is 
certainly for the interest of California that they should be, and 
the same may be said of the great estates purchased in this 



14 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

country, by English syndicates, and Congress should take action 
to prevent such concentration of ownership in land. 

John Cragin of New York has an immense estate nearly in the 
centre of the Sacramento valley, with the Sierra Nevada mount- 
ains on the east and the Coast Range on the west. He takes a 
different course in the management of his estate. It is divided 
into ranches of about 20,000 acres, each in charge of a foreman 
to whom he pays a salary of about $1,500. He has provided a 
complete system of irrigation, and is bringing his estate into 
condition to put on the market. He cultivates alfalfa largely ; 
with irrigation it will yield ten tons of dry hay per acre. This is 
stored in stacks of about three hundred tons each, and he has 
about 60,000 tons on hand. Cattle will fatten on it. Mr. Cragin 
has about ten thousand horses ; you cannot buy a single horse, 
but the surplus is sent to San Francisco and sold at auction ; the 
proceeds of a recent sale of fat steers amounted to $38,000. At 
Riverside a man fed three horses from one acre of alfalfa. 

The people of California are happy, contented and self-satisfied ; 
every one thinks his location the best of all, and where every one 
has the best, of course there can be no jealousy ; but every one 
wants to sell out. They want from $200 to $350 per acre, which 
Mr. Ware thought too high ; it is rather a prospective value. At 
Bakersfield, there is the best system of irrigation and all kinds of 
fruit may be successfully grown there. The speaker saw fine 
specimens on exhibition ; including raisins and nuts of # all kinds. 
The peaches were of enormous size ; they are put in a strong 
pickle to preserve them for show. 

Jack rabbits, larger than our rabbits and having long ears, 
abound to such an extent as to be a perfect nuisance. Parties of 
two hundred or more, are formed to destroy them ; a corral is 
first built by the hunters, who then surround a circuit of four 
miles or more, and gradually coming nearer together drive the 
rabbits into the corral. Ten thousand have been killed in one 
hunt, and two ladies riding out in a buggy killed two hundred 
with a rifle. 

Riverside is the grand centre of the orange industry. Twelve 
years ago it was a prairie covered with grass and not a tree was to 
be seen anywhere. Now Magnolia avenue extends for miles in a 
straight line, bordered with palms, magnolias, and pepper trees, and 
the orange groves are enclosed with trimmed hedges of Monterey 



HORTICULTURE OF CALIFORNIA. 15 

cypress. The orange trees c©me into bearing in about four years ; 
twenty acres have been sold for $40,000. A crop has been sold 
on the trees for $1,250 per acre, but four hundred to five hundred 
dollars per acre, is not an unusual price for the fruit. Land and 
water companies have been formed, and the land sold in lots with 
water privileges, costing from sixty cents to five dollars per acre. 
The town is a perfect paradise, filled with beautiful homes ; the 
houses were set back from the streets, and now they can hardly 
be seen. But oranges cannot be grown without any trouble ; the 
most destructive pest is the cotton-scale ; a species of lady-bird, 
from Australia, was found to be its deadly enemy, and it was 
imported and propagated, and in two years it destroyed the 
cotton-scale. There is another scale insect for which another 
parasite will have to be found, though a kerosene emulsion will 
destroy it. The gopher, an animal about as large as a rat, 
destroys orange trees by girdling, but good cultivation will keep 
them out. The speaker saw orange trees looking yellow, and was 
told that the owner gathered a large crop, but did not put any- 
thing back. He saw a young man from Amherst who went to 
Pomona with some capital, and had worked hard, and was healthy, 
happy, and prosperous. Five acres of orange grove is enough for 
one man to attend to ; one can care for such a place better than 
for a great estate. Mr. Ware concluded by saying that for lack 
of time and preparation, he had been able to speak of only a very 
few of the many prominent features of the horticultural resources 
of California, and that briefly. But though he found California so 
attractive, he loves his friends and the old associations, and could 
not afford to leave them. He thanked God that his home is just 
where it is, but said that unless we go away and return we cannot 
rightly and fully appreciate our homes. 

Discussion. 

O. B. Had wen spoke of the exhibition a few years ago by the 
Kimball Brothers, of National City, Cal., in the Old South Church, 
of products of that State, and said that he visited these gentle- 
men, who are engaged in cultivating olives, guavas, etc., and was 
most hospitably treated by them. 

James Fisher said that he had lived in San Diego two or three 
years, and that the climate there is in great contrast to that of 
Oakland. In San Diego there is a breeze from the Pacific every 
day in the hot season, and the climate is very healthful. Persons 



16 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

arriving there with bad colds, or even suffering from the sequelae 
of pneumonia, have been cured by the climate without taking any 
remedy. There is no frost and the place is famous for semi- 
tropical fruits. A variety of lemon with no seeds and very thin 
skin is cultivated there, and preparations are making to extend its 
culture very largely. The Messrs. Kimball have an olive-oil 
factory and there is also one at San Bernardino. 

Rev. C. S. Harrison, director of the South-west Division of the 
Nebraska Horticultural Society, who was present, was called on, 
and said that he was happy to meet this brotherhood and sister- 
hood of horticulturists. This was his first visit to New England, 
.and he thought it the grandest place to live in that he had ever 
seen. He would like to exchange some of the rich western soil 
for the climate of New England. He had lived among the mag- 
nificent conifers of the Rocky Mountains, and been engaged in 
collecting them and was pleased to recognize them at the Arnold 
Arboretum and at Mr. Hunnewell's Pinetum at Wellesley. He 
spoke of the beauty of Abies concolor, with blossom buds of the 
deepest purple and purple cones standing erect, while next to 
them would be trees with cones of green. On the great plains 
Norway spruce trees lose their heads, but trees brought from the 
mountains do very well. 

The announcement for the next Saturday was a paper on " The 
Huckleberry," by Dr. E. L. Sturtevant of South Framingham. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, January 18, 1890. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at half past 
eleven o'clock, the President, William H. Spooner, in the chair. 

The Annual Report of the Treasurer was read by the Secretary, 
accepted, and referred to the Committee on Publication. 

The Secretary read a letter from W. W. Dunlop, Secretary of 
the Montreal Horticultural Society, thanking this Society for the 
prompt action taken in regard to the appointment of a Delegate 
and Judge for the Convention of Fruit Growers of the Dominion 
of Canada. 

Adjourned to Saturday, January 25. 



HUCKLEBERRIES AND BLUEBERRIES. 17 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

Huckleberries and Blueberries — Gaylussacia and 

Vaccinium sp. 

By E. Lewis Sturtevant, M. D., South Framingham, Mass. 

In New England the only vernacular names that I have heard 
applied to this class of fruits have been Huckleberries for Gaylus- 
sacia resinosa, T. and G. ; Blueberries for Vaccinium Pennsylvani- 
cum, Lam., V. Canadense, Kalm, and V. vacillans, Solander, which 
are not distinguished apart when collected for market pur- 
poses, and Dangleberries for the fruit of Gaylussacia frondosa, 
T. and G. The fruit of Gaylussacia dumosa, T. and G., occasion- 
ally appears in the New Bedford markets under the name of the 
Hairy Huckleberry ; and the unexcelled fruit of Vaccinium corym- 
bosum, L., under the name of Bush Blueberries. Gray in his 
Synoptical Flora applies in a generic sense the word Huckleberry 
to the Gaylussacias ; and Blueberry, Bilberry, or sometimes Huc- 
kleberry and Cranberry to the Vacciniums. Authors have not, 
however, made a very clear discrimination in the vernacular no- 
menclature, and there is much confusion. I have never yet heard 
the words Whortleberry and Bilberry used by uneducated country 
people, and yet these words are given prominence in American 
Cyclopedias and American authors. The popular method, in New 
England at least, seems to be to apply the name of Huckleberries 
to those kinds in which the seeds are prominent in the chewing, 
and Blueberries to those other kinds in which the seeds are not 
noticeable, regardless of the real color. 

The word Whortleberry, among American botanists, was used 
by Bigelow, 1824 and 1840; Eaton, 1840; Provancher, 1862; 
Emerson, 1875, and Gray, 1886, as also by Roger Williams in 
colonial times. The same authors use the word Bilberry, as also 
Josselyn in 1663, who says " two kinds ; — black and sky-colored, 
which is more frequent;" Elliott in 1821, and Torrey in 1843. 
The most modern local New England Floras use only the words 
Huckleberry and Blueberry with the necessary additions as Bush, 
Swamp, or Low, etc. 1 

1 Under date of December 7, 1889, Mr. W. R. Gerard, of New York, an authority on 
plant names, writes me :— 

" Huckleberry is merely a corruption by the American colonists of Hurtleberry. 
The first example of the word that I have met with is in ' The Historical Description 
2 



18 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Plants of the genus Vaccinium ( V. myrtillus, L.) seem to have 
been called Myrtillus by the Latin writers of the middle ages, and 
the fruit Myrtle-berry by the apothecaries. Prior, in his " Popular 
names of British Plants," 1870, p. 121, derives Whortleberry as 
a corruption from Myrtleberry, and Hurtleberry and Huckleberry 
in turn as corruptions of Whortleberry. Others derive the name 
Whortleberry from the Anglo-Saxon heort-berg, hart-berry, or as 
we should now say deer-berry. Tusser mentions hurtil-berries 
amongst the fruits of his time. Later, in 1586, Lyte's Dodoens 
says the true English name for Vaccinium myrtillus, L., and V. 
Vitis-Idcea, L., are " whorts, of some whortel berries." Gerarde, 
in his editions of 1597 and 1636, gives the English names for V. 
myrtillus, L., as " Whortes, Whortle-berries, Blacke Berries, Bill 
Berries and Bull Berries, and in some places Winberries." Park- 
inson, in 1640, says : " and we Whorts or Whortle berrys, and Bill 
berries with us about London." The word Bill-berry also takes 
on the frequent form of Blae-berry, and the occasional form of 
Bull-berry. 

A satisfactory explanation of the word huckleberry and a record 
of an earl} 7 use of the word blueberry I have yet to find. The 
word huckleberry does not occur in any English author I have 
consulted except in those of very recent date. Both words occur 
in Bigelow's " Flora of Boston," 1814, and the first in the index to 
Pursh's Flora of the same date. Neither occurs in Eaton's Botany 
of 1840. 

The species of North American representatives of our two 
genera, which are recorded as bearing edible fruits, are : 

Gaylussacia dumosa, T. and G-. 
" frondosa, T. and G. 

" resinosa, T. and G. 

" ursina, T. and G. 

Of the Province and County of West New Jersey,' by Gabriel Thomas (London, 1698)» 
In another essay by the same author ' of the Province and County of Pensilvania' (sic) 
of the same date, we find Hartleberries. Hartleberry is simply a changed pronuncia- 
tion of Whortleberry, which again is a corruption of Myrtleberry. The early use of 
the word Huckleberry may be found in Beverly's Virginia (1705) where we also find 
Hurts ; and in a ' Description of South Carolina' (1710). Wood in his • New England's 
Prospect ' (1629) has Hurtleberry; so in a * Narrative of the Colonies of Carolina and 
Georgia,' by Tailpe and others (1741.) 

" 'Common folks ' when they hear a plant name which they do not understand, are 
apt to twist it into all manner of shapes, and pay no attention to the laws of letter 
changes formulated by Grimm. Huckleberry is an American name. The corruption 
from Hurtleberry is very easy by dropping the first r, i. e. Hutleberry." 



HUCKLEBERRIES AND BLUEBERRIES. 19 

Vaccinium coespitosum, Michx. 



it 


Canadense, Kalm. 


u 


corymbosum, L. 


(« 


myrtilloides, Hook. 


a 


myrtillus, L. 


u 


ovalifolium, Smith. 


a 


ovatum, Pursh. 


a 


parvifolium, Smith. 


a 


Pennsylvanicum, Lam. 


u 


saliciuum, Chamisso. 


u 


stamineum, L. 


ft 


uliginosum, L. 


(( 


vacillans, Soland. 


a 


Vitis-Idoea, L. 



To be classed with cranberries, however, to which the last 
named may be considered, from a horticultural view, as a connect- 
ing link, we have 

Vaccinium erythrocarpon, Michx. 
" oxy coccus, L. 

" macrocarpon, Ait. 

We will now review the species in alphabetical order : 

A. Gaylussacia, H. B. K. 

1. Gaylussacia dumosa, T. and G. Gray, Syn. Fl., 2, 1, 19. 
Synonyme, " hirtella, Torr., Fl. N. Y., i, 448. 

" Vaccinium dumosum, Andr., Bot. Rep., t. 112; 

Curt. Bot. Mag., t. 1106; 
Pursh, Fl., 285; Ell., Sk., 
1,497; Torr., FL, i, 414. 
" Decamerium dumosum, Nutt. 

Sandy swamps, Newfoundland and along the coast to Florida 
and Louisiana ; southward especially passing freely into 
var. hirtella, Gray. 
G. hirtella, Klotz, in Lin., XIV, 48. 
Vaccinium hirtellum, Ait., Kew., ed. 2, ii, 357. 

The berry is described by Bigelow as hairy, black, watery, and 
insipid. Elliot says simply that they are eaten ; Chapman, that 
the diameter of the berry is from one-third to one-half an inch- 



20 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

On the Massachusetts coast the berry is of medium size, little 
hairy or hairy, far from insipid, and while not equalling the fruit 
of the other species is yet considered of sufficient value to be 
occasionally sold in the New Bedford markets, as I am credibly 
informed by a botanist friend, E. W. Hervey. 

This species was called the Hairy Whortleberry by Bigelow in 
1824 ; Bush Whortleberry by Eaton in 1840 ; Dwarf Swamp 
Huckleberry by Torrey in 1843 ; Dwarf Huckleberry by Gray in 
1867 and Dame and Collins in 1888 ; Bush Huckleberry by 
Emerson in 1875. 

2. Gaylussacia frondosa, T. and G. Gray, Syn. Fl., 2, 1, 19. 
Synonyme, Vaccinium frondosum, L., sp., 499 ; Andr., Bot. 

Rep., t. 140; Bigel., Fl. 

Bost., 152; Pursh, Fl., 

1285; Ell., Sk., i, 497; 

Torr., Fl., i, 415. 
" " venustum, Ait., Kew., 2, 11. 

" " glaucum, Michx., Fl., i, 231. 

" " decamerocarpon, Dunal in D. C. Prod. 

u Decamerium frondosum, Nutt. 

Low and shaded grounds, coast of New Hampshire and south- 
ward ; mountains of Pennsylvania to Kentucky, Lousiana, and 
Florida. 

Pursh says the berries are large, blue, globular, eatable ; Bige- 
low that they are sweet, few in number, ripening late ; Elliot that 
this species yields the best flavored fruit. About New Bedford 
the berries are of fair but not high quality, the shrubs yielding 
most profusely in some seasons and the fruit is picked under the 
name of Dangleberries, for local consumption and sale. Had we 
not the superior Vaccinium corymbosum, we might well • urge 
attempts at culture for this species, on account of its habits of 
growth, its occasional extreme prolificacy, and the ease of pick- 
ing, together with the fair quality of the fruit. 

The vernacular names given are Blue Tangles by Pursh, in 
1814, Torrey in 1843, Gray in 1867, and Wood in 1875 ; Late 
Whortleberry by Bigelow in 1824 and 1840 ; Blue Whortleberry 
by Eaton in 1840 ; Dangleberry by Torrey in 1843 ; Gray, 1867 ; 
Emerson, 1875 ; Robinson, 1880 ; Dame and Collins, 1888, and 
this is the most appropriate name, and the only one I have heard 



HUCKLEBERRIES AND BLUEBERRIES. 21 

used ; Blue Dangleberry by Fuller in the Small Fruit Culturist, 
1867 ; High Blueberry by Wood in 1875. 

3. Gaylussacia resinosa, T. and G. Gray, Syn. Fl., 2, 1, 20. 
Synonyme, Vaccinium resinosum, Ait., Kew., 2, 12 ; Michx., FL, 

1, 232; Bot. Mag., t. 1288; 

Ell., Sk., i, 498; Pursh, Fl., 

1286; Bigel., Fl. Bost., 150; 

Torr., Fl., i, 415; Hook.,Fl. 

Bor. Am., 2, 31. 
" " parviflorum, Andr., Bot. Rep., t. 125. 

" Andromeda baccata, Wang. Amer.,iii, t. 30, p. 69. 

" Decamerium resinosum, Nutt. 

This species occasionally has varieties with white fruit. Her- 
yey 2 mentions them about New Bedford, and Westbrook 3 records 
them in New Jersey. " They are only white when grown and 
ripened in the shade. If partially exposed to the sun, they will 
have a pink cheek. When exposed to the full rays of the sun, as 
in a field, they will be either pink or of a bright scarlet color." 

Rocky woodlands and swamps, Newfoundland to Saskatche- 
wan and South to Upper Georgia. The only species in the North- 
ern Mississippi States, where it is rare. 

Pursh says the berries are black, eatable ; Bigelow, that the 
fruit is globular, black, sweet ; Gray, that the fruit is black, 
rarely varying to white, without bloom, pleasant. This species 
furnishes the Huckleberry or Black Huckleberry of our markets. 
I am hardly of those who recommend this sort for cultivation, as 
the fruit is not of the best, although the best of the Huckleberries, 
being excelled in quality by the Blueberries, and the habits of 
the plant are not such as to commend it. 

The vernacular names are given as Black Huckleberry by Bige- 
low, 1814, 1824, 1840; Torrey, 1843; Fuller, 1867; Gray, 1867; 
Wood, 1875 ; Emerson, 1875 ; Robinson, 1880. As Black 
Whortleberry by Bigelow, 1814, 1824, 1840 ; Eaton, 1840 ; Emer- 
son, 1875. As Huckleberry by Gray, 1886. 

4. Gaylussacia ursina, T. and G. Gray, S} T n. FL, 2, 1, 20. 
Synonyme, Vaccinium ursinum, M. A. Curtis in Am. Jour. 

8c, XLIV, 82. 

2 Flora of New Bedford, 1860. 3 Garden and Forest., Jan. 2, 1889, p. 10. 



22 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Moist woods, confined to the mountains of the southern part of 
North Carolina and adjacent parts of South Carolina. 

Gray in his " Chloris Americana," 1846, says the fruit, though 
edible, and indeed not unpleasant when fully ripe, has not the fine 
flavor of the other species, and is seldom eaten ; in his " Synopti- 
cal Flora," he says, " fruit, reddish, turning black, insipid." 

The vernacular names are Bear-berry and Bear Huckleberry. 

B. Vaccinium, L. 

1. Vaccinium cmspitosum, Michx. Gray, Syn. Fl., 2, 1,24; 

Hook., Fl. Bor. Am., 2, 33, t. 126, 
and Bot. Mag., t. 3429. 

Hudson's Bay and Labrador, alpine summits of the White 
Mountains of New Hampshire, and Colorado Rocky Mountains 
to Alaska. 

Var. arbuscula, Gray I. c, in Oregon passes into the ordinary 
form and into var. cuneifolium, Nutt., Mem. Am. Phil. Soc, n. 
ser., VIII, 262. Mountains of Colorado and Utah to California, 
British Columbia, and east to Lake Superior. 

Gray says the berry is quite large, blue with a bloom, sweet ; 
Wood that the berries are large, globous, blue, eatable. 

Wood gives Bilberry as the vernacular name. 

2. Vaccinium Canadense, Kalm. Richards, in Franklin, ed. 

2, 12; Hook., Fl. 2, 32, and Bot. 
Mag., t. 3446; Gray, Syn. FL, 2, 
1, 22. 
Synonyme, Vaccinium album, Lam. Diet., i, 73, not L. 

Swamps or low woods, Hudson's Bay to Bear Lake and the 
northern Rocky Mountains ; south to north New England ; mount- 
ains of Pennsylvania and Illinois. 

This species is abundant in certain swamps in Maine, and the 
berries are largely collected and sent to market under the name 
of Blueberries. The quality is excellent. 

It is called Black Bilberry by Torrey 1843 ; Canada Blueberry 
by Provancher, 1862 ; Gray, 1867 ; Fuller, 1867 ; Dame and Col- 
lins, 1888. 

3. Vaccinium corymbosum, L. Smith in Rees's Cyc, No. 13 ; 

Gray, Syn. Fl , 2, 1, 22; 
Ell., Sk., i, 498. 



HUCKLEBERRIES AND BLUEBERRIES. 23 

Synonyme, Vaccinium disomorphum, Michx., Fl., i, 23. 
" (1) var. amcenum, Gra} r , Man., ed. 5, 292. 

" V. amoenum, Ait., Kew., 2, 12 ; Andr., Bot. Rep., t. 

135; Bot. Reg.,t. 400. 
" V. corymbosum, var. fuscatum, Hook., Bot. Mag., 

t. 3433? 
" (2) var. pallidum, Gray, Man., ed. 5, 292. 

" V. pallidum, Ait., I. c. ; Gray, Man., ed. 1, 262. 

" V. albiflorum, Hook. s Bot. Mag., t. 3428. 

" V. constablaei, Gray in Am. Jour. Sc, XLII, 

42; Chapm., Fl., 260. 
** (3) var. fuscatum, Gray, Syn. FL, 2, 1, 23. 

" V. fuscatum, Ait., I. c. 

" (4) var. atrococcum, Gray, Man., ed. 5, 292. 

" V. fuscatum, Gray, Man., ed. 1, 262. 

" V. disomorphum, Bigel., Fl. Bost., ed. 2, 151. 

Swamps and low woods, from Newfoundland and Canada 
through the Atlantic States to Louisiana, but rare in the Missis- 
sippi region. Variety 1 is found mainly in the Middle Atlantic 
States ; variety 2 is common through the Alleghanies southward, 
mostly on the tops of the higher mountains ; variety 3 occurs in 
Alabama and Florida to Arkansas and Louisiana ; variety 4 is 
common from north New England to Pennsylvania. 

This species is very variable not only in the habit of growth, 
but in its blooming characters and fruit. It furnishes the best of 
our fruits of the huckleberry or blueberry class. Large, covered with 
a blue powder, acid and sweet, and of a peculiar, delicate, attract- 
ive flavor. I have measured berries in number from single plants 
that covered five-eighths of an inch in diameter. In the Carolinas, 
Elliott in his sketch of the Botany says, the fruit is indifferent 
to eat ; Bigelow, in Massachusetts, that they are large, acid and 
sweet, and that the variety atrococcum has small, polished, black 
berries, and I can add of excellent savor. The plant grows in all" 
kinds of soil, attains often a considerable size, is, in individual 
plants, especially fruitful, and bears its berries often in dense 
clusters. These berries are gathered by the country people, and 
are preferred in the markets. It offers as a species especial 
advantages for removal into culture, and it is only necessary to 
search the places where it grows in order to discover varieties of 



24 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

exceptional merit. I have noticed that plants of similar quality, 
whether as appertaining to a prolific habit or size of fruit, are 
usually to be found together, and this indicates that such charac- 
teristics are transmissible by seed. The most prolific plant I ever 
found was growing on a dry rock ; the largest fruited clump of 
plants extended from a dry upland to and within the borders of a 
swamp, thus indicating the variety of soil that accommodates this 
species. It also flourishes in the sunlight and in partial shade. 

It was called Blueberry by Bigelow in 1814 ; Bilberry likewise, 
and by Torrey in 1843 ; Bilberry or Bullberry by Elliott in 1821 ; 
Blue Bilberry by Bigelow in 1824 and 1840, Eaton in 1840, 
Torrey in 1843, and Provancher in 1862 ; Giant Whortleberry by 
Eaton in 1840; Tall Swamp Huckleberry by Torrey in 1843; 
High Blueberry by Provancher in 1862, as also High Whortle- 
berry and Blue Huckleberry ; Common Blueberry by Gray, 1867 ; 
Swamp Blueberry by Gray and Fuller in 1867, Robinson in 1880, 
and Dame and Collins in 1888 ; High Bush Huckleberry by Fuller 
in 1867 and Emerson, 1875 ; Swamp Huckleberry by Emerson, 
1875 ; Common High Blueberry by Wood, 1875, and High Bush 
Blueberry by Robinson, 1880, the preferable name. 

The variety atrococcum is called Black Bilberry by Bigelow in 
1824 and 1840 ; and Black High Bush Huckleberry by Fuller in 
1867. 

4. Vaccinium myrtilloides, Hook. Gray, Man., ed. 5, 291, 

Syn. Fl., 2, 1, 24. 
Synonyme, Vaccinium myrtilloides, partly, Hook., FL, 2, 32, 

and Bot. Mag., t. 3447 

(excl. Syn. Ait., etc. and 

var. rigidum) , not Michx. 

" " membranaceum, Dougl. ined.Torr.,Bot. 

Wilkes's Exp., 377. 
Damp woods, Lake Superior to the coast of Oregon and British 
Columbia. 

Hooker says the fruit is much relished by the natives of the 
North-west Rocky Mountains. T. J. Howell, of Oregon, 4 says the 
berries are large, one-half or three-quarters of an inch in diameter, 
flat, with a broad calyx, of good flavor and in every way a good 
berry. He calls the shrub Large Blue Huckleberry. 

« Case's Bot. Index, 1881, 38. 



HUCKLEBERRIES AND BLUEBERRIES. 25 

5. Vaccinium Myrtillus, L. Schk., Handb., 1. 107 ; Reichenb., Ic. 

Germ., t. 1169; Hook., FL, 2, 33; 

Gray, Syn. FL, 2, 1, 24. 
Synonyme, Vaccinium myrtilloides, Watson, Bot. King's Ex., 

209, not of others. 

Europe, Asia, Rocky Mountains of North America, extending 
as far south as Colorado and north-east Utah, and north-west 
to Alaska. 

Lyte's Dodoens, 1586, mentions " som that beare white berries 
when they be ripe ; howbeit they are but seldome seene. ,, White 
fruits are catalogued by Ruppius in his "Flora Jenensis," in 
1726, and were also found by Gmelin in Siberia, 1768. This 
variety with white berries has also been found in Scotland, accord- 
ing to Phillips. 

In the Orkneys the fruit is of large size and a wine of fine 
flavor has been made from it. 5 The Highlanders of Scotland eat 
the berries in milk, and make them into tarts and jellies, which 
last they mix with their whiskey to give it a relish to strangers. 6 
Bryant 7 mentions that in England they are taken to market to be 
eaten raw or made into tarts, etc., and their present use for these 
purposes in England is frequent. 8 In Lapland they are esteemed 
a delicacy, prepared in various ways, 9 and are eaten fresh or dried 
in Sweden. 10 In France they are esteemed as a fruit, 11 and are 
used for coloring wine. In Poland the ripe berries mixed with 
wood strawberries are esteemed as a great delicacy. 12 They are 
eaten als® in Germany, and Caesalpinus mentions their use in the 
Alpine region, where they are called Bagolae. In Siberia Gmelin 
says they occupy no mean place at dessert, and in the Rocky 
Mountain region of America they are a favorite food for the 
Indians. 13 

The various English names are Whortleberry, Black Whorts or 
Whorts, Bilberry, and Blaeberry. In Sweden they are called in 
Upland, Blabar ; in Smoland, Slynnon ; in West-Gothia, Slinner ; 
in Scania, Bollion ; in Lapland, Zirre and Zerre ; in France, Airelle, 
Aurelle, Myrtilles, Myrtille desbois, Bluete, or in Brittany, Lucets, 

6 Dickson, Pr. Essays H. Soc, 2d ser., VII, 132. 

• Lightfoot, Fl. Scot., i, 201. » Bryant, FL Diaet., 1783, 132. 

8 Masters, Treas. of Bot , 2, 1103. 9 Linnaeus, Fl. Lap., n. 143. 

10 Aspelin, Fl. Oecon., 1748, 520. " Noisette, Man., 1829, 448. 

12 Don., Gard. Diet., 3, 852. •>» U. S. Dept. Agr. Kept., 1870, 415. 



26 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

and in Normandy Mawrets ; in Brabant, Crakebesien, Haverbe- 
sien, Postelbesien ; in Germany, Heydelbeeren, Bickbeeren, Blaw- 
beeren, Schwartzbeeren, Koltzbeeren, Pickelbeeren, Besnigen ; in 
Bohemia, Czerne iahody ; in Italy, Myrtillo ; in Russia, Ticherniza. 

6. Vaccinium ovalifolium, Smith in Rees's Gyc, No. 2 ; Hook., 

Fl., 2, 33 ; Gray, Man., ed. 5, 291, 
Syn. Fl., 2, 1, 24. 
Synonyme, Vaccinium Chamissonis, Bong., Sitk., 525. 

Woods, south shore of Lake Superior and Oregon to Unalaschka, 
and Japan. 

This is the le brou plant of the north-west, being used to make 
a dainty of that name. The berries are gathered before quite 
ripe, are pressed into a cake, then dried and laid by. When 
used a quantity is put into a vessel of cold water and stirred rapidly 
with the hand until it assumes a form not unlike soap-suds. It is 
pleasant to the taste, with a slightly bitter flavor. 14 

7. Vaccinium ovatum, Pursh, FL, 290; Lindl., Bot. Reg., t. 

1354; Gray, Syn. FL, 2, 1, 25. 
Synonyme, Vaccinium lanceolatum, Dunal in D. C. Prod., VII, 

570. 
" Metagonia ovata, Nutt. 

Vancouver's Island to Monterey, etc. California, on hills near 
the coast. 

Douglas says the fruit is black and pleasant ; Torrey that the 
berries are edible, but small ; Gray that the berries are reddish, 
turning black, small, sweetish. 

8. Vaccinium parvifolium. Smith in Rees's Cyc, No. 3 ; Hook., 

FL, t. 128 ; Gray, Syn. FL, 2, 1, 24. 

Shady and low woods. Northern part of California, near the 
coast, to Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. 

Don says the berries are red and make excellent tarts. T. J. 
Howell, 15 Oregon, calls it the Red Huckleberry and says the 

" R. Brown, Jr., Bot. Soc. of Edinb., IX, 384. « Case's Bot. Index, 1881, 38. 



HUCKLEBERRIES AND BLUEBERRIES. 27 

berries are good size, sour, but of good flavor. Gray that the 
bright red berries are rather dry and hardly edible. 

9. Vaccinium Pennsylvanicum, Lam., Diet., 1, 72 ; Michx., Fl., 

i, 223; Hook., Bot. Mag., t. 
3434; Gray, Man., ed. 1, 261, 
Syn. Fl., 2, 1, 22. 

Synonyme, Vaccinium myrtilloides, Michx., I. c. 

" " tenellum, Pursh, FL, 1, 288, not Ait. ; 

Bigel., Fl. Bost., 150. 
var. angustifolium, Gray, I. c. 
" V. angustifolium, Ait., Kew., ed. 2, ii, 356. 

" V. salicinum, Aschers. in Flora, 1860, 319, not 

Cham. 

Dry hills and woods. Newfoundland to Saskatchewan and 
southward to New Jersey and Illinois ; commoner northward ; 
the variety, Labrador and Hudson's Bay, Newfoundland and 
Alpine regions of the White Mountains of New Hampshire. 

This furnishes the larger part of the blueberries of our markets. 
The berries are described by Pursh as large, bluish black, 
extremely sweet and agreeable to eat. He says the mountains of 
Pennsylvania produce an immense variety of this species in size 
and shape of the fruit, leaves, and flowers. This is the early Blue- 
berry of New England, and immense quantities are gathered for 
market. In my estimation the fruit ranks second only to V. 
vorymbosum. The plant is low growing, extremely prolific, and 
flourishes best on dry hills and pastures. When mown down the 
shoots spring up very straight and without side branches, the 
upper third one mass of bloom, and the berries can thus be 
stripped off by handfuls. This is one of the species that are 
deserving attempts at culture or protected culture. 

It was called Low Blueberry by Bigelow in 1824 and 1840, and 
Emerson, 1875 ; Dwarf Blue Huckleberry and Sugar Huckleberry 
by Torrey in 1843 ; Black-blue Whortleberry by Eaton in 1840 ; 
Dwarf Blueberry by Gray in 1867, Fuller, 1867, Robinson, 1880, 
Dame and Collins, 1888 ; Common Low Blueberry by Provancher, 
1862, and Wood, 1875. 

Pursh gives the name of Bluets for the variety angustifolium. 



28 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

10. Vaccinium salicinum, Cham. Spreng., Syst. Cur. Post.* 

147, and Linnaea, i, 525 (not 
Aschers., 1. c.) ; Gray, Syn. Fl., 2> 
1, 23. 

Found by Chamisso at Unalasehka, in moss. 
Pickering gives this species among the edible berries collected 
and dried by the natives of north-west America. 

11. Vaccinium stamineum, L. Andr., Bot. Rep., t. 263 ; Gray r 

Syn. Fl., 2, 1, 21. 
Synonyme, Vaccinium elevatum, Soland. Dunal in D. C. Prod. r 

VII, 567 (excl. var.). 
" " album, Pursh, Fl. 1, 284, not L. 

Dry woods, Maine to Michigan and south to Florida and Louis- 
isiana ; rare west of the Alleghanies. 

The berries are described by Pursh as green, or white when 
perfectly ripe. Gray says they are large, pear-shaped or globu- 
lar, mawkish. Elliot that they are eaten. Another authority 16 
says they are an agreeable fruit, growing in Wisconsin and Michi- 
gan, of which the Indians make extensive use. 

Pursh and Gray give the vernacular name Deerberry ; Clay- 
ton 17 calls them Goose-berrys ; in Michigan and Wisconsin 16 they 
are known as Squaw Huckleberries. 

12. Vaccinium uliginosum, L. Fl. Dan.,t. 581; Reichenb., 

Ic. Germ., XVII, t. 1168; 
Gray, Syn. Fl., 2,,1, 23. 
Synonyme, Vaccinium pubescens, Hornem., Fl. Dan., t. 1516. 
" " gaultherioides, Bigel. 

Europe, Asia, Arctic America to the alpine regions of the 
mountains of New England, New York, and shore of Lake Supe- 
rior, westward to Oregon and Alaska. 

Don describes the berries as large, juicy, black, covered with a 
mealy bloom, eatable but not either very grateful or wholesome. 
Aspelin says they are eaten in Sweden by children and Guinea 
hens, but that they often induce trembling. Lamarck says they 
are of agreeable savor. Some of the Siberian tribes, as Gmelin 

« U. S. Dept. Agr. Kept., 1870, 415. " Gron., Virg., 1762, 60. 



HUCKLEBERRIES AND BLUEBERRIE8. 29 

reports, hold them in esteem, yet they are believed there, as among 
the mountaineers of Switzerland, the Jura, and Thuringia, to 
promote intoxication. Pursh says the blueish black berries are 
eatable ; Richardson that beyond the Arctic circle the fruit in 
good seasons is plentiful to an extraordinary degree, and is of 
finer quality than in more southern localities. The western 
Eskimos, according to Seemann, collect the berries and freeze for 
winter use. 

This fruit is called Bog Bilberry by Richardson ; Bog or Great 
Bilberry by Miller, Mawe and Don. Greater Bill-berry by Du 
Roi. In Germany Drunkelbeeren, Dunkelbeeren, Drumpelbeeren, 
Rauschbeeren, Grosse Heidelbeeren, Rosbeeren, Bruchbeeren, 
Krackbeeren, Jugelbeeren, Moosheidelbeeren, Ruhthecker, accord- 
ing to Du Roi. Gmelin gives the Russian names as Pjaniza, 
Golubiza, Golubel, and Gonobobel. 

IS. Vaccinium vacillans, Solander. Gray, Man., ed. 1, 261 ; 

Syn. Fl., 2, 1,22; Torr., 
Fl. N. Y., i, 445. 
Synonyme, Vaccinium virgatum, Bigel., Fl. Bost., 152, not Ait. 
" '* Pennsylvanicum, Torr., Fl., i, 416, not 

Lam. 

Dry and sandy woodlands and rocky places, New England to 
North Carolina and Missouri. 

Bigelow describes the berries as large, covered with a blue 
powder, very sweet. The quality is excellent, and they ripen 
somewhat later than some of the other species. This seems to be 
one of the species which are deserving of cultural attempts, as 
the plant is somewhat taller growing than V. Pennsylvanicum, 
Lam. 

Torrey in 1843 uses for names the Low Blue Huckleberry and 
the Sugar Huckleberry. Emerson in 1875 calls it the Blue Huc- 
kleberry, while Low Blueberry is used by Gray in 1867, Robinson 
in 1880, and Dame and Collins, 1888. 

14. Vaccinium Vitis-Idcea, L. Fl. Dan., t. 40; Lodd., Bot. 

Cab., t. 616 ; Gray, Syn. Fl., 2, 

1, 25. 
Synonyme, Vaccinium punctatum, Lam. 

Round the Arctic Circle, Europe, Asia, Greenland to Japan ; 



30 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

in this country south to the coast and mountains of north New 
England and Lake Winnipeg ; on the western coast south to 
British Columbia. 

In England, according to Bryant, the berries are collected for 
use in making tarts, jellies, etc. Miller says they are scarcely to 
be eaten raw, but are made into pies in Derbyshire, but their 
flavor is far inferior to that of cranberries. In Sweden, accord- 
ing to Linnaeus, they are sent in large quantities to Stockholm for 
pickling, and Aspelin says jellies are made from them, and in 
Lapland an esteemed preserve. In Siberia, Gmelin reports their 
use as a winter preserve, and says they are greedily eaten in a 
raw state. Gray says the dark red, acid and bitterish berries 
are a fair substitute for cranberries when cooked, and Thoreau 
speaks of using the berries stewed and sweetened, in Maine. 
Richardson reports them as plentiful and much used throughout 
Rupert's land, called by the Crees wi-ea-gu-mina, and says this 
berry is excellent for every purpose to which a cranberry can be 
applied. The Western Eskimo, on the authority of Seemann, 
collect the berries in autumn and freeze for winter use. 

In England called Red Whorts, according to Miller, Bryant 
and Du Roi, or Red Whortleberry ; in America, Cowberry and 
Mountain Cranberry, according to Gray ; in Germany, Krons- 
beeren, Preusselbeeren, Krausbeeren, Rothe Heidelbeeren, Stein- 
beeren, Krenbeeren, Kranbeeren, Crandenbeeren, Holperbeeren, 
according to Du Roi. In France, Airelles Rouge ; in Russia, 
Brussniza according to Gmelin, and in Japan Koke-momo and 
Iwa-momo, according to Rein. 

We now make a brief review of the cranberry species : 

15. Vaccinium erythrocarpon, Michx., FL, i, 227 ; Gray, Syn. 

Fl., 2, 1, 25. 
Synonyme, Oxy coccus erectus, Pursh., Fl., 264. 

»« " erythrocarpus, Ell., Sk., i, 447. 

Damp woods, in the higher Alleghanies, Virginia to Georgia. 

The transparent scarlet berries, according to Pursh, are of an 
exquisite taste. Gray says the berry is light red, turning nearly 
black at full maturity, watery, slightly acid. The plant is a shrub 
one to four feet high. 



HUCKLEBERRIES AND BLUEBERRIES. 31 

16. Vaccinium macrocarpon, Ait., Kew., ii, 13, t. 7 ; Bot. Mag., 

t. 2806 ; Gray, Syn. Fl., 2, 1, 26. 
Synonyme, Vaccinium oxycoccus, var. oblongifolius, Michx., 

Fl., i, 227. 
61 Oxycoccus macrocarpus, Pursh, FL, 264 ; Bart., FL, 

i, t. 17. 

Bogs, etc., Newfoundland to North Carolina, through Northern 
States and Canada to Saskatchewan, and the Columbia River. 

The American cranberry is described by Josselyn in his rarities 
(fidi Raii), and Ray, 1704, gives the American names as Cran- 
berries and Bear Berries. Roger Williams gives the Indian name 
as Sasemineash. In 1686, Ray describes the berry, sent him from 
New England. Douglas says the fruit is boiled and eaten by the 
natives of the Columbia River region under the name of Soolabich. 
In 1814, the culture first commenced in England, 18 although the 
plant was introduced in 1760. 19 In this country the culture, which 
has now attained great success, was first commenced on a very 
small scale about 1840. ^ 

The use now with us is very large, and the berries are shipped 
abroad in large quantities, being preferred in England to the fruit 
of their native cranberry. 

17. Vaccinium Oxycoccus, L. FL Dan., t. 80 ; Eng. Bot.. 319 ; 

Schk., t. 107 ; Gray, Syn. FL, 2, 
1, 25. 
Synonyme, Oxycoccus palustris, Pers., Syn., 1, 419. 

Sphagnous swamps, through Europe, North and Middle Asia, 
North America, Greenland to Japan, around the subarctic zone 
from Newfoundland and Labrador south to the mountains of 
Pennsylvania, to the Saskatchewan district and to Alaska. 

In Britain called Cranberry or Fen-berry or Marsh-worts 
(Prior) ; Russian, Klinokwa (Gmelin) ; Japanese, Aka-momo and 
Iwa-haze (Rein) ; in Germany, Moss-beer (Eyst.). 

We thus find four edible Huckleberries (Gaylussacia), fourteen 
edible Blueberries (Vaccinium), and three edible Cranberries 
(Vaccinium, section Oxycoccus). 

We have given the vernacular names ad nauseam to give prom- 
inence to the confusion that exists, and to call attention to the 

"Phillips, Comp. to the Orchard, 116. " Ait., Kew., 1789, 13. 

20 Eastwood, Man. of the Cranh., 1856. 



32 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

deplorable habit among authors of often giving words of their own 
coining rather than those in habitual use. 

Huckleberries and Blueberries have been strangely overlooked 
both by horticulturists and annalists. Notwithstanding the great 
use that must have been made of the berries by the Indians and 
early colonists on the New England coast, yet I find but few 
records referring to it. Roger Williams speaks of " divers sorts " 
used by the Indians under the name of Attitaash. Parkinson 
refers to Champlain in 1615, who found the Indians near Lake 
Huron gathering blueberries for their winter store. Kalm speaks 
of the Indians drying the berries in the sunshine or by the fireside 
for winter use. These are the only references I have noted. 

The blueberry must have been an esteemed fruit since the 
colonization of northern America, and is now collected for the 
markets in vast quantities, yet its culture seems to have been 
almost entirely omitted. I find but few recorded attempts, and 
these only within the last few years. In 1886, Frank Ford & Sons, 
Ravenna, O., included them in their nursery catalogue, as follows : 

High-Bush Huckleberry or Blueberry. (Presumably V. corym- 
bosum.') This grows six to eight feet hign, fruit large size and 
brings the highest price in market. Although a seedling of the 
swamp variety, it can be grown on any soil. 

Dwarf Huckleberry. (Presumably V. Pennsylvanicum.) Very 
early, fruit large, often one-half inch in diameter. Bush grows 
from six to ten inches in height. This is the earliest variety 
offered, and yields immensely. 

Low Bush Blueberry. (Presumably V. vacillans.) Fruit very 
sweet, and of superior quality ; grows from one to two feet high. 

Black Huckleberry. (Presumably G. resinosa.) Fruit large ; 
bush two to three feet high, productive ; in flavor distinct from 
other varieties, and preferred by many. 

Common Swamp Huckleberry. (Presumably V. Canadense.) 
This variety grows in abundance in this vicinity in swamps, and 
large quantities of fruit are marketed every year. And while we 
would not recommend this as being as good as the High-Bush 
described above, for upland culture, as that has been grown for 
years on upland, it will adapt itself to most soils. 

In their introductory this firm say : 

" This much neglected fruit, which is of such great value, and 
so easy of cultivation, ought to be found in every fruit garden. 



HUCKLEBERRIES AND BLUEBERRIES. 33 

Its perfect hardiness and adaptation to all kinds of soil, render it 
as easy of cultivation as any of the small fruits, and it can be 
grown anywhere that corn will grow. 

Plant the large varieties four by five feet apart, and they will 
form large bushes. The small varieties, plant in rows five feet 
apart and from one to two feet in the row. Cultivate to keep 
down all weeds, and prune by shortening in the long growths, to 
induce the growth of short, fruit bearing laterals, and trim out the 
old wood when it has ceased to be productive ; when they begin 
to bear, mulch heavily with straw, leaves, wild grass, or any 
material that will keep the ground moist and cool, and the culti- 
vator will be rewarded by a bountiful crop of delicious fruit." 

In the Report of the New York Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion for 1883, p. 227, will be found notice of a successful attempt 
at cultivation about 1868, by "W. J. Scott, of Bridgewater, Oneida 
Co., N. Y. He removed the bushes from a cold, wet swamp to 
dry and gravelly upland. The plants were of both the High Bush 
and the Low kind. In 1883, he reported that the plants had 
borne abundantly. The bushes grew taller and better than those 
in the swamp, and the berries increased in size. 

Discussion. 

Jackson Dawson, gardener at the Arnold Arboretum, said he 
began fourteen or fifteen years ago to grow these plants from 
seeds, and now has plants of almost every variety that will endure 
our climate. Mr. Dawson then read a letter, which was received 
at the Arnold Arboretum in 1885, from E. S. Goff, of the New 
York Experiment Station, at Geneva, N. Y. It contained 
an inquiry what to do with his huckleberry plants to make them 
grow. He had had no difficulty in securing germination, but after 
the young seedlings attained about five leaves they stopped grow- 
ing for a few months, and then died gradually. He had used sand, 
muck, and loam, and various mixtures of these soils, but the re- 
sult had been the same in all. The soil had been kept pretty 
wet. Mr. Dawson's reply was published in the " Country Gentle- 
man," for 1885, page 660. Therein he recommended using seed 
pans four inches deep, half filled with broken crocks, thinly 
covered with sphagnum. The soil preferred was a compost of 
one part good fibrous peat (upland preferred), one part well 
rotted pasture sod, and one (larger) part of clean, fine sand, free 
3 



34 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

from iron rust, all mixed thoroughly. The pans should be filled 
to the brim with this soil, which should then be pressed down 
evenly until firm as possible. The seed, washed free from the 
pulp, is then to be sown thickly but eventy over the surface, and 
pressed down with a board and covered with about their own 
thickness of the same compost. Over this a thin layer of fresh 
sphagnum is put, and a gentle watering with a fine rose completes 
the work. The pans should be placed in a cold frame and allowed 
to get one or two hard frosts. Keep them in the frames until 
about New Year's, when they may be brought into a night tem- 
perature of from 55° to 60°, and day range of 10° higher. They 
must be watched carefully, watering to keep the soil moist but 
not saturated. As soon as the seedlings begin to appear the 
sphagnum should be gradually removed and a little fresh compost, 
like the soil, sifted in among the seedlings. 

When the second rough leaf has expanded, the young plants 
should be pricked out in fresh pans prepared like the first, syr- 
inged slightly and placed in a temperature of 65° at night and 10° 
higher during the day, with slight shade on the glass during bright 
weather, keeping the air moist by wetting down the floors when 
necessary, and but slightly syringing the plants. The shade must 
be removed and the syringing omitted in cloudy and stormy 
weather, and it is necessary to close the house when the sun 
begins to leave it after noon. 

About mid-summer, carefully attended plants will have become 
crowded and need to be transplanted into fresh pans, the same 
treatment as before being continued to the end of August. Then 
more air and less water should be given, that the plants may be 
gradually hardened off, after which they may be placed in cold 
frames with a southern exposure, where the sash may be removed 
by day and replaced at night. When frost approaches, protect 
the frames with mats, that the foliage may be kept on the plants 
to perfect the ripening of the wood. After the leaves drop, 
cover the frames with four or five inches of meadow hay, which 
will protect them through the winter. But on fine days, once or 
twice each month, the frames should be opened, to dry out any 
damp or fungus. Early in April make a bed eighteen inches 
deep, of peat, loam, and sand, well mixed. In this the young 
plants should be set three or four inches apart, in rows six inches 
apart. They should be syringed morning and evening during 



HUCKLEBERRIES AND BLUEBERRIES. 35 

dry weather, and shaded by lath screens during the brightest 
sunshine, but these must be removed at night and in cloudy 
weather, and when the plants are well established the screening 
may be gradually discontinued. 

Toward the end of August watering must be reduced and finally 
withheld, that the wood may become ripened. As winter 
approaches the addition of a few inches of fresh soil, between the 
rows, will afford all needed protection, and in the following spring 
they can be planted out permanently. 

Mr. Dawson has sown seed from September to January, and 
while most of it grew the first season, some delayed until the 
second year and then came up well. Seed washed as soon as 
gathered, sown at once, and exposed to a slight frost, germinated 
the first season, while seed kept until dry and then sown, even in 
autumn, and kept in heat all wmter, did not start until the second 
year. The low blueberry and the huckleberry will fruit in from 
three to four years from the seed, but the high-bush blueberry 
requires from four to six } T ears. 

He had known several who had made plantations in low moist 
ground with success, but the High Bush Blueberry although 
naturally growing in swampy low grounds, grows well in any 
ordinary soil ; in fact he had seen plants well fruited although 
growing in pure sand. 

Vaccinium corymbosum and its varieties seem to be the best for 
experiments. They are much easier to transplant either from the 
swamp or upland than other species. They are more prolific and 
the varieties are numerous, and by selection many fine berries can 
be had. Vaccinium corymbosum var. amcenum is a fine dwarf 
form of the species, with very large fruit, and does well on upland. 
After V. corymbosum, he thinks that V. vacillans is the next 
best. Where the woods or pastures containing the blueberry 
have been burnt over, the bushes produce immense crops the 
second year following. This being noticed repeatedly has led 
several parties to buy old berry pastures and systematically burn 
over a portion each year, thus securing a large crop of fruit from 
some portion of this land every year. There are many acres in 
this State that might be treated in this manner, and be more 
profitable than many other farm crops. 

Mr. Dawson said that the varieties in the pastures that are 
burnt over, and produce such immense crops, are not the common 



36 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

swamp blueberry. The pasture usually contains Vaccinium Penn- 
sylvanicum and varieties, V. vacillans, and Vaccinium corymbosum 
var. amcenum. The High Bush Blueberry does not come into 
bearing so soon after the fire as the others mentioned. Further 
north Vaccinium Canadense takes the place of some of the others. 

Of the Gaylussacias, the common Huckleberry, G. resinosa, is 
harder to establish than the Dangleberry, but when once estab- 
lished grows well. But under cultivation it does not come up to 
the blueberry as a fruiting plant. 

The speaker had never tried any special fertilizers, but thought 
a mulch of leaves would be better than stable manure unless well 
decomposed. He believes the time will come when these fruits 
will be found in every garden, the same as the strawberry, rasp- 
berry, and other small fruits, and in as many varieties. 

In Northern New York and Pennsylvania a white form of the 
Huckleberry is plenty. Sixty-five bushels of these were once 
sent to the New York market, and, it is said, sold at eight dollars 
per bushel, while the common blueberries were sold at three 
dollars. A small patch of this White Huckleberry has been 
known for a long time at Concord, Mass., and a white form of 
Vaccinium vacillans was found in Plymouth, Mass., several 
years ago. 

Edmund Hersey had experimented in a small way many years, 
aiming to discover the best method of treatment, and has found 
that the Low-Bush Upland Huckleberry takes kindly to cultiva- 
tion, which greatly improves the fruit in size and number. It 
bears fertilizing well. He found that a portion of muck in the 
soil, and mulching were good for the plants. The High Bush 
Blueberry can be cultivated, but it takes less kindly to it than 
does the first mentioned. The bushes can be transplanted from 
low lands to high sandy ground, but need shade, as the fruit, if 
exposed to the sun, is quickly scorched and dried up. 

By grafting, better results may be secured. It is easily done, 
and by marking wild plants which bear the finest fruit, and taking 
scions from them, superior fruit will soon be had in abundance. 
Mr. Hersey practices cleft-grafting, in stocks not as large as one's 
thumb, which are then set out. In this way fine varieties may be 
propagated. The great drawback is the ravages of birds. The 
bushes must be covered with netting from the time the fruit 
begins to turn or the birds will take them. Thus protected, it is 



HUCKLEBERRIES AND BLUEBERRIES. 37 

astonishing what enormous quantities of fruit can be had. A 
square rod of bushes will furnish all that a family would care for. 
He knew of one bush which yielded a bushel of berries. Some 
years, however, there is a promise of a good crop, but from some 
cause few ripen. 

Mr. Dawson confirmed Mr. Hersey's statements that the blue- 
berry can be grafted. The method which he prefers is side- 
grafting near the crown of the root, thereby getting plants free 
from suckers. The grafting is done under glass from January to 
April, on young plants that were potted the summer before. The 
second year after grafting his plants begin to fruit. 

Alfred W. Paul said that while huckleberries and blueberries 
grow so abundantly in the wild state, he doubted the probability 
of their cultivation proving a financial success. 

Mr. Hersey suggested that we should not always consult 
the financial aspects of experiments. Whatever we can do that 
will make life happier, and our homes more pleasant will pay. 
There are many gardens in places where the owners cannot find 
wild fruit easily, and a few of these bushes under cultivation 
would be a convenience and also add much to the attractiveness 
of the home. 

Mr. Paul said that Black Huckleberries and Swamp Blueberries 
grow more abundantly in his vicinity than he had seen anywhere 
else. Low Blueberries are brought from New Hampshire, in large 
quantities. When visiting a brother-in-law near Plymouth, in 
that State, a year or two ago, after the berry season was over, he 
was told that a neighbor had marketed $2300 worth of blueberries 
in one season. Mr. Paul saw that a large quantity of this fruit, 
estimated to be at least fifty bushels per acre, had been left 
unpicked. With this showing of wild productiveness, would any 
one think of cultivating the bushes, looking at the matter from a 
financial point of view ? 

John C. Hovey held that the idea that the fruits under consider- 
ation may be cultivated as easily as anything else, is a mistake. 
Success may be won, but we should try to adopt natural methods. 
That appears to have been the case where Mr. Dawson and Mr. 
Hersey have succeeded in their experiments. 

Joseph H. Woodford said that Hon. William Freeman of 
Cherryfield, Maine, controls a large district there, comprising 
from thirty to forty thousand or more acres of land. On this 



38 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

territory he has many natural plantations of berry bushes, and 
employs a forester all the year round to assist in the care of these 
areas. They burn over some of these plantations every year, and 
two years later gather from such portions an immense crop of 
superior fruit. By this sj 7 stem a great yield is secured every year 
from some parts of this land. The berries are almost as large as 
cherries. They will burn over, this year, about one thousand 
acres of berry bush lands. 

William E. Endicott was ready to say that blueberries can be 
grown as easily as currants, and more easily than many varieties 
of the raspberry. He has had no experience with Black Huckle- 
berries. Dangleberry seed has always failed to grow with him, 
but he had been successful in transplanting that species from the 
woods. He had cultivated the Low Black Huckleberry and 
thought more highly of it than of the High Bush Blueberry. 
White Huckleberries are not uncommon in his neighborhood ; he 
had Repeatedly found them, but they are generally deficient in 
flavor. 

Mr. Hovey said that it takes a great deal to kill blueberry 
bushes, especially the high bush blueberry. 

Mr. Dawson believed that most people, in taking up plants 
from the woods or pastures, are so eager to have their berry 
bushes bear that they select the largest plants. Unless they are 
taken up with the greatest care, these large plants invariably die, 
whereas if plants of one or two feet in height were selected and 
carefully planted they would take hold at once, and in a year or 
two would be far ahead of the larger plant even if that should 
struggle through. 

Mr. Hersey said that when he transplants large bushes he cuts 
off the tops. 

Notice was given that Professor G. H. Whitcher, Director of 
the New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station, Hanover, 
N. H., would read his paper on the "Growth and Nutrition of 
Plants," on Saturday, February 22. 

The Chairman of the Committee on Publication and Discussion 
announced for the next Saturday, a paper on the " Fruits and 
Flowers of Japan," by William P. Brooks, Professor of Agricul- 
ture, in the Massachusetts Agricultural College, Amherst. 



FRUITS AND FLOWERS OF NORTHERN JAPAN. 39 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, January 25, 1890. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at half-past 
eleven o'clock, President Spooner in the chair. 

On motion of Leverett M. Chase, it was 

Voted, That hereafter the Secretary send to each member the 
Schedule of Exhibitions, enlarged by a notice of the Meetings for 
Discussion and a notice that the printed Proceedings of the 
Society can be obtained from the Secretary. 

2d. That the Treasurer send notice of assessment to the 
Annual Members who have not paid by February 1st. 

3d. That a copy of the Constitution and By-Laws be pre- 
sented to each incoming member. 

Voted, That the Programme of Meetings for Discussion for the 
present year be mailed to each member. 

On motion of William E. Endicott, Chairman of the Library 
Committee, it was Voted, That the Library Committee be empow- 
ered to employ such additional assistance as is necessary to 
arrange the books in the Library. 

Adjourned to Saturday, February 1st, at eleven o'clock. 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 
Fruits and Flowers of Northern Japan. 

By William P. Brooks, Professor of Agriculture, Massachusetts Agricultural 

College, Amherst. 

In what I shall say upon the subject which I have chosen I 
shall restrict myself to a consideration of fruits and flowers which 
have come more or less under my personal observation in Yesso, 
the northernmost of the large islands of the Japanese empire, 
although I am aware that the term "Northern Japan" may be 
held to include much more territory than is comprised in that 
island. Indeed, I have been surprised, and in some degree 
appalled, on looking over my collection and calling upon the 
resources of my memory, at the wealth of material which, even 
with this restriction, lies at my disposal. I have feared that my 



40 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

paper might turn out little more than a bare catalogue, and thus 
only weary your patience without exciting the interest which from 
the nature of the subject I have felt that some at least among you 
would take in it. 

I propose noticing some of the most interesting among both the 
wild and cultivated fruits and flowers of Yesso. Not by any 
means all of those of which I shall speak are peculiar to this 
island. Very many, probably nearly all, of the wild species of 
which I shall speak are found also in some parts of the more 
southern islands, in many instances on the mountains. How 
many are the cases I can recall when my hopes of having found 
something new have been shattered by the discover that it had 
been previously collected in some mountain region of the South. 
Nikko, the celebrated site of the most famous mausoleums and 
temples of Japan has proved the grave of many hopes of this sort* 
On reflection, however, it must be perceived that in view of the 
very mountainous character of the counti'3 1 this is only what should 
be expected. When it is further remembered that the bodies of 
water separating the islands of the empire of Japan are nowhere 
wide enough to offer any great obstruction to plant distribution, 
and that ocean currents indeed lend themselves to the work, it 
will not be wondered that there should exist a great degree of 
similarity in the flora throughout the country wherever suitable 
differences in altitude counterbalance differences in latitude. 

I am particular to bring out this point because I must offer this 
peculiarity of the Japanese flora as an excuse for alluding, as I 
doubtless shall, to plants with which many among } t ou are already 
familiar. Little has been written in English on the flora of Yesso — 
almost nothing if we except what our lamented Dr. Gray wrote 
after examination of the collection of the Perry Expedition, a con- 
siderable part of which came from the vicinity of Hakodate, in 
Southern Yesso ; but I am sensible that what I shall say will 
probably in many cases lack the charm of novelty because of the 
peculiarity to which I have alluded. This however has seemed to 
me unavoidable, for I am no specialist in either botany or horti- 
culture. In common with most of mankind, I love fruits and 
flowers ; I have known those of which I shall speak in their native 
haunts ; I have loved them, and this must be my excuse for speak- 
ing of them. You will, I feel sure, under the circumstances 
pardon the fact that some of my u coals are brought to New- 
castle." 



FRUITS AND FLOWERS OF NORTHERN JAPAN. 41 

A brief glance at the position, size, and physical peculiarities of 
Yesso ; together with a few remarks upon the nature of its soil and 
climate and some of the most striking peculiarities of its flora, 
must precede the mention of any of its special features. 

Yesso lies off the coast of Siberia, from which it is separated by 
the Japan sea, which at the narrowest point between the island 
and the continent is about two hundred miles broad. The island 
of Sachalen, which is separated from the continent by a narrow 
strait, approaches to within about thirty miles of Yesso. The 
Kuriles on the north also afford a means of connection with Kam- 
chatka ; and the larger Japanese islands, with smaller subsidiary 
chains, make plant immigration from Corea and China a possi- 
bility. Thus Yesso is so situated that the way was open for the 
immigration of Asiatic plants from north, west, and south, and 
this fact, in connection with climatic and other peculiarities to be 
mentioned, accounts for the extraordinary richness of its flora. 

Yesso lies between about 41 J and 45 J degrees north latitude ; 
and, exclusive of narrow capes, extends from about 140 to 145 
degrees east longitude. Its area is about 27,000 square miles, — 
a little less than the area of Ireland. According to Benjamin 
Smith Lyman, former Chief of the Geological Survey, the island 
has 7,000 square miles of land suitable for farming, 6,000 square 
miles of pasturage, 5,000 square miles of forest, and 9,000 square 
miles of mountains. He estimates that only about twenty-five 
per cent of the total area is fitted for cultivation, and from per- 
sonal observation I judge that even this estimate is too high. 
The face of the country is very mountainous and rugged, although 
there are a few broad plains and river valleys. The highest 
mountains attain an elevation of about 8,000 feet, but the great 
majority range from 1,000 to 4,000 feet in height; and, except 
near the sea-shore where the trees have been cut off to supply fuel 
to the fishermen, they are wooded to their summits. The lower 
slopes, up to an elevation of about five hundred to one thousand 
feet, according to locality, are covered with a rich growth of 
deciduous trees, — maples, oaks, magnolias, Cercidiplryllums, 
elms, lindens, cherries, and birches predominating. Above these 
altitudes conifers, chiefly two species of spruce, predominate. 
All these trees usually reach a large size. The growth is, however, 
rather open and scattered as a rule, and the undergrowth is char- 
acterized by extraordinary luxuriance and density. By far the 



42 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

most abundant and important plant here found is a kind of bam- 
boo grass (Arundinaria) which in places forms almost impenetra- 
ble thickets, varying in height from two or three up to ten or 
more feet according to the soil and altitude. The leaves of this 
plant are evergreen, and it constitutes a most valuable and 
nutritious winter pasturage for deer, and also for cattle and 
horses which in most parts of the islands keep in good condition 
on it throughout the winter months. Horses are especially fond 
of it and will eat it in summer in preference to English grasses. 
Prudent managers, therefore, during the summer months exclude 
them from the forests which are to be used for winter pasturage. 
At times the deep snows of winter quite bury this plant, but 
horses learn to dig for it, pawing away the snow to reach it. In 
this way they manage to keep in fair condition through the season. 
Where this Arundinaria grows it crowds out all other under- 
growth. Only trees and climbers can contend with it. One is 
struck by the enormous number and variety ©f climbers, woody 
and herbaceous, both in mountain and plain-land forests. These 
contribute much to the appearance of tropical luxuriance and 
richness which every travelled visitor remarks. 

Within the limits of an island of the size of Yesso is to be 
found, as might be expected, a great variety of soils. It is 
unnecessar}^ to enter into detailed descriptions. Suffice it to say 
that the greater portion of these soils are still virgin. Until 
within the last fifteen or twenty years the Japanese people had 
made no effort to occupy this territory. To them it was a terra 
incognita ; to the minds of a race of tropical origin it was a dread- 
ful, frigid wilderness, peopled with ferocious wild beasts and hairy 
men scarcely less wild. The Japanese fished upon its shores in 
summer, and a few dwelt there ; but no attempt was made to 
settle in the interior. The virgin soil is in many places of consid- 
erable fertility notwithstanding the Japanese proverb : " Shin den 
wadzuka ho ho-nen" which means, u The crops on new land are 
small." The best will produce at first without manures about 
fifty bushels of corn, two and a half tons of hay, or four hundred 
bushels of potatoes per acre ; but the soil is not strong, and soon 
needs manure. According to analyses, even the best is usually 
deficient in both phosphoric acid and potash, and there is a wide 
extent of territory, the soil of which, composed largely of volcanic 
scoriae and ash, is very light and poor. 



FRUITS AND FLOWERS OF NORTHERN JAPAN. 43 

The climate of Yesso is in many respects not unlike that of 
New England ; but it is more equable — a little cooler in summer 
and warmer in winter ; and the air is more humid ; the percentage 
of sunshine somewhat less. The yearly means of temperature at 
Sapporo, the capital of Yesso, in degrees Fahrenheit, from the 
year 1877 to 1886, inclusive, were as follows : 47.53, 44.79, 45.13, 
45.51, 44.82, 45.19, 44.27, 42.69, 44.14, and 46.63. On two or 
three nights every winter the mercury registers from four to 
twelve degrees below zero ; the really hot weather of the summer 
is limited to one month, setting in about the middle of July. The 
autumn frosts are late in coming, seldom destroying even the 
most tender plants before the middle of October. The yearly 
precipitation — a large part in the form of snow — varied during 
the years of my residence between about thirty-three and fifty- 
five inches. The springs and early summers are dry ; the late 
summers and autumns are rainy. The snow fall is large ; the 
smallest in any winter of the twelve I spent there was nine feet ; 
the largest eighteen feet ; the average being about twelve feet. 
An important point, doubtless as affecting both the indigenous 
and introduced plants is this : the snow usually falls upon unfrozen 
ground, or at least the amount of frost is so slight that by the 
middle of January the ground, even in open fields, is free from it. 
Carrots, turnips, and potatoes are often left in the ground over 
winter and come out in the spring uninjured. The soil in the 
forests can scarcely at any time feel the effects of frost. 

Another important climatic peculiarity as affecting vegetation 
is the comparatively warm and wet autumn, succeeded at last 
rather suddenly by a heavy fall of snow and colder weather. 
Such a change usually finds the leaves still green on introduced 
apple, peach, and cherry trees as well as on raspberry and black- 
berry bushes. 

Those among you who are fruit culturists are familiar with the 
fact that such a state of affairs indicates wood still comparatively 
soft and immature and unfitted to withstand the rigors of winter. 
You will not be surprised then to learn that certain fruit trees, 
usually hardy here, are there in most cases winter-killed. This 
fact, viewed in connection with certain peculiarities of the native 
flora, at first thought appears exceedingly puzzling. In the 
vicinity of Sapporo were large numbers of two species of magno- 
lia ; the one Magnolia Kobus, chiefly in the low moist lands ; the 



44 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

other Magnolia hypoleuca, chiefly on the dry elevated plains or 
lower mountain slopes. On trees of both plain and mountain 
forests of the more open sort — chiefly on elms, alders, and oaks 
— two species of mistletoe grew in the greatest profusion. On 
the mountains and in the swamps grew in abundance several 
species of tender annuals belonging to the gourd family ; and in 
similar localities were to be found several other sub-tropical or 
warm temperate species not usually found in so high latitudes. 
And yet where these plants and the species of bamboo grass 
already mentioned flourished, the peach, the quince, and our 
hardy raspberries and blackberries were usually sadty winter- 
killed. Many times have I seen every inch of such trees and 
shrubs which protruded above the snow utterly destroyed ; and 
often the roots only survived the winter. Why this apparent 
anomaly? Some of you are prepared for the assertion that the 
deep snows afford protection to the sub-tropical indigenous plants 
mentioned ; and in so far as the tender herbs and bamboo grass 
are concerned this is doubtless the true explanation ; but how 
with the magnolias and the mistletoe? Surely the snow cannot 
protect these, for the branches of other trees bearing the latter 
are far above its surface. 

The explanation is doubtless this ; the indigenous species have 
become inured to the climate : they are not deceived, if I may be 
allowed the expression, by the favoring warmth and moisture of 
the autumn. Winter's cold finds their buds and wood prepared 
to resist its destructive action. Not so the peach, the quince, and 
the berry bushes from America. The comparatively rich soil and 
the warm and humid air promote too rapid and long-continued 
growth which is readily destroyed by the too quickly succeeding 
cold. That this is the case is evident from the fact that these 
fruits are cultivated with a fair degree of success on the soils of 
the lightest and poorest description to be found in the vicinity. 
On the average soils of the island a requisite to the successful 
culture of these fruits is winter protection, which I found could be 
best given by simply bending to the ground and holding there in 
such a manner that the snows, which usually accumulated to the 
depth of three or four feet, would cover and protect. 

Yesso is not particularly rich in indigenous fruits ; compara- 
tively few species are collected and used by the inhabitants to any 
great extent. Those most extensively used are the following : 



FRUITS AND FLOWERS OF NORTHERN JAPAN. 45 

a wild strawberry, two species of raspberries, a chestnut, a wal- 
nut, a grape, and the kokuwa. Huckleberries, checkerberries, 
cranberries, and blackberries although found are, I think, nowhere 
abundant and practically never made use of. Some two or three 
species of strawberries are found ; but the only one of an} 7 impor- 
tance is Fragaria vesca, which in some districts is so abundant 
that the manufacture of jam from the fruit was at one time an 
important industr} 7 . This jam by the way was particularly high 
flavored and delicious. I have cultivated this strawberry in my 
garden, and have found it unusually vigorous and fairly produc- 
tive, the fruit being small to medium in size, whitish red when 
ripe, and very sweet and high flavored, with a taste altogether 
different from that of our varieties. The chief reason, however, 
for my mentioning the cultivation of this berry, is to call attention 
to a peculiarit} 7 which I do not recollect to have heard of in any 
other variety. We have our so-called pistillate sorts in great 
number. This species, as I cultivated it, was functionally dioe- 
cious. A certain proportion of the plants, — in my patch about 
one-third, — produced large flowers which contained large and perfect 
stamens but very small and imperfect pistils. These plants never 
produced any fruit ; the flowers simply dried up. These plants 
were then practically staminate, although the pistils were not 
-entirely aborted. The other plants produced smaller flowers with 
perfect pistils, and stamens which were much shorter and smaller 
than in the flowers on the first kind of plants ; but even these 
stamens produced apparently perfect pollen. There was a little 
difference in the habit of growth and the general appearance of 
the two kinds of plants which, with practice, I judged would 
suffice to enable one to select either sort at pleasure. My depart- 
ure from Japan interrupted the observations upon this most 
interesting plant that I had in view for determining numerous 
points which will occur to many of you, and my first attempt at 
importation made last year proved a complete failure. American 
varieties of strawberries, of which a number have been tried, do 
remarkably well in all respects. Of one importation I succeeded 
in making one plant only of the Sharpless and two only of the 
Charles Downing live ; and yet, before winter set in, without any 
unusual care, these had increased to fifty and two hundred and 
fifty plants respectively. This, from plants which on May 1st 
were hanging between life and death, I considered a remarkable 



46 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

rate of increase. No artificial winter protection is needed for the 
vines in Sapporo ; the deep snow proves all sufficient. Other 
covering I found even injurious, tending to cause the rotting of 
the vines. The period of fruiting was unusually long, commonly 
covering with a single variety like Wilson's Albany, one entire 
month, — the month of July. 

Of the raspberries, there were some three or four species com- 
monly found : but only two were of practical importance. One of 
these, Rubus parvifolius, is of a low half running habit of growth ; 
the fruit is red but very loosely constructed and soft in texture. 
The flavor is good, but the impossibility of handling without 
reducing to a mush makes this fruit nearly valueless except to eat 
from the bushes. I have cultivated two other species in my 
garden. One of these, of the same habit of growth as our common 
red raspberry but with unusually stout canes and not suckering 
over-freely, produced small, seedy, black fruit of no value. The 
other, Rubus pJmnicolasius, has the Black Cap habit of growth, the 
canes, in good soil stout and tall, not requiring artificial support 
but with unusually soft and harmless prickles. The fruit is pro- 
duced in large clusters, is of fair size, and being of a beautiful 
translucent scarlet color, it presents an exceedingly attractive 
appearance. It is fairly firm. In flavor it is quite different from 
anything we have. There is less of the distinctive raspberry 
flavor and slightly more acid than in our varieties and it is very 
juicy. Upon telling friends who visited my garden when the fruit 
was ripe that I had brought it there to see if I could improve it, I 
was several times met with the remark "I don't see why you 
should wish to improve this," which perhaps sufficiently indicates 
its quality. I would not, however, overpraise this fruit. It is 
distinctly less rich than our common varieties and would not suit 
those especially fond of the raspberry flavor. It is, however, a 
hardy, productive, and beautiful species, which may prove valuable 
in its present or some derivative form. A peculiarity in its habit 
of growth should be mentioned ; the growing fruit is entirely 
covered and protected by the reddish pubescent calyx until just 
as it begins to ripen. Whether from this peculiarity or because it 
is not so sweet, it is certain that this fruit was always remarkably 
free from worms, while American varieties in my garden were 
sadly infested. I successfully imported plants of this species last 
year ; and I may remark that I have been informed that at least 
one nurseryman advertised it for sale last season. 



FRUITS AND FLOWERS OF NORTHERN JAPAN. 47 

American varieties of both raspberries and blackberries do well 
here. The vines of all varieties, however, need winter protection. 
This I found could be best given by bending down over a mound 
of earth and holding in place with small stakes. Neither earth 
nor straw covering was necessary, the snow serving every pur- 
pose. The season of fruiting is late but long. 

The Yesso chestnut, very abundant in many sections and much 
used by the aborigines of the island as well as by the Japanese, is 
in size and quality almost identical with the American. It is 
altogether different from the large chestnut of old Japan, but like 
that produces fruit very young. The Japanese have a proverb 
which sa} 7 s, translating literally, " The chestnut in three years, 
the persimmon in seven," indicating that trees of these fruits will 
become productive respectively in three and seven years. When 
planted in Yesso, however, the southern chestnut fails to justify 
its claims to such precocity, requiring usually fully twice the 
number of years just mentioned. 

The Yesso walnut resembles closely the English walnut, but is 
inferior in both size and quality to the best specimens of that nut 
found in our markets. Neither is it anywhere very abundant. 

The native grape is Vitis Labrusca, the same species, you will 
recognize, as our own most common wild and cultivated varieties. 
In Yesso, however, the wild species does not vary as does our 
own. I have never seen more than one form, a medium to large 
bunch of small, hard, seedy and very sour berries, of a purple or 
almost black color with comparatively little bloom. The vine is, 
however, Temarkably rank and vigorous in habit. A specimen 
with stem fourteen inches in diameter was found near Sapporo, 
and I have many times noticed leaves nearly two feet across. If 
anything shall be discovered able to withstand the phylloxera or 
calculated to infuse new disease-resisting vigor into our failing 
vines, it would seem that we have it here in Yesso. Already 
French and Swiss wine growers have had their agents on the spot 
and have taken measures to test this vine. 

The cultivated grape of Old Japan is Vitis vim/era, and all 
varieties there grown require more heat than the Yesso summer 
affords ; but in Yesso both American and German varieties have 
been for a number of years under trial. All sorts common here 
ten years ago have been extensively tried ; but with very indiffer- 
ent success. With the single exception of the Delaware most fail 



48 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

to ripen thoroughly at least three years out of four. That variety, 
somewhat to my surprise, is in the vicinity of Sapporo the freest 
from disease and altogether the most certain and delicious of all 
American sorts. German varieties of many kinds are now under 
trial ; but these, like the American, often fail to ripen, and I am 
confident that the ill-advised attempts at wine-making which have 
now been in progress some eight or nine years are doomed to 
disastrous failure. The autumns are too wet and cloudy to per- 
fect the grape, although, as was usually the case, frosts severe 
enough to injure it hold off until about the 20th of October. 

Of that fruit, the Kokuwa (Actinidia arguta) , which is peculiar to 
Japan, and which finds its most perfect and abundant develop- 
ment in the primeval forests of Yesso, I presume you have all 
heard. Much has been written and said about it within the last 
few years ; though, strangely enough from my point of view, it 
has been urged upon the public attention as an ornamental 
climber. Now far is it from my wish to detract from its merits 
as such. It is certainly a vigorous, not to say a rampant, grower 
and its luxuriant dark green leaves and waving stems have a 
beauty of their own. For the purpose of covering arbors or 
" forming wild entanglements," as one writer has expressed it, 
from tree to tree it is certainly suited. Its effects upon the trees, 
however, I will not answer for ; its coils I fancy will be found to 
hug "closer than a brother." Still it is a beautiful climber, 
though I believe that Yesso can furnish several more beautiful 
and far more manageable ; but I would caution not to plant it 
against verandahs or buildings. Unless looked after far more 
closely than most will find time for, it will be found to overgrow 
all desired bounds, to displace eaves spouts and to make itself a 
nuisance generally by its omnipresence. 

It is for its fruit, however, that the plant is mostly prized in 
Yesso, where in many localities it is abundant and very largely 
collected. The fruit, which is a berry, runs in size a little larger 
than the Green Gage plum ; the skin is green ; the pulp when ripe 
soft, and the seeds, which are numerous, very fine. The flavor I 
cannot liken to that of any other fruit ; it is very agreeable to 
most ; but it is sui generis. There is an astringent principle in 
the skin, which must not be sucked too much or it will make the 
lips, tongue, and throat sore. It is not difficult, however, to suck 
out the pulp without encountering this trouble. The effect of the 



FRUITS AND FLOWERS OF NORTHERN JAPAN. 49 

fruit is decidedly but pleasantly laxative to most, — much more so 
than that of any of our fruits, not excepting the imported fig. It 
must prove a valuable acquisition even for this single quality, 
were it not moreover sufficiently delicious to repay eating. One 
attempt only has been made in Yesso to my knowledge to cultivate 
the fruit ; but the plants for this experiment, collected before 
sufficient acquaintance with the botanical peculiarities of the spe- 
cies had been acquired, all proved barren. The species is poly- 
gamo- dioecious, and for fruit it must be propagated by cuttings 
from fertile plants. A second obstacle to its culture is the fact 
that a number of years must elapse ere the plant begins to be 
productive. Just how many would, however, be required from 
cuttings I am not prepared to say. Should the fruit under culti- 
vation prove as good as when wild it would be well worth a place 
in our gardens ; and of course there exists a possibility that it 
may be improved. It flourishes best in rich moist soils. 

A fruit which, from the extent to which it is collected and used 
in Yesso, perhaps deserves mention next, is that of .the rose 
{Rosa rugosa) called by the Japanese "beach pear." It is so 
called, doubtless, from the fact that it is especially abundant on 
the upper reaches of sandy beaches. The hip of this species of 
rose, as many of you may know, is unusually large and handsome. 
In size, it averages larger than the common crab-apple, and the 
color is a deep scarlet. It is chiefly eaten by the children ; 
though halved, seeded, and slightly salted, it is esteemed a delicacy 
by many adults. I have tasted it and found it really not so bad 
as I had expected. Its ornamental qualities are not lost sight of 
by the Japanese, who have fixed upon a special holiday in July 
when it is considered eminently the thing both to display this 
fruit and to partake of it. 

A species of apple (Pyrus Toringo) is common all over Yesso. 
In rich lands the trees average about as large as crab-apple trees 
here ; in poor sandy soils it is reduced to a shrub. The fruit is 
small ; it will hardly average as large as the cranberry. The stem 
is long and slender, the shape that of our apple, and it is puckery 
and very sour. This species has been commonly used as a stock 
for grafting our American varieties and answers the purpose 
excellently. The trees begin bearing at the age of about four 
years, and trees which began to produce fruit abundantly about 
1879, were still producing large crops of fine fruit annually, where 
4 



50 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

well cared for, ten years later. At that time, where trees were 
planted twenty by twenty-five feet apart, the branches were begin- 
ning to meet, and the trees were still very thrifty. ' It is yet too 
early to say how long lived such trees will prove. 

Most American varieties of apple succeeded well in Yesso ; but 
all are considerably later than here. Fall varieties keep into 
February and our common winter sorts till August. Our very 
best keepers, like the Roxbury Russet, are worthless there. They 
do not become sufficiently mature to ripen, but, put into the 
cellar, simply shrivel up and soon rot. The splendid Greenings 
which I have eaten there in July would, however, surprise you. 
The apple fruit is mostly free from insect enemies in Yesso, 
though a species of curculio has in some places proved injurious, 
and a small worm does occasional damage. The worms which 
attack the leaves are, however, legion, and among them is our own 
latest acquisition in that line, — the G-ypsy Moth {Ocneria dispar). 

You may be surprised to learn that our apples and pears both 
having been introduced and having begun to bear at about the 
same time, the Japanese almost to a man esteemed the apple the 
more delicious. For many years the prices were, for apples ten 
to twelve cents and for pears three to five cents per pound ; and 
after the lapse of about ten years, in 1888, the prices were in 
about the same proportion, viz. : — apples from six to eight cents 
and pears from two to three cents per pound. 

American pears succeed well in Yesso with the exception of the 
late sorts, like the Vicar, which is worthless. All are later and 
keep better than here ; I usually kept the Anjou without trouble 
until well into March. For the pear the native Pyrus Toringo 
already spoken of was commonly used as a stock ; the Japan 
Quince {Pyrus Cydonid) , is also somewhat employed. There is no 
pear native to Yesso, but the earlier varieties of the pear com- 
monly cultivated in Southern Japan {Pyrus communis) are raised 
to a limited extent. This is a fruit of magnificent appear- 
ance, large, obtuse, russet in color. In texture it is hard or 
breaking and coarse ; in flavor sweet and insipid. A friend of 
mine said that once, in company, he likened these pears to " tur- 
nips in disguise ;" but the company unanimously disapproved the 
comparison. They thought it was unfair to the turnip. Still as 
a Japanese friend of mine once expressed it, " There is plenty of 
teething in these pears ;" and this, doubtless is the great reason 



FRUITS AND FLOWERS OF NORTHERN JAPAN. 51 

for the universal taste for them among the people. If you will 
believe me even educated Japanese persisted that they liked our 
pears best while they were yet of flinty hardness, — before, to my 
taste, the flavor was at all developed. You will not longer wonder 
that the apple was generally preferred to such fruit ; but for the 
sake of the reputation of our pears you will be glad to know that 
the Japanese are slowly learning better when to eat them. 

An indigenous plum — probably Prunus tomentosa — is of some 
value. The fruit is small and purple, and hardly suited for eat- 
ing, but it makes excellent preserves. The stones are collected in 
large quantities and the young trees used for budding with Ameri- 
can sorts, which do well in Yesso. 

The wild mulberry — Morus alba, I think, but of the species 
I do not feel entirely sure, — is nearly everywhere abundant in 
Yesso. The leaf is much collected and used for feeding silk, 
worms ; and this species, which is perfectly hardy (while the 
Chinese variety is not) , is extensively propagated and planted for 
the same purpose. The fruit is rather small, black, and very 
delicious in flavor ; but it is not much used by the natives. 

In some parts of Yesso there is found a wild currant (Ribes 
Japonica) the fruit of which I have never seen. It is said to be 
red ; but is not used so far as I know. The racemes of flowers 
which I have seen are of remarkable length ; in the dried speci- 
mens which I have here, the longest is fully seven inches in length. 
Should it be found possible to cross this species with our own, it 
would seem not unlikely that considerable improvement in this 
direction might be the result. In Yesso, unfortunately, a very 
large proportion of the fruit of this currant alwa} T s blasted while 
very small. I have successfully imported this species and now 
have it alive in Amherst. 

Although not fruits in the ordinary sense of the word, I want 
to allude to the Yesso hop and asparagus (Humulus Japonicus 
and Asparagus officinalis), both exceedingly abundant in many 
places ; and both, I should think, promising, as a result of varia- 
tion which usually follows the cultivation of wild species, to 
produce varieties of value. In connection with asparagus should 
be mentioned also the Japanese Udo (Aralia cordata), the 
spring shoots of which are used as we use those of that plant. 
This is also everywhere common in the rich woods of Yesso ; it is 
also cultivated to some extent and is said to be really delicious. 



52 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The cultivation of both the American and the old Japanese 
varieties of the peach has been attempted in Yesso ; but, as 
already indicated, with very poor success on account of the winter- 
killing, not of the fruit buds merely, but of the tree itself. The 
Japanese are not familiar with budding and, in Yesso at least, 
propagate wholly from the stones. The old native sorts produce 
a very inferior fruit. 

A kind of apricot is somewhat cultivated in Yesso. The tree 
seems to be perfectly hardy and enormously productive ; but the 
fruit is small and inferior. There, at least, it is propagated 
wholly from the stones, and so far as I am aware there is but one 
variety. 

Our varieties of cherries have been tried ; but though the Japa- 
nese esteem the fruit as very delicious, and now, after the lapse 
of fifteen years since its introduction, it still never retails for less 
than twenty cents per pound, it is certainly very inferior to the 
fruit as commonly produced here. 

With brief mention of one other Yesso fruit, I will leave this 
branch of my subject and pass on to consider some of the flowers 
of Yesso. This is the peculiar fruit of a species of conifer (Ceph- 
alotaxus drupacea) which grows as an undershrub in many of the 
mountain forests. This shrub is sometimes as much as eight or 
nine feet in height but usually rather less ; and the female plants 
bear a stone fruit precisely like a plum in structure. It is of 
about the size of the common pecan nut ; the flesh is proportion- 
ally about as thick as that of the plum and is very juicy and 
remarkably sweet with a faint suggestion of the pine in its flavor. 
Really at present of no practical importance, it has actually 
seemed to me, as I have often jokingly said, that this fruit affords 
a rare field for the quack-medicine man. A rich natural syrup, 
with the flavor of the pine — what a chance for the production of 
a specific for throat troubles, coughs, and consumption ! And 
then it comes from Japan — that magic land whence come — of 
all things — soap, which the Japanese never use, and sovereign 
remedies for corns, with which their feet are never troubled. 

Of the flowers of Yesso I hardly know how to speak. In prep- 
aration for writing this paper I looked through my collection of 
dried specimens, with the intention of picking out a few of the 
most attractive, and I find I have selected no less than sixty-four 
as worthy at least of mention. Now do not be alarmed — I am not 



FRUITS AND FLOWERS OF NORTHERN JAPAN. 53 

going to detain you so long as this number would imply. I have 
decided that I must have looked with prejudiced eyes ; and, while 
I have brought them all and shall be pleased to show and talk 
about them if any are interested, and shall even append a list, I 
have decided to speak formally of as few as possible and of those 
as briefly as I can. 

In speaking of them I shall follow no definite rule of order. 
From memory simply, I have thrown those of similar characteris- 
tics together ; and shall not, therefore, follow any exact systematic 
arrangement. 

One of the most attractive of the very early wild flowers of 
Yesso is the Adonis Amurensis, a bright yellow flower which 
might appropriately, in that country, be called the "eye of 
spring," for it peeps up sometimes even in February on sunny 
banks where the snow has melted away. Often havs I seen it 
looking bravely up in the midst of a sharp snow-storm, and so 
hardy is it that such exposure scarcely seems to hurt it. It is a 
special favorite with the Japanese, who, however, seldom plant it 
in gardens ; but are satisfied with seeking out the earliest plants 
and digging them while in bud for forwarding in old tin cans, 
broken teapots, and the like. Regular markets as well as special 
booths usually offer such roots for sale in large quantities, and 
everyone who cannot dig for himself buys this which is the earliest 
harbinger of spring for the masses. 

More delicately beautiful is the Glaucidium palmatum, a mid- 
spring flower, with large and particularly beautiful almost trans- 
lucent leaves and large delicate single pink flowers. This is the 
favorite of cool, shady dells and rich, moist soil. A horticultural 
friend of mine, writing a few 3 7 ears since, said that this very 
beautiful flower had not then been introduced into Europe and 
America. It would richly repay care, but would undoubtedly be 
fastidious as to soil and surroundings. 

The gorgeous beauty of the autumn woods, the monkshood 
(Aconitum Fisheri), standing often fully six feet high, with enorm- 
ous masses of brilliant blue flowers, is another of the Ranunculacese 
which must not be forgotten. It is of peculiar interest, both from 
its beauty and from the fact that the aborigines of Yesso extract 
a poisonous principle, aconite, from its root, using it to poison 
the tips of arrows which they employ in setting traps for bears. 



54 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Two other species of aconite are found in the Yesso forests ; but 
both are less beautiful and less common than the one of which I 
have spoken. 

By far the most delicately beautiful of spring flowers in the 
vicinity of Sapporo is the Corydalis ambigua, with its fragile stems 
and leaves, and its lovely racemes of flowers, shading into the most 
exquisite tints and hues of blue and ultramarine and pink, and 
sometimes becoming almost white. The fragrance too of the 
flowers is wonderfully delicate and sweet. I should think this 
species and its rarer form with the lobes of the leaves linear might 
be cultivated quite easily, and if so they would amply repay the 
care bestowed upon them. The far more sturdy and quite differ- 
ent Corydalis aurea has also great beauty of its own. Both thrive 
in moderately light soils. 

The Japanese primrose (Primula Japonica), is everywhere 
common along the banks of streams and must not be forgotten. 
It is, however, I believe, well known to European and American 
gardeners, and is justly esteemed for its elegant habit and great 
beauty of flower. 

I wish next to call your attention to the Yesso Spiraeas, of which 
there are a large number of species, several of which are of 
unusual beauty. I would mention as especially worthy of atten- 
tion the species aruncus, callosa, and sorbifolia — widely different 
each from the other, but any one of which would form beautiful 
clumps in a garden or add grace and beauty to a bouquet. 

I must not forget here the flower known to the Japanese as hagi 
— a species of Lespedeza, with pinkish flowers — which is celebrated 
in Japanese story and song, and is regarded as one of the eight 
beautiful wild flowers of autumn. Two others which are included 
by the Japanese in the same class stand next in my list, — Patri- 
nia scabiosarfolia and Platycodon grandijlorum. These are almost 
invariably found together in open sandy localities ; and a beautiful 
combination they make either in field or bouquet — the Patrinia 
with its broad cymes of pale gold and the Platycodon with its large 
bells of heaven's own deep blue. You are wondering what are the 
other flowers which make up the magic number, and as these, with 
one exception, are also found wild in Yesso I may mention them. 
They are the grass pink, the morning glory, a grass which has 
beautiful autumn plumes {Eulalia Japonica) , the aster, and the 
wistaria. The latter I have never seen wild in Yesso. 



FRUITS AND FLOWERS OF NORTHERN JAPAN. 55 

The dog-tooth violet (Erythronium Dens-canis), with unusu- 
ally large and finely mottled leaves and large pink flowers, is a 
woodland beauty which grows in many places in extraordinary 
profusion ; and excelling even this in abundance is the sweet lily- 
of -the- valley (Convallaria majalis), of which I have seen dozens 
of acres in one lot. This attains to great size and beauty here ; 
and so well do soil and climate seem to suit it that in places it 
takes possession of the ground to the almost entire exclusion of 
other plants. It makes itself a great nuisance in pastures ; and 
during my stay in Japan I was more than once consulted as to 
means of exterminating it, or asked whether some practical use 
<jould not be made of it. The beauty and the fragrance of such 
pastures, however, you can imagine. 

A beautiful dark purple (the Japanese say black) lily {Fritil- 
laria Kamchatensis) is rather rarely found, and it never fails to 
excite the liveliest feelings of admiration. I have known a Japa- 
nese to carry a bulb in bud or flower more than one hundred miles 
on horseback to plant it in his garden. I have myself also tried 
to transplant it ; but without success. It thrives in cool and 
shady localities ; and would certainly be highly appreciated should 
it do well under cultivation. 

One other wild Yesso lily I must mention for it is of surpassing 
grace and beauty. I christened it the " fairy-lily." It is the 
Lilium medeoloides of Gray. It produces a very large whorl of 
leaves a short distance below the flower, which peculiarity causes 
the Japanese to call it the "wheel-lily." Good specimens pro- 
duce as many as a dozen of the most dainty lilies I have ever 
seen. The general color of the perianth is orange, and its divisions 
are very much reflexed. 

Of one other herbaceous species only will I speak, and from 
that will pass on to notice a ver}^ few of the ornamental woody 
species. This is the striking Lysichiton Kamchatense of the 
Yesso marshes, producing in earliest spring a white flower like a 
large calla, and, later, enormous leaves of great beauty. In 
grounds of sufficient extent to afford it a suitable habitat, this 
must prove a decided acquisition both for its flowers and foliage, 
which last has a decidedly tropical appearance. 

Among woody plants the magnolias have been mentioned. 
Both form handsome trees of medium size. The points which 
would, perhaps, make them desirable here are hardiness and the 
great fragrance of the flowers. The species hypoleuca is also 



56 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

particularly handsome in leaf, flower, and fruit. The flowers 
frequently measure more than a foot across, and the odor is such 
that I often recognized the vicinity of trees in bloom while yet as 
much as a furlong distant. 

Cornus brachypoda, a small tree, is particularly brilliant in fruit, 
with its wealth of scarlet drupes which persist well into the winter. 
There are several beautiful Viburnums ; but these, perhaps, do 
not surpass ours. Among the Hydrangeas, however, are found a 
number of noticeable species. The one which will prove the most 
decided acquisition is H. petiolaris, also called Schizophragma 
hydrangeoides. This is a climber which in Yesso goes to the top 
of the tallest trees, to which it clings by root-like bodies. When 
in bloom it converts the tree trunks into pillars of snow ; and a 
ride in June through miles of primeval forest where almost every 
other tree trunk and every old, gray stump is converted into a 
mass of beautiful white bloom is an experience to be remembered. 
The Japanese know this plant as " snow vine " and the name is 
well given. The neutral flowers are abundant and persist all 
winter, so that this hydrangea is practically always beautiful. 

Hydrangea paniculata, a large shrub, produces white flower 
clusters of enormous size ; and very delicately beautiful in its 
native glens is H. hortensis or acuminata with its pale blue cj'mes ; 
but the former is not strikingly different from the original of our 
cultivated forms and the latter probably will not flourish in open 
gardens or lawns. 

Syringa vulgaris is a small tree or shrub, common in Yesso, for 
the seeds and plants of which there has recently been a large 
demand both in America and Europe. The tree is not in itself 
particularly beautiful ; and though it produces in profusion large 
clusters of small white flowers, I do not believe its popularity will 
be long-lived. It is reported to be fragrant ; but, though quite 
strong, I do not find its odor pleasant. 

Nothing in regard to the flowers of Japan would be complete 
without mention of the cherry ; and no land could be home to a 
Japanese which did not produce that much loved and storied 
flower. And, indeed, it is exquisitely beautiful in spring-time. 
The wild cherry of Yesso, single and comparatively small as the 
flower is, yet lingers a very pleasant picture in memory's eye. Its 
beautiful bark, its daint}' unfolding leaves deeply tinged with red r 
and its flowers of delicate pink make up a whole upon which the 
eye loves to linger. I cannot wonder that it has appealed strongly 



FRUITS AND FLOWERS OF NORTHERN JAPAN. 57 

to the native imagination and still constitutes, as it has for ages, 
a favorite subject for the poet's pen and the painter's brush. 

" No man so callous but he heaves a sigh 

" When o'er his head the withered cherry-flowers, 

" Come fluttering down. — Who knows? the spring's soft showers 

" May be but tears shed by the sorrowing sky." 

The native Yesso cherry (Prunus Pseudo-cerasus) produces a 
fruit which is not of the slightest edible value. The tree is of 
medium size. 

Another beautiful tree, rather sparingly found in Yesso forests, 
is Styrax obassia. This is handsome in foliage and produces 
clusters of exquisite white flowers in midsummer. It would well 
repay cultivation. Clerodendron trichotomum is a beautiful 
shrub, especially when in fruit, with its handsome contrast of 
brilliant purple and red. Eleagnus Japonicus is another favorite 
of mine, with its silver foliage in summer and its wealth of scarlet 
berries in autumn and winter. It is perfectly hardy and easily 
cultivated. The Japanese eat its fruit freely. It is seedj 7 , but 
has a rather pleasant acid flavor. A yellow Daphne I always 
sought out in earliest spring. Its leaves are evergreen, its flowers 
yellow and very sweet. Diervilla versicolor, wild there, I consider 
even handsomer than the Diervilla common in our gardens. I 
transplanted this species to my Sapporo garden and found it bore 
the change well and amply repaid the little care it required. 

The Actinidia polygama, common everywhere in Yesso, deserves 
more extended mention. I must first call j T our attention to the 
fact, however, that the Kokuwa (Actinidia arguta), of which I 
have already spoken, has been sometimes mistakenly called by this 
name. The two species are wholly distinct ; and the polygama, 
in my opinion, for ornamental purposes is worth far more than 
the other. Its habit of growth is considerably less vigorous, 
though it is by no means a slow grower. It will be found far less 
obtrusive and more manageable ; but the chief point in which it 
excels arguta is in the beauty of its foliage. Mature plants have 
the habit of producing at the ends of the growing shoots some 
four to six leaves which are tipped with a lustrous silvery white, 
usually spreading over more than half the leaf. This peculiarity 
gives it at a little distance, as it clambers over thickets, the appear- 
ance of a plant in full and abundant bloom. Then, too, the 
uncolored foliage is exceedingly beautiful, and the flowers, though 
partly hidden by the leaves, are very pretty and have all the 



58 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

fragrance of those of the orange. I moved a number of these 
climbers to my lawn but the plants were young and after three 
years the foliage had failed to show any white. Living plants in 
Amherst last season failed to show it ; and I await with interest 
the determination of the question whether the change in soil, 
climate and surroundings will cause this species to lose this most 
valuable peculiarity. The fruit is similar in size and structure to 
that of the kokuwa, but it is far less abundantly produced and less 
delicious. 

A word about the mistletoe and I am done with the wild flowers 
of Yesso. This, as I have already pointed out, is abundant. 
There are two species, one producing red, the other yellowish 
berries. Both add greatly to the winter beauty of the forests. 
It is an interesting question to my mind whether these plants 
would prove hardy here, but from what I know of the climate of 
the two places I incline to believe they would. Their introduction 
could not fail to give satisfaction to the owners of parks or orna- 
mental forests. 

Of the cultivated flowers of Yesso I need say but little. Much 
has already been said and written on this subject and better than 
I could hope to do it. That the Japanese love flowers you are 
probably all aware. All either collect them from the fields or 
woods or cultivate them in gardens. Most do both, and select 
for both with a taste that never fails to charm. Poor indeed is 
the family — nay more, low down in the social scale — that cannot 
and does not find at least an old jug for a branch of the pussy- 
willow, the plum, the cherry, the magnolia, or the brilliant maple — 
each in its season. And this universal taste and love for flowers 
is manifested alike in snowy Yesso and in the more sunny south. 
Yet should one look for the lily, the pseony, the chrysanthemum, 
the lotus, and the many other flowers for which Japan is famous, 
each in highest perfection, one must naturally turn to the older 
parts of the country. These and many other flowers are culti- 
vated in Yesso, but with perhaps a single exception the new 
country must yield the palm to the old. That exception is the 
Iris Kcempferi, which in Sapporo reaches a wonderful development. 
Now for several years, every season has witnessed in Sapporo a 
display of these marvellous flowers, by a local horticulturist, which 
in Boston would be the wonder of the town. He numbers his 
varieties by hundreds, and has perhaps an acre of sunken beds 
separated only by the narrowest of raised paths. Most of the 



FRUITS AND FLOWERS OF NORTHERN JAPAN. 59 

plants stand five or six feet in height and bear enormous flowers, a 
foot and more across and seemingly in every hue and in every 
possible mixture of all hues. Truly as I have sat and gazed 
upon the wondrous display I have felt ready to exclaim, u This 
is the queen of flowers." 

With this exception I saw no noteworthy attempts at cultiva- 
tion of flowers in Yesso. Many were the charming little gardens, 
usually at the rear of the house, but always commanded by the 
best rooms. But Japanese gardens would require a lecture by 
themselves. Believe me, they have a charm all their own. They 
comprehend much within a limited area. Mountains, waterfall, 
river, bridges, knotted and gnarled heroes of a thousand storms, 
with shrubs and flowers, rockwork and appropriate animal life, all 
within the limits of a few square yards if need be ; but all pre- 
sented in a manner to inspire respect, admiration, and wonder, — 
such are some of their most striking peculiarities. 

I have detained you already over long ; if I have succeeded in 
giving you some faint idea of the floral wealth of the region I have 
treated of, I am more than satisfied ; and appending the list of 
selected specimens not mentioned I will close : 

Adenophora verticillata. 

Artemisia (sp.?). 

Caltha palustris, var. Japonicus. 

•Clematis fusca. 

Oawfurdia Japonica. 

Funkia (sp. ?). 

Gentiana (sp. ?). 

Hydrangea hortensis, var. Japonicus. 

Lilium cordifolium. 

Nymphaea pygmaea. 

Paeonia obovata. 

Potentilla palustris. 

Pueraria Thunbergiana. 

Spiraea Kamchatica. 

Taraxacum officinalis. 

Trillium erectum, var. Japonicum. 

Trillium (sp. ?). 

Veratrum album. 

Viburnum dilatatum. 
" Opulus. 
" Wrightii. 



60 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Professor Brooks' essay commanded the closest attention of the 
largest audience ever assembled at one of these meetings, and at 
the close a vote of thanks for his very able and interesting paper 
was unanimously passed. 

The announcement for the next Saturday was a paper upon 
" Galls found near Boston," by Miss Cora H. Clarke, of Jamaica 
Plain. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 



Saturday, February 1, 1890. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at eleven 
o'clock, the President, William H. Spooner, in the chair. 

The Annual Report of the Committee on Gardens was presented 
by the Chairman, John G. Barker, and it was Voted, That it be 
referred to the Committee on Publication without reading. 

On motion of Mrs. H. L. T. Wolcott, it was Voted, That the 
appropriation of $150 for the Window Gardening Committee be 
placed in the hands of the Committee without restriction. 

The President read a letter from the Worcester County Horti- 
cultural Society, communicating the action of that Society in 
regard to petitioning the General Court for such further legislation 
as will more effectually protect fruit growers from the depreda- 
tions of juvenile trespassers and thieves, and asking the coopera- 
tion of this Societ}^ in the movement. On motion of E. W. Wood, 
it was 

Voted, That a committee of three be appointed to act in 
conjunction with the Worcester County Horticultural Society in 
the matter. The Chair appointed as that Committee, Mr. Wood> 
O. B. Hadwen, and Samuel Hartwell. 

Edward F. Atkins, of Belmont, 

having been recommended by the Executive Committee for mem- 
bership in the Society, was upon ballot duly elected. 

Adjourned to Saturday, February 8, 1890, at half past eleven 
o'clock. 



GALLS FOUND NEAR BOSTON. 61 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

Galls Found Near Boston. 

By Miss Cora H. Clarke, of Jamaica Plain. 

In the "Encyclopaedia Britannica" we find this definition: — 
''What are commonly known as Galls are vegetable deformities 
or excrescences, and, according to Lacaze-Duthiers, comprise all 
abnormal vegetable productions developed on plants by the 
action of animals, more particularly by insects, whatever may be 
their form, bulk, or situation." Professor Riley, in his interesting 
article on the subject in Johnson's Encyclopaedia, says that the 
name should not be applied, as it sometimes is, to those plant 
swellings and nodosities caused by the punctures of insects which 
always dwell exposed thereon, the difference between a gall and 
a mere swelling being that the architect of the former is hidden 
from view, and that of the latter always exposed. 

Fungous growths in plants often produce swellings and mon- 
strosities which might be mistaken for true galls and in some 
-cases are called galls, and some galls much resemble fruits, and 
those unfamiliar with botany might take them for the fruit of the 
plant upon which they grow. 

The first question that occurs to us on looking at a gall, is 
''How can the insect make the gall?" The statement was 
formerly made that the gall was caused by a poison which the 
mother insect injected into the wound when she laid the egg, and 
this Dr. Adler has found to be true in regard to the galls produced 
by saw-flies. He has carefully watched the gall growth of one 
species, and thus describes it : — 

" The Saw-fly (Nematus) with its delicate saw-shaped sting, 
makes an incision in the tender little leaf of the terminal shoot of 
Salix amygdalina, and shoves its egg into the wound ; at the 
same time, something flows into the wound from a glandular 
secretion of the saw-fly. A few hours after the egg is laid, the 
surface of the leaf takes on another appearance, and there begins 
a, new formation of cells, which leads to a limited thickening of 
the leaf surface ; in about two weeks the bean-shaped, greenish 
red gall is fully grown ; if one opens it at this time, the egg still 
lies in the small central cavity, the development of the embrvo 



62 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

being not yet concluded. After three weeks the larva creeps 
forth, and finds the nutritious gall material all ready prepared for 
its food." 

A saw-fly larva may be recognized by its large head, and many 
legs (twenty in all, six true and fourteen false) ; in some species 
the larvae go underground to transform, and others pupate within 
the gall. 

The saw-fly galls which I have found here, are willow eggs, on 
the twigs of willow trees, and willow peas, willow apples, and 
willow beans on the leaves. These latter occur in considerable 
numbers, all through the season, on the leaves of large willow 
trees, at Manchester, Mass., and I have also found them at 
Jamaica Plain. 

But Dr. Adler found that in the family Cynipidse, which he calls 
" gall- wasps," and we, usually, "gall-flies proper," the gall is 
produced in quite a different way ; his observations showed him 
that the mere puncture of the plant by the gall-fly, and act of 
laying the egg gave no occasion for gall formation, and that it 
was not until the tiny larva had crept out of the egg shell, and 
wounded with its delicate jaws the soft plant tissue surrounding it> 
that a rapid cell-growth began, — so rapid that while the tail end 
of the larva was still in the egg shell, in front of his head a wall- 
like growth of cells arose. 

For the formation of the gall, it is essential that the larva, in 
hatching, should find itself in a layer of fresh young cells, capable 
of rapid growth and multiplication. Should the mother in any 
way fail of placing her egg in exactly the right position, the larva 
must die. 

If the egg is laid in a leaf, the gall formation begins in the 
layer of cells in the under side of the leaf, as the upper surface 
consists of firm cells which cannot further change. But if the egg- 
is laid in a bud, and the larva in hatching finds one of the unde- 
veloped leaves, this as yet consists of similar cells, which, whether 
they correspond with the upper or the under surface of the leaf 
are all capable of development in a similar way, and the gall may 
appear on both surfaces of the leaf, or cause a deformation of the 
whole leaf. 

But how, from similar cells, galls so different from each other 
in shape, size, and external appearance can be produced, is a 
point not understood. The hairs which cover many galls are a 



GALLS FOUND NEAR BOSTON. 63 

development of the down usually to be found on young oak leaves. 
Mr. Bassett, of Waterbury, Conn., has discovered that in the 
woolly gall of Cynips seminator on the white oak, the hard kernel 
answers to the leaf -stalk, and the long wool is an enormous devel- 
opment of the down of the leaf. 

These hairs are supposed to be of service to the gall in prevent- 
ing the attacks of parasites. The liability of galls to the attacks 
of these parasites often renders it difficult to rear the true gall 
maker, and the parasites sometimes so closely resembles the true 
gall makers that one not an entomologist cannot distinguish them. 

If, before an oak gall is fully grown, its larva is attacked by a 
parasite, the gall never assumes its perfect shape, the life of the 
larva being a necessary factor in its development. But many 
perfectly formed galls also produce parasites, which I suppose 
did not attack them till the larva had completed its growth. 

Besides being subject to the attacks of these enemies, some 
galls harbor what are called u guest insects," which live within 
the gall substance but in no way disturb or incommode the true 
gall maker. 

The larvae ©f these oak gall insects, are white, or whitish, with 
an inconspicuous head and no legs. The body is more or less 
cylindrical, tapering at each end, and lies in a curved position 
within the cell. The larvae change to perfect insects within the 
cells, and the gall-flies finally emerge, leaving the gall pierced 
with one or many holes, according as it contained one or many 
cells. 

The perfect gall-flies are usually quite small. But, small as 
they are, entomologists have put them under their microscopes, 
and studied their minutest details of structure, and found them 
to be so different from each other that they have divided them 
into different genera, and whereas they used to be all called 
Cynips, now some of them are named Callirhytis, some Neuroterus, 
others Andricus, Biorhiza, etc. 

The ovipositor, or apparatus which the little creature has for 
piercing the plant tissues and laying its eggs, is quite complicated, 
and consists of two plates which form a kind of sheath, and a 
piercer, composed of three pieces, one stout and deeply grooved 
longitudinally, and two others, which are hair-like, and work 
within this channel, beyond which they can be protruded when in 
use. 



64 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

When the insect wishes to deposit her eggs, she, if it b§ a bud 
which she selects, settles upon it, and having carefully examined 
it with her antennae, passes her ovipositor under one of the 
scales, and thrusts it, working the hair-like organs up and down 
like saws, into the bud, until the position is reached which she 
wishes her eggs to occupy. This operation seems to require great 
exertion on the part of the insect. She then withdraws her 
ovipositor, deposits an egg at the entrance, and pushes it to the 
bottom. 

The insects which produce the Bedeguar galls were watched 
while egg laying, and some of them spent more than twenty-four 
hours in oviposition, yet in spite of all this care some of the galls 
failed to develop. 

In some species it takes the egg a long time to hatch. Dr. 
Adler found that in one species the eggs were laid the end of 
May, and not until September did the larvae emerge from the egg, 
and begin gall formation. With another species, the eggs are 
laid in October, and the galls first form in May. 

Mr. Bassett tells us that in this country at least two hundred 
different kinds of hymenopterous gall makers have been found, 
and he thinks that probably as many more remain to be discovered. 
He has himself described eighty or more species, and has fifty 
kinds of galls from which no flies have been reared. I have found 
forty kinds upon oaks, of which six are not named, and eighteen 
upon other plants, mostly Rosaceae, of which four or five are not 
named. 

Dr. Adler thinks that the gnat galls must be produced by the 
action of the larvae, because the parent has no sting, and can only 
shove the egg into an opening bud with its extended ovipositor. 

These gall-gnats are cousins to mosquitoes, and somewhat 
resemble them ; they belong to the order of Diptera, family Cecido- 
myiadae. They do not confine their attentions to two or three 
families of plants, as do the Cynipidae, but produce galls upon mem- 
bers of almost all the families of flowering plants ; each species, 
however, confines itself to one, or to a few allied species of plants. 

I have found their galls upon St. John's-wort, clover, rose, 
spiraea, various composites, shad-bushes, linden, aspen, willows, 
hickories, oaks, and in the fruit of a sedge, — about forty kinds in 
all. They are especially fond of willows, hickories, composites, 
aud rosaceous plants ; one kind may be found living in lumps of 
pitch on the twigs of pines, though these can hardly be called galls. 



GALLS FOUND NEAR BOSTON. 65 

The gnat larvae, when first hatched, are colorless, but later they 
become yellow, orange, or red. They are usually flattened, with 
an inconspicuous head, and no legs ; some of them go under- 
ground to transform, and some change within the gall ; in the 
latter case, one can often see the white pupa skin protruding 
from the gall, after the perfect insect has flown away. Some- 
times several larvae inhabit one gall. 

The deformations which they produce on plants are numerous 
and varied, — sometimes being little more than a spot on a leaf, 
like those which have so injured the foliage of our tulip trees this 
summer ; sometimes a lenticular thickening around the larva, — a 
swelling in a twig, leaf-stalk, or midrib, — a folding over of the 
edge of a leaf, — a plaiting up into a crested ridge, — or a regular 
gall, attached to the leaf only by a small portion of its surface. 

Plant lice, like the green flies of our greenhouses, form galls 
on elms, witch-hazel, and other plants. Sixteen different kinds 
have been found on the hickory, made by Phylloxera. 

The formation of the cock's-comb elm gall is thus described by 
Professor Riley : 

"The eggs are found on the bark of the tree, and the young 
hatch about the time that the leaves unfold, and crawl nimbly 
over the tree till they come to a young leaf, when they settle on 
the under side, and begin to fret the leaf -surface with their long 
beaks. The galls show at first as slight elongated ridges on the 
upper surface, with corresponding closed depressions on the 
lower ; upon drawing apart the lips of the wrinkle beneath, the 
louse is seen constantly running back and forth in the cavity, and 
inflicting rapid punctures with her beak, the inner surface of her 
dwelling being smooth and glossy, with a slight blistered appear- 
ance, in contrast with the normal more rough and pubescent 
texture of the under surface of the leaf. In about two weeks the 
gall is fully developed and young lice begin to appear in it, and 
in two or three weeks more it becomes crowded with them ; they 
are quite active within the gall, exploring its cavities and obtain- 
ing their nourishment through its walls ; they finally issue from a 
slit on the lower surface of the leaf, which opens for their exit 
about the time they become fledged." This brood has not been 
found to produce galls. 

At Magnolia, I have found the " bead-like poplar gall" quite 
abundant on leaves of the Balm-of-Gilead poplar. They form a 
5 



6$ MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

series of swellings as large as small beans, along the edges of the 
leaf. A large hemispherical gall at the base of each leaf, is some- 
times quite abundant ; I have often found them torn open, and 
empty. Probably this may have been done by birds to get at the 
lice, or by squirrels, as the red squirrel has been seen to feed upon 
lice in a leaf-stalk gall of the poplar. 

Our Norway spruces suffer from the attacks of an aphis, the 
fresh galls of which, green or rosy, and not unlike small cones, 
appear towards the end of May. They open with little mouths, 
to let the green flies escape, and in winter the woody, dead galls 
may be found. In all, I have found about twelve species of aphis 
galls, five or six of which, made by Phylloxera, were upon the 
hickory. 

A few galls are made by little moths, which resemble the 
destructive little creatures that injure our clothing. One of the 
commonest of these moth galls is to be found upon the stalks of 
golden-rod, but at this season they are empty, the moths having 
come out in the fall. 

I have also found a gall, said to be made by a moth larva, 
upon the leaf stalks of Populus grandidentata near the Mount 
Hope railroad station. This gall, which is the size and shape of 
a small pea, is very common on aspens at Magnolia, and the larvae 
go underground about the first of October to transform. I have 
not yet succeeded in rearing them. 

A few galls are made b} 7 beetles. One species causes the 
grape vine wound gall, and another the raspberry gouty gall. 
This latter has been found in Dedham. 

Small galls are produced on the leaves of many plants by mites 
(Phytopi), — microscopic creatures allied to spiders. Their galls 
differ from insect galls in having an opening below, which is fre- 
quently lined with hairs. The irritation caused by the gall mites 
in feeding upon one spot on the leaf, causes there an abnormal 
multiplication of the leaf-cells, and an arching up of the leaf 
surface, which in some species is produced into a roundish, and in 
others into a spindle-shaped gall. 

Some of these mites never produce galls, but their pasturing 
upon the leaves causes an abnormal growth of hairs, called 
Erineum. The insects live and breed in this growth, as they do 
in the galls. I have found about seven species of galls produced 
by mites, and many kinds of Erineum. 



GALLS FOUND NEAR BOSTON. 67 

I wish particularly to call attention to a certain point in the 
history of our oak gall insects which offers a wide field for inves- 
tigation and discovery. 

When Dr. Adler was pursuing his investigations with regard to 
the growth of galls of Cynipidse, he made the startling discovery 
that the insect which came from a gall did not resemble the one 
that made the gall, and the gall that it made did not resemble the 
gall that it came from. That is, each gall instct resembled its 
grandparents and not its parents, and the gall that it produced 
resembled those produced by its grandparents. So unlike was 
the gall-fly to its parent, that they had been described as belong- 
ing to different genera. He thus reduced thirty-eight species to 
nineteen, and found only four species where this alternation of 
forms did not occur. Male and female gall-flies will occur in one 
brood, while in the succeeding brood females only are to be found. 

There is no reason why the oak galls of this country should not 
show similar phenomena, and indeed this has been found the case 
with certain species observed by Mr. Bassett. One afternoon in 
1864, visiting a thicket of shrub-oaks (Quercus ilicifolia), Mr. 
Bassett found hundreds of the gall flies which come from the 
woolly " operator" galls of the same plant, ovipositing between 
the cups of the young acorn and the little acorns themselves, and 
later in the season, he found that the galls which were produced 
resembled seeds or kernels of corn, projecting somewhat from the 
cup. Mr. Bassett has also discovered an alternation of forms in 
the galls of Cynips noxiosa, on Quercus bicolor, which form large, 
woody, terminal or sub-terminal swellings on the twi^s of this oak. 
These galls develop in summer, and the insects, which are all 
females, live in the galls over winter, coming out before the leaves 
appear in the spring ; when the leaves appear a gall grows on 
them, which is an enormous development of the midrib of the leaf, 
often to the extent of an inch in diameter, and an inch and a half 
in length. The gall-flies come out about the 20th of June ; long 
observation has convinced Mr. Bassett that the insects which 
come from one of these galls produce the other gall. 

In the last number of " Psyche," Mr. Bassett describes a recent 
discovery which he has made : 

44 One of our most common gall insects here in Connecticut is 
Callirhytis futilis, O.-S. The galls appear in early summer in 
great numbers on the leaves of Quercus alba; they are in the 



68 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL 80CIETY. 

form of conical blotches, projecting from both surfaces of the leaf, 
but are more prominent on the upper surface, and are about one- 
fourth of an inch in diameter. Each gall produces three or four 
small gall-flies which emerge about the first of July, and soon 
disappear ; where they went to, nobody knew or seemed to know, 
till I found out their secret last spring. Before the leaves 
appeared, I visited a thicket of young oaks, where I had found 
these galls very abundant in past years, hoping to find their 
progenitor, whoever she might be, ovipositing in the buds of these 
oaks, — but I was too early; she had not begun her work. But 
where was she napping at the time? The question was not by 
any means a new one to me. The soft, sandy loam at the roots 
of a clump of oak bushes yielded to my fingers, and I soon had 
one of the main roots laid bare. Judge of the joyful surprise it 
gave me to find the bark of this root a solid mass of blister-like 
swellings." 

In these swellings Mr. Bassett found minute larvae, and others 
evidently a year older than the first ones, but not old enough to 
produce the gall-flies, and yet on putting the roots in sand under 
glass, in a few days he reared perfect gall-flies, identical with 
those he saw ovipositing on the low, white oak bushes, and, mark- 
ing the trees and twigs, he found that when the leaves were fully 
grown, they bore futilis galls in abundance, but no other species. 
So the connection between the root galls and the futilis leaf. galls 
was proved. 

Mr. Bassett's discoveries are the result of observations ,made 
in the field, but those of Dr. Adler were from experiments on 
young oak trees grown in pots. Each pot bore its number, and 
each pot served for the researches on a single species. After 
gall-flies had been brought to the trees, they were guarded until 
they began to sting the buds ; in order that they should not 
escape, or another gall-fly lay on the same tree, a cover was 
placed over them ; at first Dr. Adler used glass receptacles, but 
he was incommoded by the moisture which gathered on the glass, 
and hindered observation of the gall-fly, and then he used covers 
that were partly glass and partly gauze. The four to six year old 
trees suited him best, and only those which had well-developed 
buds were available. But of course these little oaks cannot serve 
for experiments on species which only lay their eggs in blossom 
buds ; these must be observed with all possible care in the open 



GALLS FOUND NEAR BOSTON. 69 

air. It was in 1877 that Dr. Adler published the results of his 
experiments. 

I have myself endeavored to experiment on little trees of 
Quercus alba, Quercus bicolor, and Quercus rubra, given me by 
Mr. Dawson. I placed galls, whose flies were just ready to 
escape, about the trees, and covered each tree with muslin, and 
put them by an open window, where they could have fresh air, 
and where I could watch them easily ; but the little flies sat 
quietly upon the muslin, and did not appear to take the slightest 
interest in the oak trees. Finally they all died or disappeared, 
and no galls were ever produced upon the little trees. This may 
have been because the leaf buds were not in exactly the right 
condition, because they wanted blossom buds, or for some other 
mysterious reason. 

Mr. Bassett says that where an oak tree or shrub abounds with 
any given species, we may be sure that the other form also breeds 
there, either on root, trunk, limb, or in bud, leaf, flower, or fruit, 
and with this certainty established we ought to be able to find 
them in every case. 

These discoveries have a practical bearing. Should any galls 
occur in such numbers as to be injurious to our oak trees, we can 
fight them much better if we are acquainted with them in both 
their forms than if we can only attack them in one. 

To those who wish to pursue the subject, Miss Clarke recom- 
mended the account of Dr. Adler's discoveries from which she had 
quoted. Its title is " Ueber die Generationswechsel der Eichen- 
gal-Wespen." It appeared in the " Zeichschrif t fur wissenschaft- 
liche Zoologie," Feb. 7, 1881. Also the article by Charles V. 
Riley, in "Johnson's Encyclopaedia, " on "Galls and Gall 
Insects;" "Galls and their Architects," by Benjamin D. Walsh 
in the "American Entomologist," Vols. 1 and 2, 1868, 1870, and 
various other articles by Walsh, Riley, Osten-Sacken, Fitch, and 
Bassett. 

The lecture was illustrated by specimens and photographs of 
many varieties of galls, and the large audience paid most inter- 
ested attention to all. At the close of the reading, a vote of 
thanks to the essayist was unanimously passed. 



70 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Discussion. 

Mrs. H. L. T. Wolcott expressed a strong interest in the 
subject of the essay and added that she was so fortunate as to 
have seen the raspberry gall which, as yet, Miss Clarke had not 
seen. Owing to the fact that her little granddaughter was much 
frightened upon her first acquaintance with insects, Mrs. Wolcott 
strove to overcome that fear by interesting the child in the curious 
nature and habits of that class of animals, telling her little stories 
about them. She taught the little one that galls were the homes 
of insects. The young eyes were quick to discover them and then 
would be heard the cry, " There's a bug's house." In her efforts 
to instruct this child, Mrs. Wolcott found a lively interest in insect 
life developed in herself. She spoke of the seeming trustfulness 
manifested, when the insect has laid its eggs, by leaving them 
to fate, as if imbued with faith that the Power which made it, 
would take care of its progeny. She thought the next step in 
the study of galls must be to find out whether the work of these 
insects is injurious to the farmer or gardener, and, if so, to learn 
how to prevent their depredations. It is the province of scholars 
to discover the habits of the insects causing the galls, but it is left 
for the scientific farmer — the intelligent tiller of the soil — to 
prevent or counteract the mischief they may cause. 

Mrs. Edna D. Cheney said that she attended the school of the 
late William B. Fowle, until she was thirteen years old. She 
remembered with much interest the object-lessons in natural 
history, which, anticipating so-called modern methods, he was 
accustomed to give to his pupils. On one occasion he exhibited 
some oak-apples, as the swellings on the leaves were called, and 
hazarded the suggestion that they were caused by insects. The 
great progress made since that time in the knowledge of insect 
life and habits, through systematic study of this science, is shown 
by the paper read here today. It shows how much can be done 
by steadily pursuing the studj r of one special subject. The fasci- 
nating interest inspired, by the pursuit, is one of the delights of 
the study of any branch of natural history. 

O. B. Hadwen, Chairman of the Committee on Publication and 
Discussion, announced for the next Saturday, a paper on " Chrys- 
anthemums," by W. A. Manda, Short Hills, N. J. 



CHRYSANTHEMUMS. 71 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, February 8, 1890. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at half past 
eleven o'clock, the President, William H. Spooner in the Chair. 

E. W. Wood presented the following vote : — 

Voted, That the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, recogniz- 
ing the danger threatening the agricultural interests of the State 
by the sudden appearance, in the town of Medford, of a danger- 
ous insect pest, petition the Legislature, in support of the citizens 
of Medford and adjacent towns, for State aid in stamping it out. 

The vote was unanimously adopted and signed by many 
members of the Society to be presented to the Legislature as a 
petition. 

Adjourned to Saturday, February 15, 1890, at half past eleven 
o'clock. 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 
Chrysanthemums . 

By W. A. Manda, Short Hills, N. J. 

[Mr. Manda being unable to be present, bis essay was read by the Secretary, as 
.follows :] 

These deservedly popular plants have been brought to such a 
state of perfection that in their season they command the sole 
attention of the flower-loving public, when grand exhibitions are 
given where these plants are the chief or, indeed, the only attrac- 
tion. 

Many prominent horticulturists have devoted their whole lives 
to the improvement of this Queen of Autumn in this country as 
well as in Europe, without speaking of its native home, Japan, 
where it is most carefully cultivated and esteemed as a national 
flower and Japanese emblem. 

The history of Chrysanthemums dates back many years, the 
centennial anniversary of its introduction to Europe, having been 
celebrated there last year ; but long before that time it was 
cultivated in Japan. 






72 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY . 

The genus Chrysanthemum comprises nearly one hundred 
species. The one from which all the present varieties have been 
derived is supposed to be the Chrysanthemum Indicum, a rather 
inconspicuous, single, yellow flower. Through the zeal of indefat- 
igable horticulturists, this flower has by degrees attained almost 
the zenith of perfection. 

The Chrysanthemums at present in cultivation are divided into 
several classes, namely, the Chinese, Japanese, Anemone and 
Pompons. Each class is again subdivided into several others ; 
thus we have the Chinese Incurved, Chinese Reflexed, the Japa- 
nese Incurved and Reflexed, Japanese Anemone, Pompon 
Anemone, and so on. Lately the hybrid varieties produced by 
intercrossing different types have brought forms that are hard to 
class in any particular group. The aim of the raiser nowadays is 
to produce large flowering varieties ; the substance, color, stem, 
and habit of the plant seem to be secondary considerations. It is 
especially noticeable that while hundreds upon hundreds of new 
Japanese varieties have been raised every year, very few of the 
Chinese class have been added, while the Pompons are discarded 
and rarely seen. 

When hybridizing, the principal object should be to improve 
upon the vigor and color of present varieties rather than the mere 
size. A first class chrysanthemum should be of free growth with 
stiff stems ; the foliage clean and furnishing the stems up to the 
flower, while the flower itself should be of a good substance, well 
formed and of a pleasing color. The colors that are yet to be 
obtained, — aside from the impossible blue, which I never expect to 
see, — are a fine, clear orange and a clear, bright red, two colors 
that are needed to brighten up our collections. 

A great number of the leading varieties of chrysanthemums 
have been from time to time imported from Japan, and when the 
hairy variety, Mrs. Alpheus Hardy, made its appearance, it raised 
a sensation amongst chrysanthemum lovers I and we hope that 
this variety may be a parent of quite a distinct class, although the 
seedlings raised from it have not yet produced any that were 
furnished with the glandular hairs which give to it its peculiar 
beauty. ( The majority of the chrysanthemums at present in culti- 
vation have been raised in Europe and, of late years, in America. 
Our country has begun late, but it has made up for the time lost, 
and at present the most valuable and esteemed varieties grown 



CHRYSANTHEMUMS . 7 & 

are American raised kinds. The pioneers in this field were Dr. 
Walcott, John Thorpe, W. K. Harris, and Arthur H. Fewkes, 
and lately there are quite a number of amateurs and florists who 
are raising new varieties every year. 

A new variety should never be judged with any definiteness 
the first year, and should be generally grown two seasons before 
it can be considered well tested. Thus some of the most promis- 
ing varieties have proved total failures the second year, while on 
the other hand, many that have been condemned the first year 
have proved valuable acquisitions when tried another season. 

The hybridizing or cross fertilizing of chrysanthemums is a 
very uncertain work as regards results, owing to the mass of 
florets which are gathered in one single head. It is very hard to 
tell whether a floret has been fertilized with its own pollen, or 
cross fertilized with the pollen of another variety of the same 
class but different color through the agency of insects, especially 
bees, before the hand of the horticulturist has tried his own work 
on it ; and it is for that reason that no raiser of chrysanthemums 
can say with any degree of certainty that any variety is a cross 
between such and such varieties, except when kept separate from 
all other varieties of the collection . 

In regard to the results it is also very misleading ; the colors of 
the supposed parents are sometimes never reproduced and if you 
raise as many as fifty seedlings from the same head of flower, you 
may get all other colors, but none like the two parents. 

In point of vigor of growth, chrysanthemums vary considerably 
in the various sections of the country as well as in different sea- 
sons. Thus many of the varieties cultivated in England for 
exhibition cannot be grown here with any success, and vice versa ; 
while last year being exceptionally wet none of the chrysanthe- 
mums planted out of doors did as well as usual. As to the 
various sections of this country, we find that the finest chrysan- 
themums in America are grown in and around Philadelphia. 

Some varieties also require different treatment from others ; 
Mrs. Alpheus Hardy, Crimson King, Belle Paule, and others, are 
very partial to excessive moisture. The same applies to pinching ; 
some varieties, such as Grandiflora and others, if pinched late will 
not produce any flowers at all. 

The culture of chrysanthemums is very simple when the cardinal 
points are well observed, namely, selecting strong, soft shoots for 
cuttings, and, as soon as they are rooted, never allowing them to 



74 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

suffer from want of either root room or water, and after the buds 
are set to encourage with liquid manure. After the plants have 
done flowering they should be cut down to about a foot from the 
ground and put in the cool house or a well- ventilated frame. 

In January the offshoots from below the ground, and also from 
the stems or branches, will be from four to six inches long, when 
they should be cut and planted in sand, either in pots, boxes, or 
the propagating bench ; a south aspect, and temperature not above 
55° by artificial heat, are very essential. As soon as the cuttings 
have rooted, they should be potted into two inch pots ; from these 
they should be repotted in three weeks into three or four inch pots, 
and again, when well rooted, into five or six inch pots, by which 
time the first pinching takes place. When the plants are well 
established in the five or six inch pots, they should be planted in 
their final quarters ; if in pots, those of from ten to twelve inches 
are large enough to grow the best plants ; if in benches or boxes, 
four inches of depth will suffice for the roots. Then comes the 
fixing of the plant to a neat stake, and tying it firmly ; meanwhile, 
pinching and pruning should not be neglected. The last pinching 
is done at the end of July, and the ground shoots are not allowed 
to grow, in order that the whole strength should go into the main 
stem. When the buds are well set, liquid manure should be 
freely given, and attention should be paid to the disbudding, as 
by leaving one bud to each twig you will have finer flowers than if 
all were allowed to remain, and the plants will also look better 
with fifty perfect blooms than with a hundred imperfect ones. 
Where large specimen flowers are desired, not more than from 
four to six flowers should be left on each plant, that this very 
limited number may have the benefit of the whole vigor of the 
plant. When standard plants are desired the best way is to 
secure a strong shoot early in January, and leave it growing, 
without stopping, until it reaches the required height, when it 
should be pinched and treated in the same way as a bush plant. 
Planting out, and potting in August, may be practical, yet plants 
will suffer more or less by being lifted. 

The place where chiysanthemums are grown should have all the 
light, air, and sun from the time the cuttings are rooted until the 
cuttings are again ready to be taken. The soil that these plants 
seem to prefer is good turfy loam, well mixed with clay, and 
enriched by ground bone, sheep manure, or other manure or 
fertilizer. 



CHRYSANTHEMUMS. 75 

Looking over the thousands of varieties named in catalogues, 
we find that a great many are not grown at all, while others could 
be dispensed with, and only those possessing the best qualities 
and distinctness of character should be kept. Among the best 
old sorts we may count : 

Alfred Salter, lilac pink. 

Brazen Shield, bronze color. 

Bronze Queen of England, bronzy yellow. 

Frank Wilcox, golden amber. 

Golden Queen of England, yellow. 

Helen of Troy, deep rose. 

Hero of Stoke Newington, pink. 

Jardin des Plantes, golden yellow. 

Jeanne d'Arc, blush white. 

Lord Wolseley, bronze red. 

Miss Mary Morgan, pink. 

Prince Alfred, rose carmine. 

Venus, pink. 

Virginalis, white. 

All the above are incurved. 

Among the multitude of Japanese varieties, those found to give 
the best results are : 

Admiration, lilac. 

Bend d'or, golden yellow. 

Bras Rouge, dark crimson. 

Ceres, white. 

Comte de Germiny, nankeen yellow. 

Duchess, deep red. 

Edward Audiguier, crimson maroon. 

Edwin Molyneux, rich chestnut crimson, golden reverse. 

Elaine, white. 

Fantaska, coppery maroon. 

Gloriosum, yellow. 

Grandiflorum, yellow. 

Joseph Collins, coppery bronze. 

John Thorpe, deep lake. 

Marvel, white, shaded. 

Mr. Henry Cannell, deep yellow. 

Mrs. H. Waterer, white. 



76 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 

Mrs. F. Thompson, white purple. 

Mrs. George Bullock, white. 

Newport, rose. 

Pelican, white. 

Peter the Great, lemon yellow. 

Robert Bottomly, white. 

Robert Craig, pink. 

Sadie Martinot, yellow. 

Stars and Stripes, carmine. 

Superbe Flore, carmine rose. 

Thomas S. Ware, rose. 

Val d'Andorre, coppery bronze. 

Wick Fils, deep red. 

The reflexed chrysanthemums are not so numerous but contain* 
such varieties as : 

Cullingfordii, brilliant crimson. 
Golden Christine, light yellow. 
Phoebus, yellow. 
President Hyde, rich yellow. 
Sam Sloan, pale blush. 

As the best Anemones, we may class : 

Bessie Pitcher, deep rose. 
Madame Cabrol, white. 
Princess, delicate lilac. 
Thorpe, Jr., rich pure yellow. 

Those of late years' introduction, that have proved superior to 
the already long list are : 

Adirondack, white. 
Advance, pink. 
Alaska, pearly white. 
Avalanche, white. 
Belle Hickey, white. 
Belle Poitevine, white. 
Capucine, vermilion. 
Colossal, pearly white. 
Edwin H. Fitler, yellow. 
Excellent, rose. 



CHRYSANTHEMUMS. 77 

Kioto, yellow. 

La Fortune, yellow. 

L. B. Dana, red. 

L. Canning, white. 

Lillian B. Bird, shrimp pink. 

Mme. Louise LeRoy, white. 

Magicienne, chamois color. 

Miss Mary Wheeler, pearly white. 

Miss W. K. Harris, yellow. 

Monadnock, yellow. 

Mrs. Alpheus Hardy, white. 

Mrs. DeWitt Smith, white. 

Mrs. Fottler, soft rose. 

Mrs. Irving Clark, pearly white. 

Mrs. Sam Houston, white. 

Narragansett, white. 

Neesima, yellow. 

Philippe Lacroix, rose. 

Ramona, yellow. 

Snowball, white. 

Sunnyside, flesh color. 

Violet Rose, rose. 

William H. Lincoln, yellow. 

Of the new ones which are to be sent out this spring, those 
which are the most promising are : 

Ada Spaulding, light pink. 

Bohemia, Venetian red. 

Cortez, red. 

Crown Prince, red. 

Cyclone, creamy white. 

Harry E. Widener, lemon yellow. 

Huron, mauve. 

Iroquois, magenta red. 

Kearsarge, light mauve. 

Mrs. Hicks Arnold, soft rose pink. 

Mrs. Thomas A. Edison, delicate rose pink. 

President Harrison, bright red. 

Shasta, white. 

Tacoma, creamy white. 



78 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

As for new Japanese varieties, of last year's importation, they 
are not numerous. Some of the best are : 

Arizona, yellew. 

Elliot F. Shepard, broad, clear yellow petals. 

Ithaca, rose. 

Raleigh, buff color. 

Rohallion, stiff chrome yellow. 

From a commercial point of view, chrysanthemums play quite 
an important part in the nursery and florist's business. Millions 
of plants are sold every spring from the numerous nurseries 
through the country, while in the flowering season chrysanthemums 
are the principal flowers used by the florists. Some maintain that 
chrysanthemums injure the florist's trade or that they are not 
profitable to grow for cut flowers. Yet I have always seen good 
flowers bring good prices, and nowadays in this as in everything 
else only the best are wanted, and bring good prices, while the 
poor stuff cannot be given away. 

In naming chrysanthemums the reform begun by Dr. Walcott 
should be followed ;- that is, the names should be as short as 
possible, and certainly such names as Alaska, Shasta, and Cortez 
are far preferable to such as our English or French competitors 
affix to their novelties. For example, Bronze Queen of England, 
Hero of Stoke Newington, Monsieur Le Compte de Foucher de 
Cariel. By all means give us names that can be written on one 
label. 

As to Chrysanthemum Exhibitions, while the various societies 
and clubs offer fair prizes for either plants or cut flowers, there is yet 
but very small inducement for the raising of new varieties, whieh 
branch should be encouraged more than anything else, so that 
before long we may see our ideal chrysanthemum, combining all 
good qualities necessary to make a perfect plant and flower. 

Discussion. 

In the discussion which followed the reading of Mr. Manda's 
paper, E. W. Wood was first called on as one of the largest 
chrysanthemum growers. He said that the paper was a practical 
one, and that little had been learned on the subject since our last 
discussion. Growing chrysanthemums is a very easy matter. If 
large plants are wanted for exhibition, the grower should begin ear- 
lier than if he intends to raise smaller plants for house decoration. 



CHRYSANTHEMUMS. 79 

« 

For the former he should begin planting his cuttings in December, 
and he may continue until April. It is difficult to keep foliage on 
the lower part of early plants, and they do not come up to the 
ideals of the awarding committees. Plants raised from cuttings 
taken off and planted in March, and at the proper time transferred 
to the open ground, make vigorous plants. It is not a difficult 
matter to take up the plants ; the speaker likes to have the ground 
dry, so that all the earth can be shaken from the roots, and the 
suckers among them can be removed, which should be done care- 
fully and thoroughly. Pinching is generally desirable, but some 
varieties make perfect plants without ; Mr. Astie is one of these ; 
the speaker had never nipped one. It is a free-flowering variety. 
He stops pinching about the 25th of July. 

The market is flooded with new varieties, which are very easily 
raised, though formerly it was thought impossible to do it here. 
Mr. Wood had a plant of Citronella, one of the pompon class, 
which was placed in the store of a druggist, who watered it for 
two weeks, until the flowers dried up, when he ceased watering. 
Watering was afterwards resumed, but the roots of the plant were 
dead. The seed ripened and fell to the surface of the earth in the 
pot and grew there, so that one hundred seedlings were potted 
from it, and this was only a quarter part of the whole number. 
If plants are hybridized while in bloom and then put in a dry 
place they will ripen plenty of seed. If the seed is sown in 
January the seedling plants will afford good cuttings in March, 
from which plants can be grown to flower well in November. 
You must grow a hundred seedlings to get one that you would 
want to grow a second year. Mrs. Wheeler forms a handsome 
plant and has fine flowers, but is very difficult to grow. Mrs. 
Alpheus Hardy is also difficult to grow. 

Joseph H. Woodford spoke of a gardener who took cuttings 
the last of May, which he stuck six inches apart all over the sur- 
face of a spent hot-bed. The cuttings all rooted, and at the 
approach of frost boards were added to the frame of the bed and 
sash placed thereon. The plants were quite vigorous, and each 
produced one or two blooms of splendid size and quality — in fact, 
the best flowers of all his plants. 

Joseph Clark agreed with Mr. Wood that it is important to 
have the soil dry when the plants are taken up, so that the soil 
can be shaken out and the white suckers removed. 



80 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The Chairman of the Committee on Publication and Discussion 
announced for the next Saturday, a paper on u Cemeteries and 
Parks," by John G. Barker, Superintendent of Forest Hills Ceme- 
tery, Jamaica Plain. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 



Saturday, February 15, 1890. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at half past 
eleven o'clock, the President, William H. Spooner, in the chair. 

The following vote was presented by Francis H. Appleton : 
Voted, That this Society extend to each incorporated Agricul- 
tural, and Horticultural Society of Massachusetts, having a 
delegate in the State Board of Agriculture, an invitation to 
appoint one of its members, who shall have the free use of this 
Library and Room (no book to be taken from the room) during 
the year 1890, for the purpose of preparing Essays for delivery at 
Institutes of their own or other societies. The said members to 
be appointed by the President and Secretary of their respective 
societies. 

The vote was unanimously adopted. 

Joseph H. Woodford moved that a committee of three be 
appointed by the Chair to nominate candidates for a Committee 
on Window Gardening for the year 1890. The motion was 
carried, and the Chair appointed as that Committee, Mr. Wood- 
ford, John G. Barker, and Robert T. Jackson. 

Adjourned to Saturday, February 22, 1890, at half past eleven 
o'clock. 



CEMETERIES AND PARKS. 81 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 
Cemeteries ajstd Parks. 

By John G. Baeker, Superintendent of Forest Hills Cemetery, Jamaica Plain. 

Either one of these topics weuld suggest more than enough to 
take up the allotted time for one of these discussions. I hardly 
know what is expected of me ; perhaps this wide range was given 
me so that I could go where I please for information, and bring 
you such facts as my own experience and correspondence might 
suggest, so I will make some observations noted during my vaca- 
tion the basis of what I have to say. I cannot resist the tempta- 
tion to give you a little account of my first visit on this excursion, 
although it was not to a cemetery or a park. 

After several weeks of careful planning that everything should 
go on uninterruptedly and successfully, and with anticipations of 
a pleasant and profitable rest from accustomed labors for a brief 
period, on the afternoon of September 10 1 met a genial friend at 
the Boston and Albany Railroad station, in whose company the trip 
was made. In a few brief hours we were two hundred miles from 
home, and the next morning in good season we called at the 
nursery of an old and much respected friend — an enthusiast in the 
strongest sense of the term, from his boyhood to the present day, 
in regard to everything that is beautiful in nature and art — one 
who can tell you more than any other man of whom I know, about 
all that is g#od in both old and new foliage and flowering plants, 
and who has kept the run of all the changes in taste and style of 
planting and bedding out and landscape art. Indeed, nothing in 
horticulture has escaped his scrutiny and criticism, and he never 
was carried away with any new thing that came along merely 
because it was new, although always recognizing the good in the 
new. His standard has always been high, and he has felt a com- 
mendable pride in trying to elevate his profession. Today his 
collection of plants is a very choice one, and many fine specimens 
of rare and choice species and varieties are to be seen as evidences 
of his skill and ability. His catalogues are most carefully com- 
piled, and I believe that not a tree, shrub, or plant is named in 
them but has some merit or value. 
6 



82 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

At the age of seven years he had a little money, which he spent 
for a few Cacti, his acquaintance with them thus covering a 
period of seventy-four years, and now his collection of these 
plants is one of the best to be found. In answer to the question r 
Out of all that you have which are called for the most? he replied, 
Cereus glaucus (a plant of which he has owned forty years),. 
Opuntia pulvina or microdasys, and Opuntia tunicata var. ferox 
variegata. Strolling through the grounds, we find many of the 
new and rare Japan evergreens, the choicest of herbaceous plants, 
as well as trees and shrubs, among which is one of the best trained 
specimens of Salisburia adiantifolia we have ever seen. This ele- 
gant tree is at least twenty feet high and eight feet in diameter. 
Do you wonder that we were charmed b}^ the enthusiasm of this 
truly wonderful gentleman, whom, if you have not already made 
up your mind who he is, I will introduce to 3'ou as Louis Menand 
of Albany, eighty-two years old, but old in years only — young in 
mind, and his activity unabated. Many will doubtless remember 
the fine collection of rare plants which he brought two hundred 
miles to our Annual Exhibition in 1874. May his manly quali- 
ties and true love for one of the noblest arts be imitated by us all !' 

Albany Rural Cemetery. A short walk from Mr. Menand's 
brought us to this cemetery, Which was incorporated in 1841 and 
consecrated in 1844. It now comprises three hundred acres, about 
two hundred of which is laid out in drives, and one hundred and 
fifty acres is either occupied or laid out in lots. 

The varied surface of hill and dale is very striking. The beau- 
tiful natural ravines are so charming that it would seem as if 
nature had here done her very best to provide a fitting place for 
this rural cemetery. The long winding drives, showing a vista 
here and a more extended view there, make the whole area truly 
delightful. In passing around the cemetery we were shown the 
last resting places of President Arthur, Erastus Corning, Daniel 
Manning, and many other persons prominent in political and 
mercantile life. 

This corporation does not insist on the perpetual care of lots, 
but leaves it optional with the lot owners to provide for such care 
by the deposit of such amounts of money as may be agreed upon 
with the association. These amounts are determined by the size 
and character of the lots. The system adopted provides that the 
income of the sum agreed upon shall be used in keeping the lot in 



CEMETERIES AND PARKS. 83 

good order by cutting the grass, making or keeping up mounds, 
filling up depressions, fertilizing the soil as often as is necessary, 
and cleaning monuments. 

Oakwood Cemetery, Troy, N. Y. We give you as the most 
accurate and best description of this superbly located cemetery 
the following account taken from the 4 ' Troy Daily Times " of 
November 7, 1889 : 

" The cemetery stands at the summit of an abrupt line of hills 
overlooking the Hudson, and the view takes in a range of distant 
hills and mountains of nearly one hundred miles in extent. With 
the purchases of recent years there is a length of the home-hills 
of a mile and a half which the cemetery now covers. At all the 
bends in the course of its western hilly outline there are stretches 
either of new landscape or of different views of spots that are 
enchanting. 

The territory of Oakwood cemetery is partly in Troy and partly 
in Lansingburgh. The Earl chapel stands in Lansingburgh, but 
the dividing line is just south of the building. Although lying 
within the limits of two corporations, Oakwood is a corporation of 
itself and independent of the others. It is truly a city of the 
dead, respectable for the number of its inhabitants, which has 
reached nearly ten thousand. 

It is no easy task to lay out a cemetery so that while it shall 
have a park-like effect it shall also conform to the purposes of 
burial, but it is generally conceded that Superintendent Boetcher 
has been eminently successful in this direction. About five years 
ago the trustees decided to make the western entrance not only 
useful by locating its offices there, but attractive as well to the 
many to whom that ingress is most convenient. With this end in 
view property west of the Fitchburg railroad bridge was purchased 
and enclosed, and will always be reserved for ornamental purposes. 
The shrubs and trees planted on this section have made progress, 
and in a few years will, with the beautiful lawns, add much to the 
attractiveness of the surrounding property. The ground enclosed 
at the western entrance is two hundred and fifty-six feet wide by 
more than seven hundred feet in length. 

The offices of the company are in a fine brick building with 
stone trimmings, at the western or Cemetery avenue entrance. 
The gates to this entrance are handsome granite monuments, so 
designed that they will some day serve the purpose of pedestals, 



84 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

for two ideal statues, suitable for such a place. Their fitness is 
beyond question, and it seems a pity that some one or two worthy 
citizens who have love for the cemetery as well as for some 
departed friend have not been impressed with the suitability of 
these gates for memorials. 

The grounds in recent years have been rendered interesting to 
horticulturists by the introduction of rare shrubs and plants, 
which, scattered over the extended territory, meet the eye at ever} 7 
turn and serve to educate the visitors in the advances made in the 
production of new hybrids as well as in the introduction of new 
plants from all temperate parts of the globe. The umbrella tree 
from Japan, the blue spruce from Colorado, and many other ever- 
greens quite new and rare, deciduous trees and shrubs of curiously 
cut foliage, with varied colors even during their period of growth, 
and herbaceous plants with a luxuriance of bloom that would keep 
pace with even the tropical regions, attract many people educated 
in such matters. 

The roads, which in the newer portion have been laid out of 
ample width, are macadamized, as well as the more restricted 
thoroughfares in the older part, the presence of rock in abundance 
enabling the work to be done at a comparatively small cost. The 
large amount of pleasure driving in the grounds attests the excel- 
lence of the roads. 

Oakwood has a reputation for being well kept, second to none. 
As to the neglected condition of many lots in prominent positions, 
the fact should be stated that nearly all of these lots are owned by 
persons abundantly able to pay for their care, but they have neg- 
lected to do so. September 1, 1873, a system of perpetual care 
for lots was inaugurated, and since that time no lots have been sold 
without this provision. This system is being generally copied 
throughout the country, and frequent applications are made at the 
Oakwood cemetery office for duplicates of the certificates and 
books of entry used by the association. 

The original purchase for Oakwood cemetery included one hun- 
dred and fifty acres. The grounds have been enlarged by more 
recent purchases to double the original size. Should the sale of 
lots continue at the ratio of the past twenty years, the next two 
decades will see the available land within the bounds of the ceme- 
tery occupied. Thousands of memorial stones attest Death's 
industry, and elaborate and stately monuments on every hand 



CEMETERIES AND PARKS. 85 

indicate the lavish use of means to decorate the beautiful city of 
the dead. It has been remarked by visiting superintendents of 
other cemeteries that the number of important memorial erections 
in Oakwood exceeds that of any other cemetery in the country in 
proportion to its size. Nature has been so lavish in its adornment 
and so much skill has been employed in landscape gardening that 
praise cannot fail to be sincere along these lines." 

This account of Oakwood is by no means too strongly drawn. 
There are several lakes in different parts of the grounds, adding 
to the attractiveness and interest of the place, while the planting 
of the shrubs and herbaceous plants is in excellent taste. The 
rearrangement of the old or early occupied part of the cemetery, 
by the removal of iron fences and hedges ; sodding up useless 
walks ; removal of overgrown trees and shrubs and planting anew, 
has made it nearly as attractive as the newer part. Superintendent 
Boetcher, who has charge of Oakwood, was formerly with Adolph 
Strauch, at Cincinnati. 

Forest Hill Cemetery, Utica, N. Y. We were very much 
interested in visiting this cemetery, for here we received our first 
instruction in cemetery duties. Our particular interest naturally 
centred in that part of the grounds where many, well known to 
us in the walks of life, now repose, their monuments and tablets 
informing us that they have passed from earthly scenes. The 
extent of the grounds owned by the association is two hundred 
and fifty acres, of which one hundred and ten acres are improved 
and occupied. The situation cannot be excelled ; one of the best 
outlooks for pleasing views is here obtained, commanding the city 
and surrounding country, with its great wealth of natural beauty. 
From many elevated points the distant views are very fine, show- 
ing the magnificent valleys and the hills beyond. The outlook in 
every direction is very interesting, and on a clear day nothing more 
beautiful than the views from Forest Hill can be conceived. 

Many people visiting the cemetery have noticed a peculiar 
granite boulder, on a little mound, near the entrance, and have 
wondered what it was and why it was there. This is the famous 
Oneida Stone which was held in great reverence by the Oneida 
Indians. It was fabled to have fallen from heaven as a special 
gift of the Manitou to their tribe. Their councils of war were 
held around it, as it was supposed to bring them success against 
their enemies. When the tribe fell under the rule of the white 



86 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

man the stone mysteriously disappeared and all trace of it was 
lost. It was afterward found on the top of a hill at Stockbridge, 
N. Y., and placed in Forest Hill Cemetery. Among the many 
rich and beautiful memorials that fill the cemetery there is none 
more appropriate than this monument to the ancient people of 
Central New York, the Oneida Indians. The sacred character of 
the stone was doubtless attributed to it on account of its peculiar 
shape as well as the fact that it is a kind of granite not generally 
found in this part of the State. 

The new part of the grounds is laid out on the landscape-lawn 
plan, with broad avenues and liberal sized sections of lots, which 
are adorned by an unusually large number of fine granite monu- 
ments of superior design and workmanship. The Childs Memorial 
Chapel, situated near the entrance, is church-like in form and 
appearance. The nave only of the chapel is used for burial ser- 
vices ; the aisles contain the tombs, one hundred and forty in 
number. They are built in tiers, are of stone, and open from each 
side of the chapel, but are screened from view by wooden parti- 
tions and doors. The building thus answers the double "purpose 
of chapel and receiving tomb. 

Besides the chapel just mentioned, there is, through the munifi- 
cence of Thomas Hopper, a combined chapel and conservatory. 
The main body of this building is eighty by thirty-six feet, and its 
greatest height is twenty-five feet ; in addition there is on each 
side a "lean-to" or wing, ten feet wide, and thirteen feet high, 
running the length of the main structure ; also a covered porch or 
carriage- wa} 7 . The main portion of the building is arranged for 
holding services, movable seats and other conveniences being 
provided. In the wings on each side, the tropical plants are 
arranged. There are no partitions between the wings and the 
auditorium. I can imagine that to pay the last tribute of respect 
to our dead amid such surroundings is much more comforting 
than to perform this service in a poorly warmed chapel, or in the 
dangerous out-door exposure of a cold climate like that usual in 
Central New York. 

Under the superintendence of Roderick Campbell the grounds 
have been improved and extended, and many flower beds and 
other decorative features were noticeable. An important improve- 
ment, which has been recently made, is the building of a reservoir, 
holding five million gallons of water. Connected with it are a 



CEMETERIES AND PARKS. 87 

series of lakes, one below another, their surfaces dotted with many 
beautiful lilies. Trees and shrubs have been liberally planted to 
beautify the grounds. To supply the demands for plants, etc., 
for decorative purposes, there are three span-roofed greenhouses, 
■each twenty by eighty feet, and three lean-tos, eight by eighty feet. 

We regret that a large cemetery like this should leave it optional 
with the purchasers of lots whether they shall be under perpetual 
<jare or not. The wisdom of connecting that provision with all 
sales needs no discussion. The last resting places of Ex-Gov. 
Seymour and Hon. Roscoe Coukling were pointed out to us. They 
are buried in the same lot, located on a slope commanding a 
beautiful view of the Saquoit and Oriskany valleys. 

Oakwood Cemetery, Syracuse, is delightfully situated in a 
beautiful oak grove, only a short distance from the center of the 
city, and is easily reached by the street cars. Nature has done a 
great deal here — indeed she seems to have been anxious to bestow 
all that she could on this one spot. The almost natural places for 
the drives or avenues are so varied that a charm is before you at 
every turn, and at some points the lovely views are so impressive 
that we should have enjoyed stopping for an indefinite time to take 
them fully in. At the dedication of Oakwood, on the third of 
November, 1859, Hon. E. W. Leavenworth, the President, in his 
address said : " Within its one hundred acres is embraced a com- 
bination of attractions which, if anywhere equalled, are nowhere 
surpassed. Placed most fortunately* not too near the city nor too 
remote from it ; mostly covered with young and thrifty woods of 
the second growth, so abundant as to allow great opportunity for 
selections ; its surface diversified by the most beautiful and varied 
elevations and depressions, presenting views unparalleled in their 
extent and magnificence ; rendered already attractive by natural 
lawns, and the most picturesque scenery — it is all that the highest 
judgment and taste can demand, or the liveliest fancy paint, and 
the careful hand of improvement will, each successive year, develop 
and heighten the charms with which nature has so liberally adorned 
it." This is no overdrawn picture, and it is as true now as then. 

Since that time of course many improvements have been made, 
and others are now in progress. Many elegant monuments and 
one costly mausoleum have been erected, and these adornments 
are not so crowded as to mar the natural beauty of the grounds, 
as in many of our cemeteries. A convenient chapel and receiving 



88 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

tomb, located near the main entrance, was built in 1880. It is a 
very desirable acquisition ; some such arrangement should be found 
in every large and well ordered cemetery. We noticed that some 
thinning out was being done, where the crowded condition of the 
natural growth demanded it, and where necessary the ground was 
regraded at the same time. We were pleased to meet Mr. Chaffee, 
the superintendent, who unfolded to us his plans for the future, 
and manifested a laudable ambition to keep pace with the times by 
carrying them into effect. The contemplated improvements give 
promise that in the near future Oakwood will become a delightful 
resort for strangers as well as proprietors. 

Forest Lawn Cemetery, Buffalo, contains about two hun- 
dred and fifty acres, access to it being furnished by the Main 
street railroad, which terminates opposite the cemetery. The 
cemetery is decidedly park-like in its appearance, being laid out 
on the most liberal scale, with broad avenues and large sections of 
lots. The following extract from the history of Forest Lawn will 
give a good idea of the plan in the minds of the projectors. These 
remarks had special reference to the improvement of the grounds, 
but they are as suggestive of right methods now as when the} 7 were 
first uttered : 

"It will not be denied that in man} r particulars, such as the 
style, kind, and relative position of monuments ; the laying out, 
adornment and character of the boundary lines of lots, and their 
floral and arboreal decoration, individual fancies should be subor- 
dinate to a general plan, and subject to certain rules designed to 
secure harmony and uniformity, and to exclude all such manifest 
violations of good taste as often mar our places of sepulture. 
The trustees feel that it will only be necessary to state this gen- 
eral plan, and to mention a few of the arguments in support of the 
rules which have been established, to secure the assent and hearty 
co-operation of all who feel an interest or ambition in the success 
and prosperity of the enterprise. It was considered of the first 
importance to locate this cemetery where it would enjoy a perma- 
nent seclusion ; where the expenditure of taste and money would 
become a heritage for all coming time ; where the desecrating ten- 
dencies of modern commercial growth should never violate its 
sanctity, nor the encroaching waves of a noisy, restless, city life, 
disturb its repose." 



CEMETERIES AND PARKS. 89 

More than twenty years have passed since these views were 
expressed, and certainty there is today abundant evidence that the 
spot selected fulfils, in a remarkable degree, the conditions named. 
Nature was by no means sparing here in her bestowal of diversi- 
fied beauty. Many a fine native tree is seen, which, having been 
carefully guarded and protected, adds grace and beauty to the 
scenery, and these, with the hills and dales, lakes and streams, give 
to the whole grounds more of a park-like appearance than we have 
observed in any other cemetery. The avenues were so excellent 
that we took pains to ascertain the mode of construction. We 
soon learned that an abundance of the necessary material was 
easily obtained for this purpose ; this, with the superior knowledge 
of the superintendent in its use, accounted for the excellence of 
the avenues, as was shown by a piece of new avenue in process of 
construction. To facilitate this work a Gates stone crusher is 
used, which, set up ready for operation, cost about $2,500, and 
turns out from fifty-five to sixty cubic yards a day, at a cost of 
about fifty cents a yard, delivered in any part of the grounds. In 
my visits to cemeteries I almost always find some one feature that 
is especially commendable, and in Forest Lawn it is the avenues. 

While riding through the grounds we could not help noticing 
what seemed to us a deficiency of shrubs and flowers — not the 
perishable ones that must be renewed each year — but in grounds 
where the plots are laid out on the liberal scale here adopted, the 
attractiveness of the whole is greatly increased by judiciously 
planting groups of hardy flowers and choice evergreens and other 
shrubs. But, under the efficient management of the present 
superintendent, we have no doubt that all deficiencies will be made 
good and Forest Lawn will continue to advance toward the front* 
rank among the cemeteries of America. 

We passed Sunday at Hamilton, Canada. Taking a drive over 
the city we were pleased to see so many neat and cosy cottages, 
with well kept grounds and a garden attached to each. We looked 
through the cemetery, which, although clean, was extremely 
crowded with monuments and iron fences, and showed no signs 
of modern improvements. The next morning we proceeded to 
Detroit, to attend the third annual convention of the Association 
of American Cemeterj 7 Superintendents. This association was 
organized to meet a long felt want. We needed to know more of 
each other ; of the work that we are doing at our respective places, 



90 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

with the various methods adopted in doing it, and we have already 
received great benefit from these meetings. At Detroit we had a 
large representation. Eighteen practical papers on different sub- 
jects pertaining to our work were read and discussed, with much 
profit to all, and especially to such as cannot have the advantages 
enjoyed by those who are located near large cities. This year we 
meet at Boston, at the same time as the Society of American 
Florists, and we expect that much greater advantages will be 
gained from these meetings. At the close ©f the convention we 
were taken on a ride through the city, and the different cemeteries. 

Woodmere Cemetery is located in the township of Springwells, 
about four and three-quarters miles from the City Hall. It com- 
prises two hundred acres, and it is claimed that nowhere else 
within as many miles of Detroit could an equal area be found so 
admirabty adapted for a rural cemetery. Portions of the grounds 
consist of hills, valleys, and gentle undulations. A broad expanse 
of water on the westerly side is known as Baby Creek, and Deer 
Creek crosses the centre from east to west. When these streams 
are cleared and improved, lakes over two miles in length will be 
formed, constituting a charming feature of the place. The 
grounds are laid out on the landscape-lawn plan, with liberal ave- 
nues and broad sections of lots. The extreme drought last sum- 
mer in the West was very detrimental to the appearance of most 
places there, and the dryness of the grass showed that this ceme- 
tery was not excepted. Many fine trees as well as shrubs were 
noticed ; the latter in groups and as single specimens. The 
Tupelo tree, known there as the Pepperidge, was strikingly beau- 
tiful. I have seen many of them in their fall foliage, which is 
always rich and handsome, but the intense scarlet, or perhaps 
crimson, color of these was the richest I have ever seen. The 
dry weather may have had the effect to produce this unusual color. 
The Tupelo tree deserves to be cultivated much more than it is at 
present. With its capabilities for improvement Woodmere may 
be made a most attractive and beautiful place. 

Elmwood is the oldest cemetery at Detroit, and is nearly filled 
up. The grounds were laid out in the old style of avenue and 
path, but we were pleased to see that wherever an} 7 improvement 
could be made advantage had been taken of the opportunity, and 
ever} 7 effort was being made to keep the grounds clean and attrac- 
tive. Near the entrance some floral designs in good taste and not 



CEMETERIES AND PARKS. 91 

overdone were noticeable. One consisted of a cross with an 
anchor and heart on either side, and a scroll at the foot of the 
oross with the word PEACE ; this design, lying on a slight slope, 
showed to good advantage. A new and substantial gateway with 
an office and waiting-room connected, built of stone, is one of the 
recent improvements. 

Mount Elliott Cemetery is also one of Detroit's principal 
burial grounds, and while it contains n© costly monument, or other 
prominent feature that commands especial notice, it is only just to 
say that these are the best kept grounds we have seen in a Catholic 
cemetery, and we therefore think we ought to make special men- 
tion of this happy departure. We learn that in the new grounds, 
recently purchased, modern plans and principles of cemetery im- 
provement will be adopted and carried out. 

Woodlawn Cemetery, Toledo, Ohio, is delightfully situated. 
It is but three miles from the heart of the city, and seems to be 
well adapted to the purpose to which it is devoted. The grounds 
were cut by a deep natural ravine, which has been converted into 
a lake, forming a very agreeable feature of the grounds. The 
trees and shrubs are appropriately planted, as single specimens 
and in groups, and have now attained a size that makes them very 
■effective. The remaining portions of the grounds are of a gently 
undulating character, sufficient to produce a good landscape effect, 
without too striking a contrast between adjoining lots. The plant- 
ing all through the grounds has been done judiciously and in good 
taste. The evergreens were especially conspicuous, being large 
•enough to give life and character to the place, especially in the 
winter season. The lawn-plan was originally adopted and has 
been very successfully carried out. It has many advantages over 
the old style where gravel walks give access to all the lots, as is 
nowhere better demonstrated than here, and it is doubtless fully 
appreciated. Like some other places we have mentioned, the 
grounds are laid out into sections in which we were pleased to see 
that the lots vary greatly in size and shape. Too often the 
uniformity in this respect is distressing, but that has been avoided 
here, and it seems impossible that all the varied tastes of its patrons 
should not be fully satisfied. 

The chapel is a beautiful building on the bank of the lake. A 
porte-cochere protects the entrance. The interior is twenty-eight 
feet square, with a high vaulted roof, and is lighted by three stained 



92 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

glass windows. The ceiling is finished in a tasteful style, and 
altogether the building is a model of neatness and beauty. The 
area of the cemetery is one hundred and sixty acres, and we think 
the patrons of Woodlawn may be congratulated that, these 
grounds having been begun at a later date than the other ceme- 
teries we have named, the trustees have been able, in making their 
plans, to profit by the experience of others, and we venture to pre- 
dict that a few years hence Toledo can boast of having one of the 
most beautiful cemeteries in the West. A small nursery of choice 
trees and shrubs gives promise that there will be no lack of suitable 
material for the ornamentation of the grounds as the improvements 
advance. The avenues are broad and well kept, neatness and 
good order are the rule, and it is well carried out. Mr. Frank 
Eurich, the present superintendent, has held that office since the 
commencement of the grounds. Our thanks are due to him and 
to Mr. Walbridge, the secretary, for their kindness in showing us 
not only the cemetery grounds but the beautiful city of Toledo, 
the home of F. J. Scott, the author of " Suburban Home Grounds." 

Spring Grove Cemetery, Cincinnati, Ohio. This, more than 
any of the cemeteries of which I have spoken, had attracted us 
from the fact that it has always, as you are undoubtedly aware, 
been reputed the finest cemetery on this continent. I cannot give 
you a detailed description of it, as m} T time is too limited to do it 
justice, but I will briefly call your attention to its principal 
features. 

We will suppose ourselves at the entrance on Spring Grove 
Avenue. The gateway is a large stone structure in the Norman 
Gothic style of architecture ; the total length being one hundred 
and thirty feet. It was erected at a cost of about fifty thousand 
dollars. The larger portion is at the right side, the building here 
containing a room for visitors, the Directors' room, and Superin- 
tendent's office. At the left side is the ladies' reception room. 
A little further to the left is the Chapel, built in 1881, at a cost 
of sixty thousand dollars. This also is in the Norman style, and 
is a very handsome edifice, one hundred and eight feet long by 
sixty-three feet wide. The ground plan is cruciform, the vestibule 
and chapel occupying the nave, with a receiving tomb thirteen by 
twenty feet in each of the transepts. The heavy bronze doors to 
the receiving tombs are of very elegant design. The subject of 
one is : The Widow's Son — the Saviour touching the bier, with 



CEMETERIES AND PARKS. 93 

the words, "Young man, I say unto thee, arise." The subject 
of the second is : Jairus's Daughter — the Saviour touching the 
maiden's hand, with the words, " Be not afraid, only believe. " 
The subject of the third is : Martha and the Saviour at the grave 
of Lazarus, with the words, " Thy brother shall rise again" ; and 
of the fourth, the Saviour arising from the tomb, with the words, 
"I am the resurrection and the life." The great window in the 
ohancel is of elegant design and workmanship, being fourteen 
feet and six inches wide by twenty feet high. The design repre- 
sents the Ascension of Christ, accompanied by two angels, while 
the eleven disciples stand below, gazing in awe and wonder upon 
the heavenly scene. 

Passing from the building into the grounds, we find ourselves on 
the main avenue, in the centre of a beautiful lawn stretching right 
and left and adorned by trees, as specimens, and artistic groups 
of evergreens, which are charmingly arranged, and in themselves 
a study for all who have a love for landscape art. This part of the 
grounds has a level surface, and it is truly wonderful what art has 
produced on what must have been a barren plain. It will interest 
you to know that on this lawn there has been planted a group of 
trees as a memorial of the late Dr. Warder, presented for this 
purpose by his son, Reuben Warder. In the centre of the group 
is an Abies concolor surrounded by Pinus pungens. This is to be 
known as the " Dr. Warder memorial group of evergreens." We 
next pass under the railroad bridge and come in sight of a chain 
of beautiful lakes, containing several small islands, the largest of 
which was donated some time ago, by the corporation, to Mr. 
Strauch, the Superintendent, as a family burial ground, and his 
remains now rest in the quietude of this lovely spot. Near by is 
a beautiful statue of Egeria, in close proximity to a grove of 
Louisiana cypress, which are very fine. Our attention was fre- 
quently called to the trees and shrubs, which are a special feature 
of the place. To enumerate them all would be impossible, but we 
noticed particularly the following superb specimens : Abies 
excelsa, some very large ; A. polita (the Corean Spruce), A. com- 
pacta nana, A. Alcocquiana, A. concolor, Magnolia stellata, M. 
glauca, M. tripetala; elegant specimens of Liquidambar ; Laurel 
leafed oak, — most beautiful specimens ; Quercus alba (the Ameri- 
can White Oak) , grand trees ; Q. palustris (Pin Oak) , tall and 
elegant trees ; Q. castanea (Chestnut Oak), one of the most grace- 



94 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

fill of the oaks ; Pinus mugho (Dwarf Mugho Pine), P. Cembra 
(Swiss Stone Pine), a handsome and distinct species, particularly 
well adapted for cemetery purposes ; and of native Beeches, some 
of the largest and finest trees we have seen ; Liriodendron tulipi- 
fera, — this magnificent tree has attained great size and beauty ; 
Vitex Agnus-Castus, very useful ; Platanus occidentalism a very large 
tree on the lawn, at least one hundred feet high. Also an elegant 
tree of the Osage Orange, full of bright orange colored fruit. The 
fine proportions of this tree, which was low, spreading, and 
round-headed, so different from the form in which we see it here 
in Massachusetts (only in the hedge), were truly fascinating. 
These are only a few that, by their size as specimens or standing 
in some prominent place, attracted our attention. The oaks, 
maples, evergreens of many varieties ; the new and rare ever- 
greens from Japan ; and all the old and new species and varieties 
of shrubs, are found in great abundance, and the unusually select 
collection that are growing in the nurseries in large quantities, is 
an evidence that the ornamental department of Spring Grove 
will be kept up to the high standard it has already attained. 
In this connection our attention was called to the fact that the 
only monument to Dr. Warder was a Scarlet oak which, I believe, 
was planted with his own hands. Robert Buchanan, the first pres- 
ident of the association, also has an oak of the same species 
planted at the head of his grave. The grave of Judge John Mc- 
Lean, who delivered the consecration address in 1854, is marked 
by a Chestnut oak, and I think Judge Storer's grave is marked by 
a Hop Hornbeam. In this there is a suggestion to us : the glaring 
white marble and polished granite are very monotonous in many 
of our cemeteries ; is not this change a step in the direction of 
reform ? Are not these trees far more appropriate memorials than 
many meaningless stones that are erected? 

The original plan for improving the grounds was furnished by 
John Notman, of Philadelphia, and was executed partially by 
Howard Daniels, the first Superintendent. Since 1855, improve- 
ments have been made according to plans designed by the late 
Superintendent, Adolph Strauch, who was so very successful 
in blending the old and the new work that, to a casual observer, 
the point of meeting of the two designs is hardly noticeable. In 
all his work he was eminently successful ; and as a landscape gar- 
dener he stood at the head of his profession, and no man could 



CEMETERIES AND PARKS. 95 

have a better monument to his memory than the work that he 
accomplished at Spring Grove. The influence of the reform he so 
well commenced has spread over the length and breadth of the 
land, so that no new cemetery is now laid out in any other way 
than on the lawn plan. 

The lots and avenues are projected on the most liberal scale. 
When I inform you that the grass cutting is mostly done with 
horse mowers, you will at once see that the lots are large and the 
spaces between of liberal breadth. All the surroundings are in 
the same proportion. Hand mowers are used where the larger 
ones cannot go, and by this combination a great deal of grass 
cutting is done in a short time. This arrangement also allows the 
planting of trees in the large spaces between the lots, to better 
advantage than would be possible were the land more closely occu- 
pied for burial purposes. This is one of the beautiful features of 
the place. There is no fear of a request to remove a tree every 
time a monument is erected, and the ability to retain so many fine 
and rare trees attests the wisdom as well as the good taste 
displayed in laying out these grounds, in such a way as to leave 
sufficient room outside the lots for ornamental purposes. The 
grounds are rolling, hills and valleys abounding. The avenues, 
laid out in the valleys, their proper places, are about thirty feet 
wide, with broad sections of lots between. There is no stiffness 
about them ; graceful curves are formed instead of the straight 
monotonous lines too often seen where they might be avoided. 
Where the avenues meet, the arrangement is such that in driving 
you see, at a distance before you, a prominent corner lot orna- 
mented by shrubs in groups with trees. Turning to the right or 
left the scene may be similar, or 30U may be interested by a view 
through a charming vista, or some valley, naturally beautiful but 
made more so by the hand of art. 

There are many beautiful monuments erected, and we noticed 
some bearing names familiar to some of us. The Drexel Chapel 
is very prominently located, near one of the lakes. The monu- 
ments of Governor Bishop, Nicholas Longworth, Bishop Mc- 
Ilvaine, the elegant Scotch granite sarcophagus of General Joe 
Hooker, the family monument of General McCook, having twelve 
columns representing his twelve children, and two urns which 
represent the parents of General McCook, are among the most 
prominent. Here also are the resting places of the late Chief 



96 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Justice Chase, the parents of the late President U. S. Grant, 
and the family of Ex-President Hayes. Upon the lot of the late 
Chief Justice Stanley Matthews is an unpretentious marble monu- 
ment. Gen. A. T. Goshorn, Director General of the Centennial 
Exhibition of 1876, has a lot in which his father, and mother are 
buried, and Henry Probasco, the President of the cemetery cor- 
poration, has a fine sarcophagus of Scotch granite. On a very 
sightly eminence is placed a monumental canop} 7 sarcophagus of 
Scotch granite, which Mr. Schonberger, the owner, can see from 
his residence in Clifton, a distance of two miles. The elevation on 
which the monument stands, and that on which Mr. Schonberger's 
residence is located, are both from one hundred and fifty to two 
hundred feet above the valley between them. 

Spring Grove contains about six hundred acres, of which three 
hundred and fifty acres have been laid out and improved. There 
are fourteen miles of avenues, covering an area of thirty-three 
acres. There are seven miles of fencing, with about two and one- 
half miles of hedge inside a portion of the fence. There is a 
complete water system belonging to the cemetery, and fine build- 
ings for all purposes, and every facility for carrying on the work 
to the best advantage possible. 

I cannot close this imperfect account of Spring Grove without 
expressing my appreciation of the kindness of Mr. William Salway, 
who succeeded Mr. Strauch as Superintendent, and who is fully 
qualified to carry on the work so well commenced by his prede- 
cessor. 

Cedar Hill Cemetery, Hartford, Conn., is situated about 
three miles from the centre of the city, and contains nearly three 
hundred acres. The surface is charmingly diversified with hill and 
vale, lawn and stately trees, and is unusually well adapted for a 
lawn cemetery. The improvements since the consecration have 
been on the most liberal basis, as the following quotation from the 
Superintendent's report in 1886 will show. He says : " The sec- 
tions now opened for burial purposes are located on the second 
plateau, and on the second rise of hills, and are from one-half an 
acre to four acres in size. Each section is surrounded by a broad, 
well constructed avenue, and contains from thirty-two t© one hun- 
dred and twenty-five lots." 

The whole front of the cemetery extends along New Haven 
Avenue two thousand nine hundred and four feet. The grounds 
contain about seventy-three acres, ornamented with lakes, lawns, 



CEMETERIES AND PARKS. 97 

trees, and shrubs. The largest lake is over eight acres in extent. 
The planting of trees and shrubs was an important part of the 
plan, and has been admirably carried out. 

The avenues are a conspicuous feature of this cemetery, being 
forty, thirty-five, twenty-eight, and twenty-two feet wide, accord- 
ing to location and requirements. 

The landscape lawn plan has been strictly adhered to, and no 
unsightly curbings or iron fences are seen to mar the harmony and 
beauty of the plan which has been so successfully carried out. 
The landscape gardener and first Superintendent was Mr. J. 
Weidenmann, who, I believe, was a pupil of or associated with 
Adolph Strauch, at Cincinnati, and in looking over the grounds it 
is quite easy to see that the same principles which govern the plan 
at Spring Grove, Cincinnati, prevail here also. 

The proprietors have been fortunate in receiving some noble 
gifts. One is a very neat and substantial chapel of beautiful and 
picturesque appearance, in the English Gothic style. It is built 
of gray, rough-faced Westerly granite, relieved by the lighter 
color of the hammered granite dressings, and the dark slate of the 
roof, which make an agreeable contrast. The interior is rich and 
beautiful. It was built in accordance with the will of the late 
Charles H. Northam, and is known as the Northam Memorial 
Chapel. 

Later on, Mrs. Julia A. Gallup, wife of the late Judge Gallup, 
made provision in her will, by a bequest of $25,000, for a gateway 
at Cedar Hill. This also has been erected, in a style and mate- 
rial harmonizing with that of the chapel. It consists of two build- 
ings, forty-five feet apart, each measuring eighteen by thirty-one 
feet. One serves as a waiting room ; the other is the office of the 
Superintendent ; and between these two buildings is the entrance. 
The inside finish of the buildings is very elaborate, and the arrange- 
ments are in excellent taste. 

The monumental structures are very elegant, and being conspic- 
uously located on the highest elevation in the grounds, are seen 
from a long distance. In all of our visits to the various ceme- 
teries we have seen no other where so many costly monuments 
stand on the same extent of ground. 

Mr. Robert Scrivener, the present Superintendent, succeeded 
Mr. Salway, now of Spring Grove, Cincinnati. We are glad to 

meet such practical men as he, and we hope that his cherished 

7 



98 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

plans for the future ma}- receive the encouragement due to one so 
heartily interested in his work. Cedar Hill is a lovely spot, and 
if the means which the proprietors are abundantly able to supply 
are only placed at the disposal of the trustees, a bright and pros- 
perous future is before it. The examples of Charles H. Northam 
and Mrs. Gallup are worthy of emulation. 

I have already taken up more time than I intended to occupy ► 
If I have succeeded in interesting you in the work of this important 
subject ; have convinced you that the work of planning Rural 
Cemeteries is only just commenced, 3'ou begin to see, as I do, 
that all new grounds can have the advantage of profiting by the 
mistakes made in the older cemeteries, which are many. I should 
like to have made my descriptions so vivid that 3'ou could have 
seen all these places as I did ; how far I have succeeded in this 
you know. I confess I am sorry to stop here. I should like to 
have gone into criticisms and practical points gained by observa- 
tion, but I cannot. I should like to have shown you how some of 
the old grounds could be improved and beautified, but mj r time is 
not sufficient. I should like to have taken up the subject of orna- 
mentation, but if I did I should perhaps have said too much — in 
what way or how you must for the present only conjecture ; and 
perhaps it is well that I have no more time for this subject, for 
the reason that a short time ago I was invited to criticise a very 
radical article bearing on it ; at first I felt like doing so, but 
when I visited the writer of the article, I received such kind atten- 
tions, and our views were so thoroughly harmonious on the prin- 
cipal rules which should govern our work, that I could not say a 
word, although I believe in kindly criticism, for it is helpful. I 
hope I have given you good reasons why I should forbear at this 
time. 

I have another part now to take up — that of Parks. I shall 
attempt but little, as my time for preparation was too limited to 
do it justice. The subject of establishing parks in our cities and 
larger towns is absorbing a good deal of attention, much time, and 
large sums of money. Our own city of Boston is coming in for 
its full share of all. The magnificent system planned for us can- 
not be excelled. The Back Ba} T Park has its place ; its success 
and utility are well known to you. The Public Garden — not a park 
at all — has received all the criticism, kind and unkind, that is good 



CEMETERIES AND PARKS. 99 

for it. I am glad it is there. Were I asked whether I would approve 
all that is done there, perhaps I should answer no, and I am glad 
that I do differ from others, for if all thought alike what a same- 
ness and monotony there would be. The Public Garden also fills 
its place, as is shown by the fact that from the blooming of the 
first hyacinth to the time when frost destroys the last hydrangea, 
man}' who cannot get beyond the borders of the city are always 
to be found there enjoying it. Situated as it is, where nei- 
ther near nor distant views can be obtained, it is better to make 
it attractive to the masses, even if it does not in all points fulfil 
the ideal requirements of good taste, or is so judged by those com- 
petent to criticise. I am sure the popular vote would be for the 
Public Garden, and I venture to say that no expenditure made by 
the city for the people is more heartily appreciated by them. 
There is now more reason than ever that the Public Garden should 
be maintained as such, especially when the park system is being 
so finely developed. 

Living near Franklin Park, I have been glad, as opportunity 
offered, to go over it and watch the development of the work. 
Last year a portion known as the Playstead was opened to the 
public. Approaching from Walnut Avenue, you drive around this 
area of some thirty acres or more, by the Pierpont and Playstead 
roads, and the Overlook, connecting with the old Trail road to 
Humboldt Avenue. The Glen road, from Sigourney street to the 
Pierpont road, is finished, forming a direct route to Jamaica Plain, 
and the circuit drive, from Pierpont road to Williams street, which 
will eventually connect with Forest Hills Avenue. These are 
splendid drives, and no one can doubt the wisdom of the system 
that has been adopted. Everything is done thoroughly and in 
the best possible manner. The drives are alread} 7 delightful and 
enjoyed by thousands everj* fine day. The trees and shrubs, with 
the growth of a few short years, will add greatly to the beauty of 
the Park, and as the time goes on and the plans are carried out, the 
citizens of Boston will have in their parks a system of developed 
beauty in nature and art, unequalled in this county. 

Then there are the Bussey Park, and Arnold Arboretum, 
already sufficiently advanced to be of untold interest, especially 
the Arboretum, which contains the largest collection of named 
trees and shrubs in America, if not in the world, and is visited 
every year by hundreds seeking information on the subject of 



100 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Arboriculture. I feel that I cannot say too much of the Arbore- 
tum and its immense value ; I wish I could be heard all over the 
land, and I would speak of its value and benefits more loudly 
every time. I do not believe one-tenth part of those interested in 
horticulture begin to appreciate the value of the Arboretum. Go 
there more if you would know the wealth of beauty awaiting you 
there. We have in Boston, in our Park S3 T stem, much to be proud 
of; and with such men as Frederick Law Olmstead, who as a 
landscape artist has no equal ; Charles S. Sargent, well known to 
you all ; and our friend Jackson Dawson, I am sure that time only 
is needed to perfect the system so admirably planned,. and to be 
executed by them, and when the plan is perfected they will 
become the best known parks in America. 

Washington Park, Albany. In our visits this year at differ- 
ent places, finding a little time at our disposal, at the close of one 
day, we drove to Washington Park, in Albany, and though there 
only a short time, we were so favorably impressed with what we 
saw that I immediately opened a correspondence with the Super- 
intendent, William S. Egerton, for information in regard to it. 
Since the reading of the paper at the last meeting of the Society 
of American Florists, in Buffalo, by Mr. McMillan, Superintend- 
ent of the parks there, you have perhaps read the criticisms on 
that paper. Mr. McMillan took strong ground in advocacy of a 
system adopted in Buffalo, which admits of comparatively no 
flowers for ornamentation in their park, and, if my memory serves 
me rightly, in September there were none of any sort to be seen, 
in driving through the park. I must confess to great disappoint- 
ment in this respect. I think that, in a proper waj T and in suita- 
ble places, they could be introduced to good advantage, and that 
the attractiveness of the large park would thus be greatly 
enhanced. But be that as it may, we must give Mr. McMillan 
the credit of being able to present his honest convictions in such 
a manner as to command respect for them. 

But we must return to Washington Park, which is situated a 
short distance back of the Capitol, and contains ninety acres of 
land with three miles of avenues, six miles of walks, and a lake of 
six acres. It is approached from State Street and Madison Avenue 
on the east, and from Lexington Street on the south. The park 
and garden appeared so well combined that I have obtained from 
the Superintendent his reasons for laying it out in this way. He 
writes as follows : 



CEMETERIES AND PARKS. 101 

Office of the 
Board of Commissioners of the Washington Park, 
Albany, Oct. 21, 1889. 

Mr. John G. Barker, Superintendent, 

Forest Hills Cemetery, Jamaica Plain. 

Dear Sir : — Your request for Park report is received. This 
Board does not issue a descriptive report, but simply a detailed 
statement of exoenses, which is sent in to the Common Council 
soon after January 1 of each year. The annual budget is made 
out by March 1 of each year, is approved by the Board and sent 
in to the Finance Committee of the Common Council for insertion 
in the citj- tax budget. The Board has under its supervision 
Washington Park, seven small city parks, and two miles of street 
or boulevard improvement. The annual budget is about $21,000. 

Washington Park $14,000 

Citv Parks 1,600 

Street Maintenance ..... 2,000 

Office Expenses ..... 150 
Salaries, (Superintendent's bills, Gardener, 

Treasurer's Clerk) 3,250 



$21,000 



The maintenance of Washington Park and the city parks will, 
I think, compare favorably with any of the parks in the country, 
and this result is reached by a comparatively small outlay. The 
labor is entirely under the supervision of the superintendent, and 
the men are selected and placed b}^ him without dictation or re- 
striction. The park management is outside of politics. A proper 
criticism might be made as to the monotony of the planting, but 
a large proportion of the trees (elms) were established on the 
greater portion of the area now devoted to the park, before the 
grounds were laid out, and a gradual introduction of a more orna- 
mental character of planting is being perfected as protection is 
offered by structural windbreaks surrounding the site on the north 
and west, and as the undesirable original growth disappears with 
age, etc. Our shrubbery borders are extensive and of great 
variety, affording a succession of bloom from early spring until 
late in the fall. 



102 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The article I enclose, written for the Sunday Press, June 30 r 
1889, will give some idea of the floral effects. 

Washington Park is of too small an area to secure very extended 
lawn and meadow effects, or to indulge in masses of deciduous or 
evergreen planting for distant sky line perspective. The roads, 
walks, etc., have all been adjusted to the existing topographical 
features, and considering the piece by piece manner of purchase 
of the park area and the resultant changes of portions of the 
original design to accommodate these intermittent purchases, the 
general effect of the park, as a whole, is very pleasing and the 
area largety exaggerated to the casual visitor. 

The views of landscape architects or gardeners have been re- 
peatedly expressed as antagonistic to floral effects, or the general 
introduction of such effects in park ornamentation, and I should 
myself criticise adversely the introduction of such planting in a 
park where natural effects of lawn and planting are to be desired 
as the most pleasing and lasting. 

Washington Park is centrally located, and t is being surrounded 
by dwellings. It is a nursery ground for children, and the desire 
of this Board is to make it attractive to all classes of the citizens. 
We find that a great deal of pleasure is afforded by the floral 
effects, and many persons owning small estates in the suburbs or 
country endeavor to introduce similar ornamentation at their homes. 
The " King Fountain " site, where you probably saw the cannas, 
pampas grasses, etc., etc., is shown on the plan enclosed. The 
intention is ultimately to have a fine fountain basin there, and the 
surroundings have been laid out somewhat in anticipation of this 
central effect in the design ; otherwise the plan would have been 
very different at this point. It now looks stiff, and the general 
effect is not altogether pleasing. With the fountain completed 
and other architectural features appropriately introduced, the gar- 
den site will be more in keeping with the general design. This 
portion of the park is overlooked from the pedestrian concourse 
above the terraces, and the plan of the garden is outlined with 
great distinctness. The lake is 1750 feet long with an average 
width of 150 feet, and contains about six acres. It is artificially 
supplied from the city mains and is provided with an outlet valve 
and proper overflow. In summer, boats are used, and in winter, 
skating and curling are indulged in. The Board maintain a swing 
tender, croquet tender, and tennis keeper, at their own expense, 



CEMETERIES AND PARKS. 103 

no'charge being made, and the same privilege is extended in the 
winter to skaters ; the lake being cleaned at the expense of the 
Board. The lake house and refectory are rented with the privi- 
lege of restaurant and boat-letting. 

I am sorry I have no photographic views assimilated in our 
illustrated report to send you, but although proud of the park, the 
Board has not gone to that expense as }'et. 

Yours sincerely, 

Wm. S. Egerton, 

Superintendent and Secretary of Washington Park. 

This exceedingly interesting letter sets forth in a plain and clear 
manner the reasons that prompted the Board of Park Commission- 
ers to plan so liberally and successfully for the pleasure of the 
citizens of Albany. When we saw the flower beds in September 
they were in the height of perfection, and so well designed and 
properly located that even the hurried glance, which was all that 
our time allowed us, called forth our admiration. Not only the 
flowers, but the shrubs were such fine specimens that it was a great 
pleasure to us to see them. In the grouping they were not the 
huddled mass usually found in such places, but planted far enough 
apart to allow each one to become a perfect specimen of itself, 
yet not so far distant from each other that the intended effect was 
lost. Of course, if one wishes to criticise he can find the oppor- 
tunity, but having learned the object desired and seen that it had 
been accomplished, I think criticism is not in order. If we see a 
good thing we should say so, and encourage the producer. If we 
do not approve we should be equally frank in saying so, but let us 
be sure to have a good reason for what we say. We thought we 
saw a good thing in the Albany Park, and it is a pleasure to report 
so to you. The Albany Press of June 30th, contained the follow- 
ing very interesting account of this park : 

" The pleasure derived from viewing foliage and flowering plants, 
well arranged and properly placed, seems almost universal. There 
are a few persons whose distaste for a blaze of color, and dislike of 
any formal arrangement would lead them back to the days of the 
old perennial garden of our forefathers, where everything seemed 
to grow in profusion, in great variety of tints and diversity of 
form, and without any apparent care-taking supervision. This 
old-fashioned garden is becoming again the fashion, from the 
fact that formal ribbon borders, Persian or geometrical designs, 



104 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

and glaring arrangements of color, have been so extensively 
introduced by some gardeners, at the fashionable resorts, and to 
a large extent on pretentious summer estates, that people natur- 
ally go back for relief from such arrangements to the old-fash- 
ioned garden. Apart from the set arrangement and blaze of color, 
there is always a suggestion of labor and expense connected with 
the development of such effects. The growth of the floral dis- 
play in Washington Park has been gradual, as the facilities for 
the propagation of plants, and the funds of the park commission 
have warranted. Some years, the effects have excelled those 
of previous ones, and then again there has been an apparent 
retrograde movement, and the display has not been especially 
attractive. The yearly maintenance has give,n impetus to, or 
retarded, the floral display in a ratio proportionate with its 
magnitude. 

The first effort made in floral planting in Washington Park was 
soon after the appointment of the late Robert L. Johnson as 
park commissioner and chairman of the planting committee. 
Not having at that time a propagating house of sufficient size, 
a small one was constructed on the Taylor mansion grounds, and 
for two or three years with this little house and the assistance 
of adjacent hot-bed frames, the gardener was enabled to propa- 
gate sufficient plants to make a creditable display. It was not, 
however, possible to propagate other than soft- wooded plants for 
bedding purposes, and not until the purchase, by the board of 
park commissioners, of the Taylor mansion grounds, and the 
necessary removal and construction of the outbuildings and 
propagating houses to the present site on the New Scotland plank 
road, was it possible to propagate and maintain the more desira- 
ble class of plants now exhibited at the Willett street entrance 
of the park. The effort has been made this season to place 
all the desirable greenhouse plants that will stand the exposure, 
in the open grounds and to secure effects somewhat tropical in 
character, the palms being placed along the shady walk at 
Willett street, and such color and leaf effects, by the introduction 
of several varieties of alternantheras in masses of color, relieved 
by other beds of agaves, echeverias, achyranthes, centaureas, 
and geraniums. 

The two large palms, placed in circular beds, surrounded at 
he base by a variety of ornamental plants, and terminating at 



CEMETERIES AND PARKS. 105- 

the sod-line with a border of hydrangeas, were given to the park 
by Mr. Robert L. Johnson during his term as park commissioner, 
and an extra effort was made this season to place them in the 
open ground, to relieve the low effects of the surrounding 
planting. 

The arrangement of the beds, on and adjacent to the site of 
that long delayed King Fountain, owing to the exposure to sun 
and wind, is entirely different from that of the Willett street side 
of the park. To relieve the open, flat character of the surface, 
varied beds of cannas, and proper edgings of plants for contrast 
of color are introduced, with circular beds of pampas grasses at 
the walk intersections. The walks are bordered with varieties of 
geraniums, relieved by circular beds of achyranthes. In the 
large center bed, are fine specimens of agaves and rare echeve- 
rias, and masses of heliotrope perfume the surroundings. The 
full and final effect of this arrangement will not be secured before 
the latter part of August when the cannas are fully developed and 
the pampas grasses are in bloom. The many varieties of coleus, 
formerly used in the ribbon borders, have been discarded and 
geraniums substituted, owing to the fact that the low temperature 
in early June and the cold nights of August, often blights these 
plants, and thus mars the effect of color much sooner than the 
varieties of geraniums selected. 

What seems to be especially desired to prolong and concen- 
trate not only the floral but the foliage effects in Washington 
Park, is the construction of a commodious range of ornamental 
greenhouses, to be located on the plateau, between the ravine 
drive and Englewood Place — a central structure sufficiently large 
to accommodate large palms, tree ferns, bananas, and tropical 
growths, flanked by houses for the protection of rare and 
interesting specimens of foreign plants ; a structure accessible at 
all seasons, particularly the winter season, to the public. This 
would make the park more attractive during the winter months, 
and afford a generous provision for the summer decoration of the 
lawns without resorting to the soft- wooded species of plants. 
There is a fine opportunity for some one, a lover of foliage and 
flowers, and of plethoric purse, to donate a suitable structure of 
this kind to the park. 

A comparison being made of the effects secured in Washington 
Park, at a comparatively small outlay, with those to be seen 



106 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

in the more extensive and pretentious parks of the eastern and 
western cities, is very favorable to us. 

This fall, subsequently to the removal of the present border 
plants by frost, several thousand hyacinth, tulip, and kindred 
bulbs will be placed in the borders to give an early spring effect, 
during the months of April and May, in order that the beds 
may not present such a bare character at this season. These 
plants will be removed and followed by the usual decorations 
for the subsequent summer months. A large number of aquatic 
plants were placed in prepared beds along the lake margins 
last spring. These will bloom in the season of 1890. The 
Egyptian and American lotus, the pink and common white water 
lilies, and several indigenous water plants have taken root, and, 
if not disturbed, will flower next season. 

If the King Fountain is constructed, there will be an oppor- 
tunity for a generous display of rare aquatic plants around the 
rim of the basin, and we may arrive at that progressive stage 
when the Victoria regia may bloom in a properly arranged and 
protected pond. There are possibilities and opportunities for 
a fine arboretum on the Almshouse grounds, where the botanical 
students of the Normal, High, and public schools could find 
specimens for study and comparison. 

A small beginning has been made in the introduction of hardy 
perennials along the Willett street walk, but the location is 
too much shaded, and these plants will probably be removed to 
a more congenial and sunny exposure, and planted with some 
discrimination as to size, foliage, and time of blooming. 

There has been too much rain and too little sunshine for the 
proper growth of almost all the varieties of bedding plants this 
season, and some of the echeverias, if a timely forethought in 
the admixture of plenty of sand in the beds had not prevented, 
would have rotted because of too much moisture. 

The gardener is now struggling with the hay and grass, to 
get the lawns ready for the glorious Fourth, when hundreds of 
the orphan children will be entertained in the afternoon at the 
children's playground near the refectory ; and the aldermanie 
display of fireworks (value $600) will take place at the site of 
the ice fort of two winters ago. 

The lawns will be open to the public on the Fourth of July, 
except where the shrubbery is dense and the flowers are planted, 



CEMETERIES AND PARKS. 107 

and it is expected that the public will appreciate and respect 
this privilege. 

Lawn tennis is the rage in Washington Park this season. 
Thirteen conrts are in full blast and more are asked for. Madi- 
son avenue is well represented by the youth of that locality. 
The only trouble the attendant in charge has, is to restrict some 
enthusiasts to reasonable limits of time, giving an occasional 
•opportunity for others to play. Some definite rules will be 
shortly posted as to the time allotted for the use of each court, 
and a restriction will be made as to the use of lawn tennis shoes 
when playing, in order to preserve the turf." 

A continued correspondence with Mr. Egerton brought from 
him an expression of his ideas on the much discussed park sys- 
tem, and the use of flowers as an ornamental feature ; he says : 

" In answer to an inquiry from Buffalo with reference to the use 
of flowers as an ornamental feature in the public parks of Albany, 
I wrote some weeks since as follows : ' Three of the smaller city 
parks have some floral embellishment. In Washington Park the 
floral planting is confined to two localities, especially designed for 
architectural features to be utilized in connection with the use of 
flowers : first, the King Fountain site, which is formal in outline, 
something like the immediate surroundings of the Washington 
Monument in the Boston Public Garden ; and second, the Willett 
Street side of the park, where the display is not obtrusive and 
does not interfere with lines of sight across the park, or project 
prominently into the lawn effects, more centrally located. The 
planting is formal. The promiscuous introduction of flower beds 
over a park area is not in good taste, and should not be encour- 
aged. It is more economical, and better in every way, if floral 
planting is used as a relief to some formal design in architecture 
or planting to concentrate the effects in contiguous localities or the 
immediate surroundings, than to spoil the harmony of a long sweep 
of turf by the introduction of patches of brilliant coloring, as is 
frequently done in some of the public parks and gardens. 

Flowers and foliage plants have their place in park embellish- 
ments, and I think the great majority of people frequenting the 
public parks enjoy flowers and floral effects, when properly and 
tastefully arranged and appropriately placed. A blaze of color, 
set patterns in foliage plants, and bizarre effects, are unnatural, 
not pleasing, and tiresome, and I know of no feature in park em- 



108 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETr. 

bellishments, that requires more taste, careful study, and unre- 
mitting attention, than a well arranged flower garden. 

It is the easiest thing in the world for a florist or gardener to- 
spoil the entire harmony and pleasing effects of an otherwise 
beautiful landscape by the introduction of senseless patches of 
color and set patterns in foliage plants. 

The taste for ribbon and carpet gardening is fast disappearing, 
from the simple fact that it has been overdone. The summer re- 
sorts by the sea and inland, pretentious estates and parks, — all 
have contributed to the nausea, if I may so term it, for the labored, 
stiff formality of carpet gardening. 

From this extreme on the one side, a great many have found 
relief in the simple effects to be obtained from the herbaceous 
border and the perennial plants of our forefathers. 

Then there is a medium line, I think more pleasing and in good 
taste, where the introduction of Palms, Bananas, Grasses, Cannas, 
Agaves and similar semi-tropical plants, supplemented by a 
judicious use of flowering shrubs and perennial plants, affords 
opportunities for graceful effects in foliage and color. These, with 
the more subdued effects of beds of foliage plants less glaring in 
color, are in greater harmony, more effective and more satisfying- 

It is sometimes desirable to obtain a succession of effects, and 
in the early spring months, when the beds are usually bare, and 
present a cold appearance, with the surrounding green of the 
lawns, a blaze of color in tulips and early spring bulbs is welcomed 
by all as a harbinger of coming summer glories, and is gratefully 
appreciated. 

The early annuals tide over the otherwise vacant weeks, until 
it is time to put out the less hardy material, stored during the 
winter months in greenhouses and cold frames. 

The gardener's cottage, storage houses, propagating houses and 
nurser} 7 , are what might be termed the ultimate requirements 
of the park, and have been placed without the park limits, but 
contiguous thereto. 

We have as yet no ornamental house, or winter garden, but 
I think where a park is much frequented in winter, for skating, 
driving, etc., such a feature is a desirable acquisition, if the city 
can afford the expense. 

A large ornamental greenhouse or palm house, or range of 
ornamental houses, capable of storing tropical plants, arranged as 



CEMETERIES AND PARKS. 109 

a tropical garden, for the winter months, and open to the public 
at all seasons, is a very desirable and attractive feature. In 
summer also, when flanked by flower beds in more or less formal 
arrangement, it presents a picture entirely in harmony with the 
general design of a park, if it is so placed as not to be central and 
too conspicious a feature. Back of these can be economically 
grouped and properly screened the propagating houses, gardener's 
cottage, etc. 

About twelve thousand tulips, fifty thousand bedding plants, and 
one hundred palms, etc., are utilized during the season for the 
Albany parks. The effects obtained seem to be gratifying to our 
citizens, and particularly so to strangers from the larger cities 
sojourning temporary in our midst or passing through Albany.' " 

Mr. President, Ladies- and Gentlemen: If I have not succeeded 
In interesting you, I have in detaining you. Rather than to thrust 
upon you my own views of Cemeteries and Parks, I have brought 
you the thoughts and suggestions of others, a free and open ex- 
change of which is alwa} r s helpful, and I have found exceedingly 
beneficial. While much can and I hope will be said, written, and 
published on both subjects, we must never lose sight of one very 
important fact — that adaptation in what we do should be our guid- 
ing rule, whether it is a cemetery to be laid out, or one to be en- 
larged and improved, either in a city, a suburban town, or a country 
village, or if a park, whether it is in and for a city, or in the 
suburbs, — all these considerations must be known before we can 
plan successfully. What will be right in one place, will not serve 
in another. In all be sure that you plan your work well and can 
have the plans successfully carried out. May we not sincerely 
hope that as a Society, our influence will be felt wherever we are 
known, not only in the line of thought to which you have so 
kindly given your attention today, but in every line that will help 
to elevate the noble art in which we are all so heartily and 
earnestly engaged. 

At the conclusion of the paper, a vote of thanks to Mr. Barker 
for his very full and interesting description of the many cemeteries 
and parks he had recently visited, was unanimously passed. 



110 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETT. 



Discussion. 

John C. Hovey said that it was largely through the genius and 
energy of the first President of this Society, General Henry A. S. 
Dearborn, that the first rural cemetery, Mount Auburn, was 
established. This was in 1831, and in 1848 Forest Hills Cemetery 
in Roxbury was consecrated and for this also we are mainly 
indebted to General Dearborn. The paper just read shows what 
has been the influence of these cemeteries, not only in this vicin- 
ity, but through the whole country. 

Henry Ross, said that he has charge of one of those country 
cemeteries (at Newton) referred to as being, in its design and 
development, inspired b} 7 Mount Auburn and Forest Hills. How 
cemeteries shall be planned at the outset is one of the most 
important points for their projectors to decide. The landscape- 
lawn plan is generally the most practicable. In grading, we 
should, as a rule, follow the natural lay of the land, keeping all 
the undulations, and varying from nature only to make the scene 
more beautiful. In cases where there is too little undulation, it 
is easy to raise up hills to break the monotony. He would first 
lay out avenues. These should have an easy grade, which can be 
secured by winding round the graceful curves of higher grounds, 
or the sides of depressions, avoiding all cuts and fillings as much 
as possible. In selecting material for roadway construction, one 
must be governed by the circumstances of location. In loose 
gravel, as at Newton, he would grade with the natural gravel, 
then lay on four or five inches of blue gravel if it can be obtained ; 
if not, then gravel mixed with a little clay. In a stiff clay soil, 
the roadway should be dug out two feet deep, and from one foot 
to fifteen inches of broken stone put in ; then two inches of sand, 
and from four to six inches of binding gravel to finish. Avenues 
forty feet wide, of which we sometimes hear, are inconsistent with 
the landscape-lawn plan. The} r should never be over eighteen or 
twenty feet, except within from two hundred to four hundred feet 
of the entrance gate. He would not have gravel walks. All 
pathways should be sodded, and the grass kept short by frequent 
use of the lawn mower. By this method, while securing greater 
symmetry in the plan, a large saving of expense is effected, both 
in making of walks, and in keeping them clean and in good repair. 



CEMETERIES AND PARKS. Ill 

When it is necessary to use these grassy paths in wet weather, it 
is the practice of some to cover them, and, if needful, a part of a 
lot also, with straw matting, upon which the people can walk, or 
stand with less discomfort. There should be as much lawn as 
possible. He would have flowers also, but would do away with 
geometrical flower, beds except near the entrance gateways, and 
connected buildings, where they blend more harmoniously with 
the surroundings. Mr. Ross confessed that his taste for ever- 
greens was growing. He would have ornamental grounds filled 
with a variety of dwarf evergreens, including dark green, bright 
green, and golden, planted with artistic taste and skill. He had 
taken out deciduous shrubs standing in improper places, and 
substituted evergreens. He declared himself a much less strong 
advocate of deciduous shrubs, in lawn or park, than formerly. 
The varieties of evergreens we now have are available to form 
winter gardens. A mass of assorted evergreens, artistically 
arranged, makes a pleasing contrast with the general sombreness 
of early winter scenery, and forms one of the kinds of ornamenta- 
tion which we need. He would not recommend great rows of tall 
evergreens. - Speaking of ornamental water, he quoted the remark 
made by a playmate of his in boyhood days : "I like that pond, 
it does not look like a washbowl," as showing the necessity of 
giving to artificially formed bodies of water that diversity of 
outline which is so charming a feature of natural lakes. Another 
point, upon which Mr. Ross laid some emphasis, was, that no lots 
should be sold until they have been graded. 

William J. Hargraves, objected to having sand next above the 
broken stones in the road-bed of cemetery avenues. Instead of 
that he would use material of a binding nature. 

Mr. Ross replied that sand in Newton will always let water 
through, and keep everything in place. 

Mr. Barker said that Forest Hills Cemetery is not one of the 
landscape-lawn class, because it was not started as such. It is a 
garden cemetery. His purpose in the paper read was to describe 
what he saw in the several places he visited. But he did not 
mean to be understood as comm ending all that he described, and 
wished for kindly criticism from all his hearers. 

O. B. Hadwen thought there might be considerable dust in Mr. 
Ross's avenues. That could be prevented b}^ having them 
concreted. A cemetery should be quiet, and free from the noise 



112 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

of carriages over gravel roads. The whole subject is one of 
great interest to the people, not only of this State but of other 
States also. 

Mr. Ross would have a cemetery made as natural as possible. 
He considered concrete too artificial for such grounds. As for 
noise, he thought a carriage would make no more noise passing 
over a good, hard, well-made gravel road than on a concreted 
avenue. 

Mr. Hovey doubted whether any one system, plan, or method 
could be devised for use in cemeteries, that would be acceptable to 
people generally. Tastes differ greatly ; some like one thing, some 
-another. Some may not like what is termed landscape gardening, 
but prefer what is more after Nature. 

Announcement was made that Professor G. H. Whitcher, 
Director of the New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Hanover, N. H., would read a paper on the " Growth and Nutri- 
tion of Plants," at the meeting on the next Saturday. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, February 22, 1890. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at half-past 
eleven o'clock, the President, William H. Spooner in the Chair. 

The Committee to nominate a Window Gardening Committee 
for the year 1890, reported the following names : 

Mrs. Henrietta L. T. Wolcott, Henry L. Clapp, 

Miss Sarah W. Story, E. H. Hitchings, 

Marshall B. Faxon. 

The report was accepted and adopted, and the persons named 
therein were elected members of the Committee on Window 
Gardening. 

Adjourned to Saturday, March 1, at half-past eleven o'clock. 



THE GROWTH AND NUTRITION OF PLANTS. 113 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 
The Growth and Nutrition of Plants. 

By Professor G. H. Whitcheb, Director of the New Hampshire Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, Hanover, N. H. 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen : 

The following general heads will indicate the line of my talk 
today : 

1st. The Chemical Composition ©f Plants. 

2nd. Whence the elements, from which these parts are made 
up, are derived. 

3rd. Are all of these parts of equal importance? 

4th. Definition of terms, fertilizer, plant food, etc. 

5th. How do we feed plants and where get the material ? 

6th. How shall we decide upon the right food and the best 
combination, under any given conditions? 

7th. Farm-yard manure compared with chemicals. 

8th. Chemicals compared with prepared or commercial fertili- 
zers. 

Each of these heads would easily occupy an hour, but by con- 
densation, I hope to touch upon all of them in one hour. 

(1.) Chemical Composition of Plants. — Chemical analysis 
shows us that all growing plants, or air dried fodders, contain a 
variety of substances having unlike properties. Thus, water, starch, 
sugar, oil, fibre, albuminoids, and ash are found. Now if we are 
to form an acquaintance with plants, we ought clearly to see and 
know these facts. 

A green plant is cut, taken to the laboratory, and a fair sample 
of the whole is weighed, and then dried in an oven at 212° until 
it ceases to lose weight. The loss is water. 

A field of standing grass is cut on a bright day, and in twelve 
hours it has lost from one-half to two-thirds of its weight, and 
this loss is water. 

A potato is grated in water and the fine parts sink to the 
bottom. By washing and settling several times, almost pure 
starch is obtained. 

The seeds of the cotton plant, if subjected to pressure, yield a 
considerable amount of oil, 
8 



114 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Kernels of wheat, if ground and mixed into dough, and this 
dough washed for a long time in water, give a tough, gluey sub- 
stance known as gluten. 

A piece of sugar beet if boiled in alcohol yields, on drying 
away the alcohol, sugar. 

Any plant if subjected to the consuming flame, leaves behind 
an indestructible part called ash. Now all plants have most of 
these substances ; in some, one predominates ; in others, other 
parts are prominent, e. g. sugar in the beet, starch in the potato, 
oil in cotton seed, etc. For the purpose of bringing out more 
clearly the facts thus far stated, I have given below the composi- 
tion, in pounds per acre, of two crops — one Ensilage, yielding 
twenty tons per acre ; the other Hay, yielding two tons as cured 
and put in the barn. 







Ensilage 


, Hay, 12,000 






40,000 lbs 


>. lbs 


. , as cut. 


Water, when cut, .... 




32,580 




8,291 


Starch, 




1,394 




1,425 


Sugar, 




2,800 




220 


Fibre, 




1,825 




1,240 


Gum, 




— 




125 


Fat, 




237 




160 


Coloring matter, .... 




— 




19 


Albuminoids { Part comin ^ from air ' 

I Nitrogen coming from soil, 


113 


643 


55 


285 


Ash, ....... 


408 




180 




Total from soil, .... 
Total from air, .... 


. 521 




235 




39,479 


11,765 


Ash Contains 










Phosphoric acid, .... 


. 44 




17 




Potash, ...... 


. 120 




77 




Soda, 


17 




H 




Lime, ....... 


60 




20 




Silica, 


150 




53| 




Magnesia, ....... 


17 




10* 





408 



180 



(2.) Source of these Substances. — Plants do not find sugar, 
starch, etc., in the soil, nor in the air, but they do find, either in 
the soil or air or both, the elements from which to make these 
materials. Water comes from the air as rain or snow, is stored 
in the soil and taken up by the roots of the plant, and, as this 



THE GROWTH AND NUTRITION OF PLANTS. 115 

forms a very large per cent of all growing plants, it is seen that 
the larger part of the plant comes from the air. But is the water 
all that comes from the air? 

Starch, sugar, fibre, gum, and oil are made up of three elements, 
namely: Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen. The carbon in all of 
these comes from the carbonic acid ga« which exists in the air. 
The hydrogen and oxygen come from water, which is made up of 
these two elements. Again about eighty-four per cent of the 
albuminoids are composed of the same three elements. That 
such is the source of the plant substance, has been thoroughly 
proved by numerous experiments. Thus it appears that 39,479 
pounds out of 40,000 pounds in the ensilage crop came from the 
air, and that 11,765 pounds out of 12,000 of the grass crop as 
cut, came from the same source (12,000 lbs. of grass, in drying 
in the field, must lose 8,000 lbs. of water, leaving 4,000 lbs. of 
dry hay). 

We are left in doubt as to the origin of the nitrogen of the crop. 
Experimenters differ in their conclusions as to this element, but 
we will place it in the list of substances that come from the soil. 
Doing this, we find that 521 lb3. of the 40 tons of ensilage, is all 
that comes from the soil, while in the grass crop only 235 lbs. 
can, by any means, be regarded as originating in the soil. Hence 
we may well abandon the too common idea that the bulk of the 
growing plant is made up of elements which come from and 
therefore exhaust the soil. 

(3.) Are all of the Parts that Come from the Soil of Equal 
Importance? The answer must be that they are not. In the 
foregoing tabular statement, are given the substances which make 
up the ash of the crops we are considering ; now by experiments 
of various kinds it has been found that magnesia is necessary for 
the perfect growth of the plant, but it is also true that in most 
soils the supply is abundant, so that for all practical purposes 
magnesia is not to be regarded as an essential element. 

Silica has been shown to be an unimportant substance, since 
plants may be grown and matured in solutions where there is no 
silica present. Lime is absolutely essential to the plants. 
Plants having every other element within their reach fail to grow, 
but the addition of lime immediately causes the building up 
processes of the plant to become active. 

But lime is a very common and abundant constituent of most 



116 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



soils. It seldom becomes exhausted, and while it is possible, and 
doubtless true of. some lands, that they are deficient in lime, yet 
it is probably also true that the greater part of New England is 
well supplied with this form of plant food. Lime may, however, 
act as a fertilizer on soils which, in themselves, are well charged, 
and it seems certain that a part of the beneficial effects of liming 
land are due to its indirect action on the soil, by which some of 
the unavailable parts of the soil are rendered available. 

Soda is not regarded as a necessary constituent of plants 
though it is usually present. 

Potash is not only essential, but is lacking in many soils that 
have been cropped for a long time. Phosphoric acid, too, is 
equally important and probably about equally deficient in soils, — 
that is, in an available form. 

" Deficient Plant Food" Removed by Various Crops. 





N. 


P 2 O 5 . 


K 2 O. 


Total. 


Ratio of 

P 2 O 5 to 

K 2 O. 


Corn, Ears and Fodder, 97 bu., 


76| 


35£ 


82£ 


194| 


1:2.3 


Oats, Grain and Straw, 47 bu., . 


43| 


I5h 


51£ 


110| 


1:3.3 


Hay, 3 tons, .... 


60 


21 


95h 


176£ 


1: 4.5 


Potatoes, 200 bu., 


38* 


21h 


67 


127 


1:3.1 


Clover, l£ tons, 


64 


17 


58£ 


139£ 


1 : 3.6 


Wheat, 15 bu., .... 


25£ 


124 


15 


52£ 


1: 1.2 


Beans, 20 bu., .... 


75 


20h 


53| 


149£ 


1:2.6 


Ensilage, 20 tons, 


113 


44 


120 


277 


1: 2.7 


Average, .... 


62 


23.4 


67.97 




1: 2.9 



The above table shows what various common crops remove 
from the soil, — that is, the parts which we have to consider, 
when fertilizing to prevent exhaustion or to restore fertility, 
namely ; Nitrogen, Phosphoric Acid, and Potash. The experience 
of farmers and the experiments of scientists lead us to the same gen- 
eral conclusion, namely : that these three substances are the ones 
that become exhausted when soils once profitable become so far 
reduced in producing capacity that they no longer pay. 



THE GROWTH AND NUTRITION OF PLANTS. 117 

(4.) Definitions. — Plant food is any substance, which con- 
tributes towards the nourishment of the plant — e. g. carbonic 
acid, water, nitric acid, potash, etc. But a considerable part of 
this food, nature provides in abundant quantities, free of cost. 

Deficient plant food is that part which becomes so diminished, 
in an available form at least, that the crop producing power of 
the soil is materially reduced, e. g. nitrogen, phosphoric acid, 
potash. 

A Fertilizer is any substance which contains available deficient 
plant food. 

A Commercial, or "prepared," fertilizer refers to any of the 
goods mixed and put up in bags or barrels, and sold under a 
guarantee of composition. 

Chemical fertilizers are those which are compounded from such 
crude fertilizing chemicals, as bone black, South Carolina rock, 
muriate of potash, kainit, nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, 
etc. 

Manures are the natural excrement of animals of all kinds, and 
are as truly fertilizers as is any sacked or barrelled material, 
though in common acceptance, manures are looked upon as being 
unlike commercial goods in their action on crops. As a matter of 
fact, they feed the plant on those things which it needs most, just 
as the prepared fertilizers or chemicals do. Hence there is no 
valid distinction between natural and artificial fertilizers. 

Farm-yard manure is, and always will be, a standard fertilizer 
in all agricultural communities where live stock husbandry is 
practised. Hence an intelligent and economical plan of storage 
and use is imperative. But today I propose to consider more 
especially the conditions that have led to an universal use, in all 
old agricultural regions, of waste products as aids to manures. 

There are some who hold that there is no more need today of 
commercial or chemical fertilizers than there was a half century 
ago, if only the manures of the farm are saved and used rightly. 
This cannot be well maintained. In any system of farming, there 
must be some product sold, else there is no cash coming in, and if 
crops or animals are sold, then to some extent nitrogen, phos- 
phoric acid, and potash are sold, and the vast quantities of these 
substances, which the sewers of Boston, New York, and the 
multitude of cities and villages throughout our land daily pour 
out into the ocean, represent just so much soil-fertility gone 



118 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

from the cultivated fields. There is no method of even approxi- 
mating this loss, so far as I know, but that it is enormous no one 
can deny. 

The eminent French scientist, Grandeau, estimates that one 
year's crops in France represent 298,200 tons of phosphoric acid. 
Of this only 151,000 tons were received, leaving a deficiency of 
147,000 tons of this one form of plant food which must be made 
up from outside sources, and right here is where the use of com- 
mercial and chemical fertilizers comes in. 

Some say, "buy grain," thus adding to your farm some elements 
brought from another farm. Very good, as far as it goes. We 
can and we do replenish our soils, at the expense of the West 
and South. When we buy a ton of shorts, or of cotton seed, or 
of corn meal, we are transferring plant food from the land where 
these grew, to the soil where the manure from the animals to 
which they are fed, is used. From the narrow local horizon this 
is right, and so long as the West and South do not object, we 
should continue this. But, from the broad view of the whole 
country, this is poor policy, and that system of agriculture which 
shall be permanently successful must feed its crops, so far as 
possible, where they grew, concentrating bulk} T crops into compact 
animal products, and leaving as much as possible of the deficient 
plaut food on the land. But under the best management, the 
elements of soil-fertility which our rivers carry into the sea must, 
or should, be made good by utilizing all waste products from 
slaughter houses, gas works, iron furnaces, and various other 
manufactories, as well as the stored-up mineral wealth which 
is found in many countries. 

(5.) The feeding of plants is not essentially different from the 
feeding of animals, except that the soil, in itself, contains most of 
the food required for them, only a few substances being needed 
from outside ; while with the animal everything must be supplied. 
The materials containing the deficient plant food, — that is, fertili- 
zers, — are numerous, and their number is increasing. As manu- 
facturers turn their attention towards the utilization of waste 
products, they find new substances which by proper treatment 
may be made to supply some one needed form of plant food, and 
in the following table I have classed those materials which are 
most common, giving not only the kind and amount of plant food 
which they contain, but also the cost per hundred pounds, with 



THE GROWTH AND NUTRITION OF PLANTS. 



119 



freight included, to points say, a hundred miles distant from such 
centres as Boston, New York City, Baltimore, etc., and in the 
last column is given the weight per measured half-bushel. This 
last is given to enable any who may wish to mix these materials 
themselves, but who do not have facilities for weighing. 



Kind of plant food 


Per cwt. of 


Cost per 100 


Weight per 


furnished 


. 


plant food. 


pounds, $. 


y 2 bu., lbs. 


3~ 


i 


Raw bone, 




24* 


1.75 




"0 

a 


,2 

3 - 
O 


Bone black, 




28 


1.30 


38 


O s~\ 


South Carolina Rock, 




28 


1.25 


52 


'§§> 


C 
H 


Bone ash, 




35 






IlPh 


«j 


'Dissolved S. C. Rock, 




16 


1.25 


30 


BO W 




3 

5 1 


" bone black, 




16 


1.50 


30 







" bone, 




16 


1.75 




Part reverted. 


Thomas-Gilchrist slag, 










(6perct.) 
Part insoluble. 




21 


1.25 




(15 per ct. 


) 














* And two and one-half 


per 


cent of i 


litrogen. 








r Wood ashes, 




6 


0.50 


23 


<-« • 




Muriate of potash, 




50 


2.40 


34 


eg O 




Sulphate of potash, 




22 










Sulph. potash (high grade), 


50 


3.50 


40 


PhC 




Kainit, 




12 


.75 


39 






Krugit, 




8 


.75 


39 






'Dried blood, 




12 


2.00 


19 


c 




Fish waste, 




7 






. 




Bone, 




2.5* 


1.75 




£i 


- 


Nitrate of soda, 




15 


3.00 


44 


s 




Nitrate of potash, 




13 


5.00 








Sulphate of ammonia, 




20 


4.00 


31 



* And twenty-four per cent phosphoric acid. 



(6.) To decide upon the right fertilizer under any given con- 
ditions is a matter of some difficulty, but not one beyond solution. 
A glance at the table, showing what constituents various crops 
removed from the soil, will give us some information. For 
example, we see that the average amount of deficient plant food 
removed per acre, by eight of our most common crops is : 

Nitrogen, 62 lbs., Phosphoric acid, 23.4 lbs., Potash, 67.97 lbs. 
or 2.9 times as much potash as phosphoric acid. We also see 
that various crops use these materials in different proportions ; 
thus wheat uses phosphoric acid and potash in almost equal 
quantities, 1 : 1.2, while hay uses 4.5 times as much of the latter 
as of the former. 

But in spite of these figures it might be and is doubtless true, 
that many soils by the application of a single constituent, — say 



120 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

phosphoric acid, will produce good crops. This result is due to 
the fact that soils vary in their natural supply of plant food, and 
one may be well stocked with potash, but lacking in phosphoric 
acid. On such, dissolved bone alone will enable the plant to 
make a full growth. Another soil may be abundantly supplied 
with phosphoric acid but deficient in potash ; under these condi- 
tions the use of bone would be wasteful, but potash fertilizers 
would work great benefit. Thus it happens that we must consult 
the soil before we can decide upon the kind of fertilizer needed. 

To test the soil is not a difficult task. A few rows fertilized 
with ashes, will often tell us whether potash is the principal thing 
needed. A few other rows, on which dissolved bone-black alone 
is used, may give valuable indications. But the most valuable 
method of testing is, to select some three of the crude materials 
above tabulated, — say sulphate of ammonia, muriate of potash 
and dissolved bone-black in various proportions, thus giving mixed 
fertilizers which shall contain varying percentages of nitrogen, 
phosphoric acid, and potash, and by using equal values per acre, 
and leaving certain parts with no fertilizer, we ma}^ form very 
accurate estimates of the relative value of each combination. This, 
it seems to me, is the true test. The following table shows the 
combinations which were used in the cooperative experiments in 
New Hampshire in 1889. The top row of figures gives the num- 
bers of the plots ; the amounts under these, in the vertical columns 
represent the amount of each chemical (the name of which is 
given in the left hand column) used per -^ of an acre. The cost 
is fifty cents per plot, or $10 per acre, except one, the manured 
plot, where $20 per acre was invested. The lower part of the 
table shows what the chemical composition of the mixture was, 
e. g., plot 1 had a mixture of 18£ lbs. of dissolved bone-black, 
3§ lbs. of muriate of potash, 3§ lbs. of sulphate of ammonia ; 
the analysis of this was, phosphoric acid 11.4%, potash 7%, 
nitrogen 2.8%. To any who might like to test this method, but 
do not care to undertake so large an experiment, plots 1, 3, 5, 9, 
13, and 16 might be selected and enough rows taken to give 200 
hills of corn for each mixture, the fertilizer to be sown broadcast 
on the rows after planting. 



THE GROWTH AND NUTRITION OF PLANTS. 



121 






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122 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

(7.) Can Chemicals Take the Place of Farm Yard 
Manure ? — An experiment was started on the Agricultural Col- 
lege farm, at Hanover, N. H., in 1885, which was designed to 
throw light on this question. 

Two acres of land, from a field of six acres, were selected for 
this experiment. The land had produced hay for three years 
previous to 1885 ; oats and sugar beets had preceded the hay. 

The third acre had thirteen loads of manure plowed in and nine 
loads harrowed in, or in cords this would be 

5.6 cords plowed in 
and 3.8 cords on the surface, 



or 9.4 cords in all, 

which would sell, as it laid under the stables, for $33.00. This 
manure was from fattening steers, well fed with hay, straw, 
cotton seed, and corn meal. The fourth acre had yearly applica- 
tions of chemical fertilizers, mixed as follows : 

Dissolved bone-black, 346 lbs. 

Muriate of potash, 150 lbs. 

Sulphate of ammonia, 56 lbs. 

The average cost of this mixture has been $11.00, and as there 
have been three applications since 1885, it follows that each acre 
has received $33.00 worth of fertilizer ; the third having $33.00 
worth of manure, and the fourth $33.00 worth of chemicals. 

The first year the crop was corn, the second year corn, the 
third oats, and the fourth grass. 

The following table shows the yield of each acre for each year, 
and also the value of the crop, assuming eighty pounds of corn as 
harvested to be worth sixty cents, thirty-four pounds of soft corn 
ten cents, and fodder thirty cents per hundred ; oats fifty cents 
per bushel, straw thirty cents per hundred, and hay ten dollars 
per ton : 



THE GROWTH AND NUTRITION OF PLANTS. 



123 





CORN. 


Total yield 

with 
manure. 


2 « 
.2 -"3 




Third acre. Fourth acre. 
Manure. Chemicals, 


c« te a 


Sound corn, 

Soft corn, .... 
Fodder, .... 
Value of crop, . 


1885. 
112 bu. 

16$ bu. 
4835 lbs. 

$49.75 


1886. 
83| bu. 
27 bu. 
4435 lbs. 
$41.12 


1885. 
97 bu. 
15 bu. 
5352 lbs. 
$46.65 


1886. 
82| bu. 
24 bu. 
4927 lbs. 
$42.00 


195| bu. 

43$ bu. 
9270 lbs. 

$90.87 

$35.10 
$29.40 
$21.00 


179| bu. 

39 bu. 
10279 lbs. 

$88.65 




OATS, 1887. 




Grain, .... 
Straw, .... 
Value of crop, . 


43 bu. 

4535 lbs. 

$35.10 


47$ bu. 
5267 lbs. 
$39.55 


$39.55 




HAY, 1888. 




Yield 

Value, .... 


5880 lbs. 
$29.40 


6202 lbs. 
$31.01 


$31.01 




HAY, 1889. 




Yield, .... 
Value, .... 


4200 lbs. 
$21.00 


4710 lbs. 
$23.55 


$23.55 








Total value for five years, 


$176.37 


$182.76 


Excess in favor of C 


hemicals, 













It will be seen that not only have the chemicals exceeded the 
manure in the total of five years but also that the chemicals hold 
out better, — a point always assumed to be otherwise. It is pro- 
posed to continue this experiment. 

(8.) Chemicals Compared with Prepared Fertilizers. — In 
a series of experiments covering three years, we have arrived at 
the following conclusion : 

Three crops, — corn, oats, and hay, gave us a total value : 
With no fertilizer, $70.07 



With Potash alone, 

u Phosphoric Acid alone, 

kt " and Potash, 

" " " Nitrogen, 

Chemical fertilizers (complete) , 
Prepared " 
jri-oLies, • . . . 



44 



44 



94.74 

73.66 
111.43 

56.99 
108.56 

95.67 
107.94 



In our Cooperative series in 1889 : 

The best three combinations of chemicals, gave yields of corn 

averaging, . $90.62 

Prepared fertilizer, . . . . . 63.58 

No fertilizer, 41.00 



124 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

If we ask for an explanation of the superiority of Chemicals 
over Prepared or Commercial goods, it must be answered by 
comparing the composition, — that is, the relative amount of nitro- 
gen, phosphoric acid, and potash. The average of the prepared 
fertilizers sold in New Hampshire, in 1889, was as given in the 
following table, and beside it is given the average of the three 
best combinations of chemicals in the cooperative series, as well 
as the average of the best six combinations used on the Agricul- 
tural College Farm. 

Composition of: 

Prepared fertilizer, Best three combi- Best six chemicals 





1889. 


nations of chem- 
icals 1888. 


1886-7-8-9. 


Phosphoric acid, 


11.08% 


9.25% 


6.4% 


Potash, 


2.57 


11.3 


15.5 


Nitrogen, 


2.45 


3.5 


2.5 



Other results are equally pronounced, and we must conclude 
that our soils require more potash than is provided in the commer- 
cial goods. To get this, farmers are recommended to buy chemi- 
cals, and mix according to the follow formulae : 

I. 

Chemicals for Corn and Wheat. 
Dissolved bone-black, 325 

Muriate of potash, 100 

Sulphate of ammonia, 75 





500 


II. 




Corn (same as plot 26 in Experiments). 




Dissolved bone-black, 


182 


Muriate of potash, 


252 


Sulphate of ammonia, 


66 



500 
III. 

Corn (average of four best yields in plots). 

Dissolved bone-black, 175 

Muriate of Potash, 250 

Sulphate of ammonia, 75 

500 



THE GROWTH AND NUTRITION OF PLANTS. 125 

IV. 

Ensilage. 

Dissolved bone-black, 250 

Muriate of potash, 200 

Sulphate of ammonia, 50 



500 
V. 

Oats (average of best four plots in Experiments) . 

Dissolved bone-black, 330 

Muriate of potash, 105 

Sulphate of ammonia, 65 

500 
VI. 

Oats (like the best plot in experiments No. 8) . 

Dissolved bone-black, 300 

Muriate of potash, 200 

500 
VII. 

Hat (average of best four crops). 

Dissolved bone-black, 225 

Muriate of Potash, 254 

Sulphate of ammonia, 21 

500 
VIII. 

Hat. 

Dissolved bone-black, 700 

Muriate of Potash, 200 

Sulphate of ammonia, 50 



950 
IX. 

Potatoes. 
Dissolved bone-black, 340 

Muriate of potash, 160 

500 



126 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

X. 

Potatoes. 

Dissolved bone-black, 300 

Muriate of potash, 150 

Sulphate of ammonia, 50 



500 

It will be observed that these combinations contain a consider- 
able quantity of muriate of potash, and it must be borne in mind 
that if seed comes in direct contact with them there is great 
danger of the root being injured if not wholly destroyed. For 
this reason I would especially recommend that a large part of the 
fertilizer be used broadcast. The amounts above given are for 
one acre when no manure is to be used. For corn and potatoes I 
would never put more than one hundred and fifty pounds in or on 
the hills or drills, and I would first plant and cover the seed as 
though no fertilizer was to be used, and immediately after would 
apply the one hundred and fifty pounds on the top of the hill or 
drill, leaving it there to be washed down into the soil by the rains. 
There is little if any loss in this method and I believe the results 
will be better than from putting the fertilizer in the hill. 

Combination No. I, I would especially recommend for corn, 
IV for ensilage, and V for oats ; or as will be seen, it is so much 
like I, that the same mixture may be used for either corn or oats. 
However, if oats follow corn that has been manured with farm- 
yard manure, it is not necessary to use nitrogen, and in such a 
case I would recommend No. VI, or the potato mixture, No. IX, 
may be used. 

For hay two combinations are given ; the second is to be 
recommended if four or five crops are wanted. 

For potatoes the same remarks as have been made concerning 
oats will apply ; if the potatoes follow some crop that has been 
manured with stable manure there is no need of nitrogen, and 
therefore No. IX would be best ; in soils deficient in nitrogen No. 
X might be best. 

It will be seen from what has been said that the corn combina- 
tion I, may be used for corn, wheat, oats, and on some soils for 
potatoes. The potato mixture, IX, may be used for potatoes and 
oats on soils that have previously been manured, or are not defi- 
cient in nitrogen. For ensilage No. IV is to be recommended. 



THE GROWTH AND NUTRITION OF PLANTS. 127 

And now in conclusion, let me urge upon you the importance of 
trying this plan of feeding your crops. You cannot lose anything 
by it, you may gain much. Test the matter and know of your 
own knowledge whether your soil is like that on which we are 
working in New Hampshire. 

The essay excited a deep interest, and held to the end the close 
attention of the large company present, and a vote of thanks to 
Professor Whitcher, for his interesting and valuable paper, was 
unanimously passed. 

Discussion. 

Joseph H. Woodford, spoke of the nitrate of soda as easily 
converted into nitrate of potash, a useful fertilizer. He added 
that any substance used as a fertilizer must be made soluble in 
water, else it could not be available. 

Henry L. Clapp said that there are in different places in Can- 
ada, large deposits of apatite, or phosphate of lime, containing 
over forty per cent of phosphoric acid, and that apatite had 
been mined for fifteen or twenty years, and carried to Eng- 
land. He asked why it was not brought this way. It seems a 
pity that the New Hampshire farmer, perhaps living near the 
Canada line, should be obliged to procure his phosphate from 
South Carolina, when a dozen phosphate beds are within one 
hundred and twenty-five miles of Montreal, whence it is shipped 
to England. In Nova Scotia large quantities of gypsum are 
found, and very fine potatoes are raised there. Gypsum, under 
the name of plaster, has been used in the culture of potatoes by 
New England farmers, especially in the past. It is sulphate of 
lime and contains forty-five per cent of sulphuric acid. Nova 
Scotia soil seems to have enough gypsum in it by nature for the 
successful culture of potatoes, while our soil seems to need it. 

Professor Whitcher said that he could only account for the 
fact that Canadian apatite is not brought to this country, by the 
protective duty laid on it. The only effect of sulphuric acid on 
apatite or South Carolina phosphatic rock is to render them 
soluble. He thought the fine quality of the Nova Scotia potatoes 
could not be due to the gypsum, for just as good ones are raised 
in the Aroostook region in Maine, where no plaster is used. In 
New Hampshire not so much plaster is used as fifteen years ago ; 
it is used as an absorbent in stables. 



128 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Edmund Hersey spoke of the feeding of plants in connection 
with the soil. He had found that what proved beneficial to the 
soil in New Hampshire and western Massachusetts, was very 
unsatisfactory on his soil. He had thought potash to be the one 
thing necessary until by experiments he found it an injury. He 
went into some nice experiments on this point, and for the present 
his soil gets along without any additional potash. All farmers 
should know that potash causes great damage when applied too 
freely. Probably there are others who, like him, have a supply 
of potash in the soil. Potash on his soil caused reduced crops, 
while phosphoric acid produced increased crops. He had never 
applied too much of the latter, though he had used at the rate of 
$120 worth to the acre. More than $30 worth of nitrogen is an 
injury. He has been trying to fix the colors which are produced 
by an under or over supply of nitrogen, etc. The effect of an 
over supply of nitrogen on corn is precisely the same as that of a 
cold storm in May ; a blue streak will be seen running down the 
centre of the leaves. The effect of potash is exactly opposite. 
He thought he could tell by the color of the leaves, whether corn 
was injured by an over supply of potash. He asked why his soil 
should differ from the soils in New Hampshire. It is because 
soils are made up differently ; there may be potash in the stones 
on some farms, and none in the stones on others. Then again, 
the stones in a soil may be rich in potash, but not be in such a 
state of decomposition as to be available for plant food. We 
cannot learn from the lecture platform or from books how to treat 
our soils, but farmers must learn from experience not to apply what 
is not needed. The idea has been prevalent that we only lose the 
interest on the cost of useless substances applied to our soils, but 
potash may be taken up by plants in sufficient quantity to reduce 
crops. Manufacturers of fertilizers cannot tell what any soil 
needs ; only the cultivator can tell. 

Mr. Clapp said that some soils are largely composed of feldspar, 
which contain a good deal of potash. In Topsham, Me., there 
are large quarries of feldspar, and the soils in that vicinity need 
little potash, but near Boston, where the soils are largely formed 
of diabase or trap-rock, potash is needed, and also in limestone 
soils. We should not only know our soils, but also the character 
of the rocks from which they are made. It is just as vital a point 
to find out the cost as the combinations of fertilizers ; a dollar's 



THE GROWTH AND NUTRITION OF PLANTS. 129 

worth of one fertilizer should be put against a dollar's worth of 
another. The granite drift soils of New Hampshire seem to need 
potash because potash feldspar is not abundant enough in them. 

O. B. Hadwen said that in making maple sugar a sediment, 
supposed to be lime, is found in the bottom of the pans in greater 
or less quantities, and asked how it gets there. 

Professor Whitcher said that the lime in maple sap is combined 
with malic acid, forming malate of lime. More or less of this 
substance is always present in maple sap. 

William D. Philbrick spoke of the work done at the Connecticut 
Agricultural Experiment Station in regard to settling the wants of 
soils. Not only different farms, but different fields on the same 
farm, require different applications. 

Mr. Hadwen, as Chairman of the Committee on Discussion, 
announced that at the meeting next Saturday, Joseph T. Rothrock, 
Professor of Botany in the University of Pennsylvania, would 
speak on " Forestry." 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, March 1, 1890. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at half past 
eleven o'clock, the President, William H. Spooner, in the chair. 

The Secretarv read letters from the Housatonic Agricultural 
Society and the Worcester North Agricultural Society, conveying 
the thanks of those Societies for the invitation to appoint a 
member who should have the free use of the Library and Library 
Room of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, for the pur- 
pose of preparing papers to be read before the Institutes of those 
Societies, and announcing that they had respectively appointed 
James H. Rowley, of Egremont, and George Cruickshanks, of 
Fitchburg. 

Joseph Goddard, of Roxbury, 

having been recommended by the Executive Committee, was on 
ballot duly elected a member of the Society. 
9 



130 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

J. D. W. French read the following resolutions, adopted by 
the American Forestry Association at their eighth annual meeting, 
held at Philadelphia, October 15 t© 18, 1889 : 

Resolved, That we respectfully petition the Senate and House 
of Representatives of the United States to pass an act withdraw- 
ing temporarily from sale all distinctively forest lands belonging 
to the Government of the United States, as recommended by the 
Secretaries of the Interior during the past three administrations, 
and providing for their protection, and authorizing the employ- 
ment of the arm}', if necessary for this purpose, until a Commis- 
sion, to be appointed by the President, shall have made such 
examination of the forests on the public domain as shall be 
necessary for determining what regions should be kept permanently 
in forest, and shall have presented a plan for a national forest 
administration. 

Resolved, That we also petition the Senate and House of 
Representatives to authorize the President of the United States to 
appoint a Commission for the purpose of examining the forests 
on the public domain and reporting to Congress a plan for their 
permanent management, and that Congress make the necessary 
appropriations for such Commission. 

Mr. French moved that the Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
endorse these resolutions, and that copies be sent to the Massa- 
chusetts Senators and Representatives in Congress, expressing 
the approval of this Society, and urging that action be taken to 
carry out the measures asked for in said resolutions. 

The motion was unanimously carried. 

Adjourned to Saturday, March 8, 1890, at half past eleven 
o'clock. 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

Some Aspects of the Present Forestry Agitation. 

By Joseph T. Rothrook, Professor of Botany, University of Pennsylvania, 

Philadelphia, Penn. 

The present forestry agitation represents one of two things : — 
either a great cause, or no cause. We shall first of all in this 
paper endeavor to show that it is the former one of these alterna- 
tives ; and then to suggest some measures, which, if our case is 
made a clear one, would appear to be both proper and pressing. 



ASPECTS OF THE PRESENT FORESTRY AGITATION. 131 

A rapid glance backward would possibly be at once the easiest 
and the surest method of reaching a conclusion. Two hundred 
and eight}' years ago all that region, with which we are now so 
familiar, between the Atlantic seaboard and the crest of the 
Alleghany Mountains, and from Nova Scotia to Georgia, to say 
nothing of Florida, was practically an unbroken forest. Only 
here and there, two centuries ago, did a community or an individ- 
ual for a moment dream that a scarcity of timber could occur in a 
country where the forests were so dense and so vast. It is 
singular too that all of those who were far seeing enough to 
anticipate a possible future scarcity of wood were born in Europe. 
The next generation, the native born Americans, were, probably 
without exception, or certainly with very rare exceptions, 
impressed with the view that their woodland heritage could never 
or would never be exhausted. What was west of the Alleghany 
Mountains was hardly more than conjecture with the people at 
large. 

Each colony was then practically self-supporting in timber. 
This is probably all the history we need refer to. But after only 
a little more than two and a half centuries, with a comparatively 
small population operating on the timbered half of our continent, 
how many of the northern States, in the region indicated, are now 
absolutely self-supporting in timber? Few, if any. Or, to put 
the problem in another form : How does the timber brought to 
your markets today compare in quality with that furnished a 
quarter of a century ago ? Does not the smaller size, and the lower 
grade at once indicate that the best is gone ? Or, more directly 
still, take the most recent and apparently reliable utterance of 
Professor Prentiss, who has made our Hemlock Spruce a subject 
of special study : 

" It may therefore, be estimated that the full value of the 
products of the hemlock is, in round numbers, thirty millions of 
dollars per annum." Yet almost in the same breath he adds, 
" The length of time during which our remaining hemlock forests 
will sustain this annual drain is, of course, uncertain ; but the 
the most careful and conservative observers consider that the 
present supply could not be maintained for a period exceeding 
twenty or twenty-five years. It becomes, therefore, a question of 
great practical importance as to the way in which the existing 
demands upon the hemlock shall be hereafter supplied." 



132 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The present demands upon the forests of the Long-leaved Pine 
(Pinus palustris) in the South, point to a rapid destruction of 
these most valuable trees there, when we remember that the 
region on which we have already practically destroyed the White 
Pine is larger than the whole region over which this Long-leaved 
pine originally grew. This is especially probable since the tree 
destroying agencies have only recently been concentrated in the 
South. 

So heavy are the calls made upon the Shell-bark hickor} 7 and 
Pig-nut hickory that the wheel makers of the Atlantic seaboard 
who once used the trees from their own hill-sides, now bring their 
supplies from Kentucky and Tennessee. Another illustration of 
the diminished supply of valuable timber remaining in the East is 
found in the fact, that the centre of production of White Oak 
staves, has moved from Virginia west to St. Louis. Of course 
we need barely allude to the removal of the Black Walnut. As 
things now are, its fate is sealed. 

As we have said, all this is in the infancy of our civilization. 
In the East, these demands upon our forests must increase with 
increasing population. Still worse, we have already nearly 
exhausted some of the heaviest forests of the West, long before it 
has received even a portion of its population, to say nothing of 
its maximum. In other words, not content with ruining our own 
heritage, we have actually despoiled the West in advance of the 
time when the centre of population would be located there. It is 
indeed hard to say whether this is worse for the East or for the 
West. 

It is useless to urge that substitutes for timber will be found. 
New uses for it are also found. I think that statistics show that 
these promised substitutes do not come as fast as the new uses 
for the wood. 

Each year of delay in suggesting and applying remedies for this 
malady in the body politic, makes the problem a much more 
serious one, because to produce an average forest requires at the 
very least, half a century. So much then for the statement that 
this forestry agitation is the expression of a great cause ! But it 
is not great simply in any local sense. Just as the production of 
large crops in the West was an important factor in leading to the 
interstate commerce law, so will the demand of one State upon 
the forests of another, lead, eventually, to other interstate laws, 



ASPECTS OF THE PRESENT FORESTRY AGITATION. 133 

or, to what will practically come to the same thing, a prohibition 
against the removal of timber from the States where it grows to the 
States where it does not grow. And this, as any one may see, 
opens avenues to many serious national troubles. The great 
West poured its blood and its treasure into the war for the open- 
ing of the Mississippi Valley in 1861, because its prosperity 
demanded an open channel to the Gulf. So Kansas, Nebraska, 
and Utah will demand of Colorado, one of these days, that they 
shall receive their share of the life-giving flood of the Platte and 
Grand Rivers to irrigate their otherwise worthless plains, and to 
support their increasing population in comfort. • But back of all 
this water supply, even in Colorado, we find the forests of the 
Rocky Mountains, which help to collect and moderate the flow of 
water into the fertile valleys below, and all plans for irrigation, to 
be of permanent benefit, must be based on the care of these 
forests. Among the problems of the future, growing out of the 
dependence for water supply for purposes of irrigation on 
timbered mountain area, will be the one of State boundaries. To 
say the least, it is a mistake that any State should have such a 
natural boundary as the crest of the Reeky Mountains extending 
through its centre. Such natural lines, it has become a political 
axiom, should be state limits. This becomes more than ever 
clear when we consider its bearing in the light of irrigation and 
water suppl}\ We might approximate natural boundaries by a 
line, for instance, extending from longitude 117° west in Idaho, 
southeast to Laramie in Wyoming, and thence about due south 
toward El Paso. This, while it would not entirely obviate the 
trouble, would at least diminish the extent to which several 
States could be held at the mercy of one. Of course, I only 
allude to this as a matter for Congress and the States interested, 
to settle among themselves. It does not directly concern us, 
though it may yet be a pressing problem for that region. 

Look at it from whatever stand-point we may, the forest problem 
must, sooner or later, enter into the policy of the nation. 

It is, of course, easy to find fault with our law-makers, but the 
fact remains that they never, in this republican government, dare 
run far in advance of the people. So soon as we can convince 
them that this question must be faced, and can indicate with 
reasonable clearness what the national desire is, our State and 
national legislators will act as we wish. It has ever been so, and 



134 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

it can never be otherwise. Hence, then, this cause is in our own 
hands. If we believe in forest protection and forest restoration, 
the only thing for us to do is to agitate, and agitate until we are 
heard, and to organize into town, count} 7 , state, and national 
forestry associations that our agitations may be effectual. There 
never was a time when such organization was more hopeful than 
now. Politically we are almost without leading issues. It is hard 
for the dominant parties to tell upon what they differ, except that 
one has the offices and the other desires them. The irrigation 
question, so intimatety associated with the forestry movement, is 
fairly before the people of the West. And if by concert of action 
we can now determine upon certain desirable points and move 
solidly over any considerable portion of the country towards 
these points, we shall either gain them, or at least gain such a 
vantage ground that those who are to come after us will accom- 
plish all that we failed in doing. 

The first preliminary then, appears to be knowledge : — an 
exact statement of what land we have in timber in the whole 
country. When Maine, Massachusetts, and New York go to 
Washington, and on the shores of Puget Sound obtain their ship 
spars, it is clear that this report must come from both the east and 
west. When Florida gives Michigan her hard pine in exchange 
for white pine, it is equally certain that we need statistics from 
both north and south. How fast is this timber being destroyed ? 
How much do we need for the future to keep the springs of com- 
merce in full flow, and how soon can we produce it? Only a 
National Forestry Commission can answer these questions. It 
should have means and time allowed to do it well. The question 
is too important for any subterfuges or make-believe examinations. 
Let us have the truth carefully and honestly stated. Then, and 
not until then, can legislation be intelligent, permanent, and pro- 
ductive. I believe that this Society might, without going beyond 
its legitimate function, examine carefully the forestry bill prepared 
by the American Forestry Congress at its last meeting, and, if 
approved, join its voice to ours in petition to our National Congress 
for its passage. The bill is as follows : 



ASPECTS OF THE PRESENT FORESTRY AGITATION. 135 

House Bill, 7026. Introduced by Hon. Mark H. Dunnell, of 
Minnesota, February 17, 1890. 

A bill for the reservation and protection of forest lands on the 
public domain, and to establish a commission to examine into the 
condition of the said lands and to report a plan for their perma- 
nent management. 

Whereas, the permanent preservation and proper administration 
of a sufficient forest area, especially upon mountain slopes and 
about the head-waters of streams, are absolutely necessary to 
preserve and regulate the water supply, and to protect the 
agricultural interests of a large and rapidly increasing part of the 
population, as well as to provide an adequate timber supply for 
the same for all future time, and to prevent destructive recur- 
rences of drought and flood ; and 

Whereas, the forests upon the public lands of the United 
States are being rapidly destroyed by the ravages of fire, and by 
reckless cutting of timber both with and without authority, 

Therefore, be it enacted by the Senate and House of Represen- 
tatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, 
That the unsurveyed public land's of the United States embracing 
natural forests, or which are less valuable for agriculture than for 
forest purposes, and all public lands returned by the public 
surveyors as timber lands, shall be and the same hereby are 
withdrawn from survey, sale, entry, or disposal under existing 
laws, except as hereinafter provided, nor shall any timber be cut 
or removed from the said lands except for the actual needs of 
persons upon the said lands, engaged in carrying out the purposes 
of this act. 

Sect. 2. That during such period as this act shall remain in 
force, the President of the United States shall, on request of the 
Secretary of the Interior and the Commission to be appointed 
under this act, designate a portion or portions of the military 
forces of the United States to guard all or any part of the lands 
reserved as aforesaid, and the timber growing thereon, from fire, 
theft, and use by unauthorized persons. 

Sect. 3. That the President shall within a reasonable time 
after the passage of this act, appoint, by and with the adyice and 
consent of the Senate, three persons possessed of a knowledge of 
the needs and uses of forests, who shall constitute the United 
States Forest Commission, and shall hold office until this act is 



136 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

superseded by an act providing for the permanent administration 
of the forests upon the public lands, or is repealed. The President 
ma} 7 remove any commissioner, and any vacancy in the commis- 
sion shall be filled by him as is provided in the case of the original 
appointment. 

Sect. 4. That the duties of the said commissioners shall be to 
personally examine the lands reserved as aforesaid, so as to 
determine what part or parts of the said lands ought to be perma- 
nently kept in forest, and to keep themselves constantly informed 
as to the condition of the same, and on or before the opening of 
the second session of this Congress, to present their report to the 
President for transmission to Congress, stating in full a plan for 
the proper management of the forests upon the said lands, and 
the said commissioners shall make such further reports from time 
to time as they may deem necessary until this act shall be repealed 
or superseded as aforesaid. 

Sect. 5. That the said commissioners shall be authorized to 
contract on behalf of the United States, for the sale to responsible 
parties, at a reasonable price, of such wood and timber as may be 
needed for immediate use in the localities adjoining the said lands, 
subject in every case to proper regulations, to be made by the 
said commissioners, with regard to the size and character of trees 
to be cut, the places where they are to be cut, and the means 
employed in cutting them. 

Sect. 6. That the said commissioners shall each receive a 
salary of three thousand dollars per annum, and shall be paid 
their necessary travelling expenses incurred in the discharge of 
their duties as commissioners. The commission shall be provided 
with an office in the Department of the Interior, and shall be 
authorized to emplo}' a suitable clerical force. 

Sect. 7. That all acts and parts of acts inconsistent herewith 
be and the same hereby are repealed ; provided, however, that 
nothing in this act shall in any wa} T interfere with any reservation 
of the public lands heretofore made, or which shall hereafter be 
made, by the Secretary of the Interior for the purpose of irriga- 
tion, or with any use made of the same for that purpose. 



ASPECTS OF THE PRESENT FORESTRY AGITATION. 137 

Memorial of the American Forestry Association. 

To the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of 
America : 

At the eighth annual meeting of this Association, held in Phil- 
adelphia, October 15 to 18, 1889, the following resolutions were 
adopted : 

Resolved, That we respectfully petition the Senate and House 
of Representatives of the United States to pass an act withdraw- 
ing temporarily from sale all distinctively forest lands belonging 
to the Government of the United States, as recommended by the 
Secretaries of the Interior during the past three administrations, 
and providing for their protection, and authorizing the employment 
of the army, if necessary, for this purpose, until a Commission, to 
be appointed by the President, shall have made such examination 
of the forests on the public domain as shall be necessary for 
determining what regions should be kept permanently in forest, 
and shall have presented a plan for a national forest administra- 
tion. 

Resolved, That we also petition the Senate and House of 
Representatives to authorize the President of the United States to 
appoint a Commission for the purpose of examining the forests on 
the public domain and reporting to Congress a plan for their 
permanent management, and that Congress make the necessary 
appropriations for such Commission. 

The reasons for our urgent petition for the passage of these 
measures is briefly this, that, in the opinion of all those who have 
investigated and considered the matter, these measures, or others 
equally radical, can alone secure the magnificent forests upon 
these lands from destruction by axe and flame within a compara- 
tively short period. 

What the result of such destruction would be, may in some 
measure be realized by considering these forests from three points 
of view. 

First. They are valuable parts of the property of the nation. 
Though far less extensive than formerly, they still cover from 
50,000,000 to 70,000,000 acres. They are too valuable, merely 
as present property, to be neglected, left t© the timber thief to 
carry off or the chance fire to burn down. 



138 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Second. The}' will be needed as an important source of timber 
supply for the Western States for all time to come. If the popu- 
lation of this country is to continue what it is now, to say nothing 
of its probable great increase, these forests must always be looked 
to to supply the people of a vast region with timber for buildings, 
railroads, mining, and many manufacturing industries. Any 
serious diminution of this supply, owing to deforestation on a 
large scale, would prove a serious check to the prosperity of the 
Western States. 

Third. The greatest value of these forests to the present and 
future inhabitants of the Western States is in the assistance they 
render to agriculture through their influences on the water supply 
and the climate. The mere loss of national property, though 
measured by millions, can be endured. The absence of a timber 
supply at home can in a measure be made up for by purchases 
from more prudent foreigners, and by the substitution of other 
materials in the place of wood products. But there is absolutely 
nothing, natural or artificial, that will take the place of the moun- 
tain forest as a regulator of rainfall and water supply. Every 
inland region without forests is a region of long droughts, varied 
by destructive storms. Every mountain region without forests is 
a region whose streams, instead of watering the valleys below 
with a constant adequate flow, alternate^ dwindle into insignifi- 
cance and swell into raging torrents, not only flooding the country, 
but covering it with rocks and sand from the mountain sides. 
Great as is the damage caused by the loss of mountain forests, 
to a region naturally well watered, it would render agriculture 
impossible in that extensive district which has so recently begun 
to be rendered fertile by the use of irrigation. No system of 
reservoirs, even the most costly and ingenious, can take the place 
of the forests on any large scale. The most that it can do is to 
co-operate with them. 

It is respectfully suggested that the true value and use of these 
mountain forests has never been properly considered by this 
Government. It has apparently never realized that mountain 
forest land differs from all other land in this important respect, that 
its condition cannot substantially be changed without disastrous 
results ; that it must, for the sake of the properly agricultural 
land, always remain in forest. On the contrary, it has been sold 
and given away like other land without any restrictions whatever 



ASPECTS OF THE PRESENT FORESTRY AGITATION. 139 

upon its use in private hands, although the experience of every 
nation shows that the national government alone has the power 
and the means for the best forest management, and that its power 
must be exerted even over private forest property in order to 
prevent disaster to the community from the action of individuals. 

Timber cutting has been permitted on the lands yet unsold, but 
under impractical restrictions as to use, without any regard to 
proper methods, and with no compensation to the Government. 
The necessity of timber as an article of merchandise, and the 
impossibility of obtaining it legally from the public lands for that 
purpose, have inevitably led to enormous thefts of timber and 
fraudulent acquisition by a few individuals and corporations of 
large tracts of land to which actual settlers only were legally 
entitled. While millions upon millions of dollars' worth of timber 
have been stolen, both for home and export trade, the pitiful sum 
recovered barely covers the cost of prosecution. Lastly, the utter 
absence of protection from fire has led to the destruction of 
enormous tracts which will very slowly, if ever, be covered again 
by a forest growth of any value. 

The time has come when a change in these methods is absolutely 
necessary, and it is urgently called for by thousands of people 
whose future depends on a regular water supply. 

While the immediate withdrawing of the public forest lands 
from sale and entry is absolutely essential as a first step to their 
preservation as forests, it will not of itself secure this end. 
The destructive fires and extensive thefts will go on as before. 
Still less will the mere reservation of the land enable the timber 
to be properly utilized. These lands must be administered — 
protected from fire, and the timber cut only when ripe and with a 
view to a constant new growth. Temporarily some portion of the 
army can be employed to guard these lands, until a practical 
system of administration, a common-sense application of scientific 
knowledge and the experience of other progressive nations to the 
needs of the place and the time, can be successfully inaugurated. 
The organization of such an administration can best and soonest 
be effected by a commission of competent men, appointed for the 
purpose. 

That the evils above referred to are not imaginary but real, 
present, and constantly increasing, the memorials from the Pacific 
slope and the investigation of the Senate Committee on Irrigation 



140 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

abundantly prove. It is impossible to over-estimate the impor- 
tance of right action, and prompt action, in this matter, and that 
the Congress of the United States will permanently close its ears 
to the ever louder and louder cry of the people for forest preser- 
vation, this Association refuses to believe. With all hope, as well 
as earnestness, it prays your honorable body to enact such laws 
as the practical needs of the hour and a wise foresight of the 
future may dictate. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

James A. Beaver, President oj the Association. 

William Alfokd, of California, 

Abbot Kinney, of California, 

Edgar T. Ensign, of Colorado, 

James E. Hobbs, of Maine, 

J. Sterling Morton, of Nebraska, 

Warren Higlet, of New York, 

Charles C. Binnet, of Pennsylvania, 

Herbert Welsh, of Pennsylvania, 

Committee, 
Philadelphia, January, 1890. 

Will you pardon me if I merely outline what we are trying to 
do in Pennsylvania, and indicate our methods, and state what our 
success has been ? Four years ago some energetic, public-spirited 
ladies in Philadelphia undertook the organization of a State 
Forestry Association. There was almost no enthusiasm where 
they hoped to find it. In most places the project was met with 
coolness, if not with hostility, and even with sneers. But they 
persevered. A very modest little journal was started and freely 
distributed. The adjacent counties took up the work, and organ- 
ized societies (which contributed toward the support of the 
journal), held meetings, and brought the subject before the people. 
Today we have an active membership of about one thousand. 
Other counties are organizing and the chances are that in a short 
time we shall be able to reach the active, broad-minded men and 
women in each county of the State. Thus, too, we are gaining a 
foothold in the public schools. Arbor Day ceremonies, even if 
they lead to the planting of but few trees, at least serve to enlist 
the teachers in our cause, and to impress the children with the 
idea that it is better to plant and care for a tree, than to destroy 



ASPECTS OF THE PRESENT FORESTRY AGITATION. 141 

it. There existed once a necessity for destroying forests that 
erops might be planted. This necessity has matured into an 
instinct so that the first natural tendency of the American lad is 
to cut or strike a tree. The tendency of Arbor Day then, is to 
lead to a change of sentiment among the young concerning our 
trees. This is one of the most hopeful signs. All that we have 
accomplished is not much, but if each State in the Union had a 
forestry association of a thousand members, and each such society 
were to join with the others upon a single point in forestry legisla- 
tion to place it before our national Congress, the petitions would 
aggregate forty thousand names at least. It would be probably 
the first tangible sign to our representatives that we are in 
earnest, and would give them the desired reas@n for action on 
their part. There is no doubt of our ability to do all this by 
organized effort. It is further worthy of remembrance, that the 
hardest work is to start the movement ; but this once done it 
must grow, because organizations increase more rapidly in propor- 
tion as they become larger and more numerous. A cause once 
made popular takes care of itself. An isolated National Forestry 
Association must attenuate its lines in the effort to cover so large 
an area as our national domain. Except here and there, where it 
meets, it carries almost no weight in an attack. But let a National 
Association grow out of State Associations and the case is different. 
It means united forces, solid lines, and weight in concerted 
action. 

It remains to be stated, that the forces in favor of forestry are 
moving in the direction of State organization. New Hampshire 
and New York have already organized. Each State, too, is 
represented in its society by some of the most influential citizens 
and public men. Texas has just organized an Arbor Day and 
Forestry Association. 

Dakota placed in her constitution a clause providing for a 
Forestry School. But there still remains much to be done. Even 
where state and county organizations already exist, the weight of 
increasing numbers is desired. No issue of the day is more 
directly for the people than this. It has not even a tinge of 
political coloring ; it is simply and wholly a cause based upon 
right and expediency and in the interest of the future prosperity 
of the whole State and whole country. No people can more fully 
realize all this than the citizens of Massachusetts, where so many 



142 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

great movements have originated and whence they have spread as 
blessings to the whole country. 

Quite aside from the general problems to be placed before our 
National Congress, are the minor ones which grow out of the 
condition of each State. 

For Pennsylvania there would at once arise the question : Shall 
the Commonwealth own the waste ground, — the timbered areas on 
the chief water shed of these States? If so, what steps shall it 
take to secure them, without excessive cost on the one hand, and 
without injustice to the owner on the other? The general ten- 
dency of American thought is toward the belief that the individual 
will in future tolerate less and less meddling by the State with 
his affairs. It is because of this fact then, that I think the only 
way the State can protect itself is by owning the needed water- 
sheds, obtaining them by purchase if need be ; or, if this be not 
possible, by taking them as a cit} T takes ground for a park, or as 
a railway company takes the land needed for its road-bed. I can 
see no new principle involved here. If a State can grant to a 
private corporation the right to take and use private property for 
public benefit, it is strange indeed that it cannot claim the same 
right for itself. How can it give a right which it does not itself 
possess ? New York has already decided this affirmatively. I am 
convinced that, for us in Pennsylvania, the most pressing demand 
in the interest of our forests is removal of taxes on land so long 
as it remains in timber, or, if the owner is to be taxed, it should 
only be on the timber which he removes, and from which he 
derives a revenue, or an actual benefit. 

Consider the case for a moment ! We are told, the owner holds 
these lands in timber because of a prospective higher value, and 
that he is simply paying for the protection the State renders while 
he waits. Now if this were true, — and it is not, for the State fails 
to protect him, — the fact remains that the State is year by year 
reaping from these forests a benefit vastly in excess of what 
comes from taxes, but the owner receives nothing. In places 
where his timber is remote from market the only exclusive privi- 
lege remaining for him is to despoil the commonwealth of trees that 
were more needful to it than they could be to him. But the prin- 
ciple is wrong. Such taxation is neither equal n©r proportionately 
equal. It is, when reduced to its simplest expression, a tax upon 
the owner for being a public benefactor. His trees purify the air 



ASPECTS OF THE PRESENT FORESTRY AGITATION. 143 

— for the lungs of the citizens in an adjacent county it may be — 
and the water collected and stored turns the factory wheels or 
enters reservoirs a hundred miles away. But the owner, receiving 
at most only his share of these blessings, must pay the whole tax. 
I object then to that woodland tax, on the very ground of its 
inequality. But the principle is wrong in another way. Thus the 
idea of taxation is, I think, based not on property as such, but on 
the benefits derived from it. An authority says, " all tax must 
ultimately come from rent, profit, or wages." But the owner of 
the unused timber land is receiving neither rent, profit, nor wages. 
How then can he be justly taxed? Lastly, I object to a tax on 
timber land because it not only puts a premium on removal of the 
trees, but, in some instances, as for example that given by 
Senator Sawyer, actually necessitates clearing away the timber 
and leads to subsequent abandonment of the ground. I cannot 
give an exact estimate, but think I am safe in the assertion that 
in Pennsylvania there are about two thousand square miles of 
land absolutely worthless for all agricultural purposes, and where 
our most important streams head. For all that vast area there is 
but one natural destiny, the production of timber and the conser- 
vation of water. Now the State should either own it all, or 
remove the taxes from it. I do not think that Pennsylvania 
stands alone. From a paragraph written as early as 1846, by 
Mr. George B. Emerson, when treating of the Rock Chestnut 
oak, I think, Massachusetts has also some similar areas. I 
quote the passage: "But the chief recommendation of the rock 
chestnut oak, is the situation in which it grows. It grows 
naturally and flourishes on the steep sides of rocky hills where 
few other trees can thrive, and where the other kinds of oak can 
hardly get a foothold. There are, probably, thousands of acres 
of hilly, rocky land, in almost every county in Massachusetts, 
where various kinds of evergreens have grown, unmixed with 
deciduous trees, until they have exhausted all the nutriment 
suited to their support, and where now, consequently, nothing 
thrives, which ground would furnish abundant support for this 
kind of oak." This was written forty-four years ago. You can 
say better than I whether the condition of affairs has improved in 
the meanwhile, and what is the proper legislation, if any be 
needed, for such areas. Only allow me to suggest that you do not, 
in any way, encourage the owner to despoil the commonwealth. 



144 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

There is, it appears to me, a point to be brought out here in 
this particular locality. Do you do enough of tree planting? I 
ride along the great railroad thoroughfares of the State, and find 
too frequently, in towns and town surroundings, that the aspect is 
rather that of scarcity of trees, when I regard the country from 
the stand-point of landscape gardening. It appears clear to my 
mind that the tendency should be rather toward superabundance 
of trees. I do not suggest that your roads be literally lined by 
trees, or your many beautiful vistas be closed by masses of 
foliage. This would be a mistake. It would give you a country 
quite as monotonous as the other extreme. My suggestion is that 
you should consider this whole region adjacent to the city, as one 
vast suburban park, to be laid out as a park, where the whole, so 
far as may be, should be under one leading plan or idea of land- 
scape gardening. A clump of oaks here, of elms there, of pines 
or spruces yonder, but each on the soil and location best suited 
for an enduring, vigorous life, so that you may have the fences 
and unsightly diseased trees removed. Above all, plant almost 
exclusively our native trees, for, as Professor Sargent has clearly 
shown, they are by all odds the longer lived. 

It would appear clear that if the State is justified in over step- 
ping the rights of private property to ensure an actual benefit, so 
too, it might be equally justified in according special privileges or 
special rewards to guard against public calamity. I make this 
statement as preliminary to the suggestion that it might be well if 
more general bounties than have yet been offered for tree planting 
were allowed by the State to such regions as that of Cape Cod. 
The question has risen more than once with me, as to whether 
the removal of trees from that sandy projection has not been 
followed by a fiercer and more disastrous sweep of the winds than 
once existed there. It would appear as though this idea could 
find some support from your local histor}? - and tradition. Near 
Cape Henlopen, the moving of an immense sand dune threatens 
to be a very serious matter for the future, unless measures are 
taken to arrest it. Within the brief period since the settlement 
of the country such changes have taken place in this moving mass 
as to indicate with some certainty, that it may prove a formidable 
foe in the future. How many other such illustrations the coast 
would furnish, it is hard to say, but probably enough to merit 
attention from our legislators, and appropriations from the States 
interested. 



ASPECTS OF THE PRESENT FORESTRY AGITATION. 145 

At the present juncture there is quite another aspect to this tree 
planting. Disguise it as we may, the unpleasant fact remains for 
our contemplation, that there has been a marked fall in the value 
of farm lands. We need not inquire how this has come about. 
It were better and more appropriate to our subject to inquire 
what shall we do under the circumstances. Probably nowhere in 
this countn 7 , unless we except some small areas where market 
gardening is carried on, do we make the most out of our acres. 
Compare Massachusetts or Pennsylvania with Belgium, and I 
think the case will be a clear one. This leads to the inquiry : 
Have we not been dissipating our energies over too large an area 
in all agricultural work? Should we not have gained more by 
careful culture of ten acres, than by slovenly treatment of twenty? 
Indeed, would not the smaller area, so treated, have been both 
more productive and more cheaply managed? If the question 
should receive, as I am inclined to think probable, an affirmative 
answer, then the conclusion follows, that there would remain an 
equal area for some other use. Land in cultivation tends, on the 
whole, toward impoverishment. It requires constant use of 
fertilizers. But land in forest tends toward increase of fertility. 
The annual fall and decay of foliage returns to the soil not only 
as much nutriment as the growth of the trees removed from it, 
but more. My suggestion then is, unless some better plan be 
offered, that on those unused acres trees should be planted. Sup- 
pose you are to use the land in ten years. If you plant judiciously, 
in that time your young shoots will be large enough to pay for 
removal, and the soil will have been enriched by the leaves they 
have furnished. It cannot be that this depreciation of farm land 
is to be permanent. In the not distant future the available 
desirable locations of the West and South will have been taken 
up, and the wave of home-seeking humanity, which has so long 
been moving westward with a force as resistless as the waves of 
the Atlantic, will, like those same waves, flow back toward the 
East, and mingle again with the masses from which they originally 
came. Happy he who then has a surplus holding here ! 

At the close of Professor Rothrock's lecture, a vote of thanks 
for his interesting and instructive paper was unanimously passed. 



10 



146 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Discussion. 

O. B. Hadwen expressed the exceeding gratification afforded 
him by listening to Professor Rothrock's lecture. He believed 
the present forestry agitation might prove of great benefit to New 
England. There used to be dry times when the country was, so 
to speak, completely covered with forests, but there was compara- 
tive^ little barren land. 

There is more forest in Massachusetts today than there was 
fifty years ago. This is partly due to the desertion of farms, 
which have naturally become wooded again, but in part also 
to this forestry agitation, which was begun more than half a 
century ago, and has been persistently urged by wise, far-seeing 
men. 

No doubt other material for buildings has been used in conse- 
quence of the exhaustion of native pine. So also in the matter of 
fuel ; farmers, as well as residents of cities, now use the coal of 
Pennsylvania, instead of the products of their own woodlands, for 
home comfort. 

He believed that as a result of the spread of knowledge of the 
principles of scientific forest culture, we shall yet grow timber, 
largely increased in size, and, through early pruning and thinning, 
now little thought of and rarely practised, the amount of clear 
lumber in the forest product will be greatly increased. 

Because of ignorance of the science involved, there is no enthu- 
siasm among our farmers, in this branch of their business. They 
are too eager to turn into money everything available in that 
direction, and will sell their pine trees as soon as they are suffi- 
ciently large for box boards. A wooden house is the best in this 
State, because it can be kept dryest and therefore most healthful. 
He hoped the time would come when the Commonwealth and the 
towns would relieve owners of woodland from excessive taxation. 

John M. Woods said that he was much interested in the subject 
before the meeting. For twenty-five years he had been a dealer 
in hard wood lumber and he had learned considerable about it. He 
thought the policy upon which the saw-mill business had been 
permitted to go on in this country illustrated the point about 
locking the stable doors after the horse was stolen. 

Prior to twenty-five years ago Albany was a centre ©f the 
lumber trade, but about that time, Cleveland, Ohio, came to the 



ASPECTS OF THE PRESENT FORESTRY AGITATION. 147 

front, and as time rolled on Indianapolis, Tnd., and Nashville and 
Memphis, Tenn., became prominent markets for lumber. There 
never was a time when the beautiful woods of our land were in 
greater demand than now, nor a time when they commanded 
higher prices. They are largely used in the finer finishing of 
house interiors, and in furniture. They include chiefly black 
walnut, oak, ash, butternut, cherry, sycamore, etc. Certain 
kinds, particularly curly grained woods, are in special demand, 
and to meet these calls the oldest and largest trees, which were 
considered best, were cut first and put into market. All parts of 
the country have been thus denuded of the best. The white- 
wood comes from the South. The Cumberland and Smoky 
Mountain ranges, and the elevated lands of Arkansas are rich in 
choice varieties of woods. They have been scoured for their best, 
to meet the demands of our markets. There was a time when the 
best black walnut boards, two feet wide, went begging at forty- 
five dollars per thousand feet. Now, the price of such lumber is 
one hundred and fifty dollars per thousand, and it is almost unpro- 
curable at that. Others of these choice varieties are also chiefly 
found only in narrow widths. Probably the appreciation of these 
woods in European markets helped to increase the demand for 
them here. The destruction of forests began with the settlement 
of this country, therefore our own State was an early sufferer. 
Mr. Wood stated that within a radius of eighteen miles from our 
State House, there is not now standing, a tree which would make 
a saw-log, except some growing on private grounds as ornaments. 
The destruction has been extended by saw-mill men all over the 
country. Lumbermen, i. e dealers in lumber, are becoming 
anxious to have measures adopted to check the wanton waste of 
our forest wealth. Arbor Day was suggested as a method of 
cultivating the public taste for tree culture, and the speaker 
urged that every one should make it an act of duty, if not of 
pleasure, to plant one valuable tree, — a black walnut, cherry, ash, 
white oak, or any that is used in manufactures. It will constantly 
be a thing of beauty and pleasure, and eventually of profit if need 
be. Although he has only a small city lot, he set out a black 
walnut tree a few years ago. It makes an annual growth of four 
feet and has become the admiration of the whole neighborhood. 
In Somerville, where he resides, many streets pass over hills. 
Where there are no trees, the rains wash the streets badly, and 



148 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

they are quickly dried to dustiness afterward. Those streets 
shaded by trees suffer far less by rains, and are not so dusty as 
the others. On this ground he claimed that trees are a protection 
to the road-bed, and that it is economical to plant trees on the 
streets, because it costs less to take care of streets so adorned. 

John D. W. French spoke of the subject as being broader than 
usually came before the Society for discussion, — it is as broad as 
the land itself. It is a question of the most vital importance. If 
the forests in one section of the country are devastated by fires, 
or unnecessarily destroyed by the axe, all sections suffer in more 
or less degree. 

Figures are suggestive and carry weight, but are often not as 
impressive as the words of a living witness. At the last Forestry 
Congress, in Philadelphia, Richard J. Hinton, who had accom- 
panied the Irrigation Commission the previous summer, stated 
that they travelled thousands of miles through burning and burnt 
forests, where the smoke was so dense as to fairly obscure the 
sun. And then, in one of the most eloquent addresses that Mr. 
French had ever heard, he set forth in glowing words, the iniquity 
and wickedness of our present system of forestry administration, 
with its wholesale destruction of timber by fires and lumber 
thieves. 

Something can be done to stem this tide of destruction before it 
overwhelms all our forests, by agitation at home, in the news- 
papers, and by bringing to bear, all influences possible, on our 
members of Congress, to persuade them to pass suitable forest laws. 
Professor Rothrock had suggested the formation of a State Forestry 
Association here, similar to the one in Pennsylvania. It may be 
well, sometime in the future, to form one. It is possible that the 
objects in view can be accomplished by existing societies, like 
the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, the Massachusetts 
Society for Promoting Agriculture, the State Board of Agricul- 
ture, and the Massachusetts Agricultural College. 

There are at present in our State, various laws bearing on the 
forestry question, such as exempting from taxation plantations of 
trees on land of low value ; to prevent fires, and for the punish- 
ment of offenders ; to allow towns to assess on polls a certain 
sum, not exceeding fifty cents each, for the planting of trees on 
public squares and highways, and also to protect trees from 
wanton and malicious mutilation. 



ASPECTS OF THE PRESENT FORESTRY AGITATION. 149 

Mrs. Henrietta L. T. Wolcott said she knew very little about 
this subject except from experience in her own grounds. In 1877 
her husband bought a farm of four hundred acres. There was a 
sandy, gravelly hill-side directly opposite the house. It was found 
unprofitable to cultivate that land, and she decided to devote it to 
trees. Ten thousand little trees were ordered ; they were so 
small as to come packed in one champagne basket. She asked to 
have furrows ploughed for the proposed rows of trees, but the 
whole ground was ploughed. This was a useless operation, and 
in a sense was discouraging However, she planted all those 
little trees, but the first rain that fell washed many of them out 
of the rows. Among these trees were two hundred seedling pines, 
about two and a half inches high. When the ash and larch trees 
were four feet high, they were thinned out, some of them being 
transplanted to afford future shade to the dairy building. In a 
few -years the trees had grown so large they could not be dug up. 
Some of the larches are now fully thirty feet high. The hill-side 
is covered and is an agreeable sight. The soil has been greatly 
improved, being now about twelve inches in depth instead of 
three inches as before the tree planting. Mrs. Wolcott said that 
in many places the work of the Village or Town Improvement 
Society was largely left to the women members. She recom- 
mended the planting of trees as a most appropriate work for such 
societies, but she thought it better to use larger trees than those 
with which she began. One foot high at least would be small 
enough. Still, she would suggest that some members raise stocks 
of trees from seed ; this would give them a choice in the selection 
of varieties, and they could be used when grown to any desired 
size. She would also recommend that individuals plant trees, 
either seedlings of their own raising or purchased from nursery- 
men. In this way, a great deal could be done to beautify the 
country, and make it more attractive and pleasant for generations 
to come. 

Leverett M. Chase regretted that the time did not permit a 
fuller discussion upon this matter. Professor Rothrock's valu- 
able paper had covered but a few of the elements in this theme. 
One is the relation of freshets and floods to the destruction of 
forests, to which we are compelled to give attention b} 7 the 
most disastrous experiences throughout the country. For exam- 
ple : in Ohio forests occupied 13,991,228 acres in 1853 ; 9,749,333 



150 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

in 1870, and 4,732,092 in 1880. From 1870 to 1881 the clearing 
was 5,041,086 acres, or 799,192 acres more than the total forest in 
1881. At this rate a single decade would deforest the State and 
leave a large deficiency to be supplied from other States and 
Canada. In 1883 the damage by floods in the Ohio basin alone 
was more than $61,000,000. Has the removal of forests from the 
vicinity of many of the tributaries of the Ohio River had any 
influence in precipitating all this excess of water from those 
districts into the streams? Would not the restoration of forest 
growths tend to retain more or less of that moisture where it fell, 
or at least to cause it to pass away more slowly, and, to a greater 
extent, discharge its natural functions, to the advantage of the 
annual crops, the live stock, and local navigation, and render it a 
benefit in every way to the people, instead of the terrible scourge 
it has been in later years ? 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, March 8, 1890. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at half-past 
eleven o'clock, the President, William H. Spooner in the Chair. 

Charles N. Brackett announced the decease of George Hill, 
and moved the appointment of a committee to prepare a suitable 
testimonial. The motion was carried and the Chair appointed as 
that Committee, Mr. Brackett, Henry W. Wilson, and Warren 
Heustis. 

The Secretary read letters from the Bay State Agricultural 
Society and the Worcester South Agricultural Society, expressing 
the thanks of those Societies for the invitation to appoint a 
member who should have the free use of the Library and Library 
Room during the year 1890, for the purpose of preparing papers 
to be read at Institutes of those Societies, and announcing that 
they had respectively appointed George M. Whitaker, of South- 
bridge, and George L. Clemence, of Globe Village. 






HEATING COLD FRAMES BY HOT WATER, ETC. 151 

A letter was also read from the Hingham Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society, conveying the thanks of that Society for a 
similar invitation, and stating that an appointment would be 
made at an early day, of which the Society would be notified as 
soon as made. 

Adjourned to Saturday, March 15, at half-past eleven o'clock. 



MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

Heating Cold Frames by Hot Water or Steam Pipes, and 

Growing Black Hamburg Grapes Under Glass 

that is Otherwise Used in Winter. 

By William D. Philbrick, Editor of the Massachusetts Ploughman, Boston. 

Five 3 f ears ago I made my first experiments in growing dande- 
lions in a frame heated by a circulation of hot water. 

The bed was one hundred and ninety-five feet long and twelve 
feet wide, covered by one hundred and thirty sashes, and was 
heated by one and a quarter inch water pipe, supported on 
the inside of the plank frame four inches below the glass, which 
was covered at night by straw mats in cold weather. This season 
has been so mild that no mats have been required. 

The dandelion roots were transplanted from the field in Septem- 
ber ; the glass was placed on the frame about the middle of 
December, and the firing of the boiler was begun about Christmas. 

The dandelions were marketed in February, producing an 
average of just a bushel to each sash, and were cleared off before 
the crop from the cold frames came in. 

As fast as the dandelions were cleared off, the bed was sown 
with radishes, with every third row Short Horn carrots ; the 
radishes were sold in April ; the glass was then taken off to 
another frame heated by manure for cucumbers, and the carrots 
were marketed in June. The result was highly satisfactory. 

The next year I repeated the experiment, using, however, a 
single one and a quarter inch steam pipe on the south side of the 
bed twelve feet wide. The dandelions near the steam pipe were 
somewhat drawn by the excessive heat of the pipe, but were not 
much injured. Instead of carrots, I sowed parsley with the 
radishes this time ; and it came to market in May and sold 



152 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

remarkably well. I have continued to use these warm frames 
every year since, with uniformly successful results, as regards 
growing the crops, though of course the market is not always 
equally good for the products. 

For the best and most easily managed frame I prefer one only 
six feet wide, with a fence to lean the mats against when not on 
the frame, having a one and a quarter inch pipe carried around 
the frame, on both sides, four inches below the glass, and heated 
by a small hot water boiler, under pressure of about ten pounds to 
the inch. The reason for preferring hot water circulation to steam 
is that in moderate weather the temperature can be more easily 
regulated by regulating the fire, than by steam pipes. The same 
results could probably be attained b} 7 having two or three steam 
pipes of less diameter, and shutting off the steam from part of 
them in mild weather. 

These frames are very convenient in growing the crops I have 
mentioned, which need to be grown in the open air in spring and 
fall without glass, the frame and glass being placed over the bed 
as cold weather comes on, thus avoiding transplanting, and they 
would answer equally well, I should judge, for many flowering 
plants of low growth, which need but little artificial heat, such as 
violets, pansies, primulas, and many of the Dutch bulbs. 

It is astonishing how little coal is required to keep out frost, 
which is about all that is needed with such hard} 7 plants as I have 
mentioned. When mats are used on the bed, it will require for a 
bed two hundred feet long and six feet wide only about three or 
four tons of coal for the winter, to keep the plants in growing 
condition, and make the frame produce fully double what it would 
do without the heat. Every one who has attempted to run a cold 
frame in a severe winter, knows how hard it is to keep out frost, 
even with double mats and shutters. By the aid of hot water or 
steam, no shutters at all are required, and much of the time not 
even mats. Such an arrangement, however, will not grow good 
lettuce, without a little bottom heat in cold weather. 

Growing Black Hamburg Grapes Under Glass that is 
Used for Other Purposes in Winter. — Every market gardener 
knows that there is usually a considerable number of hot-bed 
sashes in every market garden which are not used, unless for 
growing cucumbers and melons, after the middle of April, till the 
next winter. The early cucumber crop has of late years been far 
less profitable than formerly, and it occurred to me a few years 



BLACK HAMBURG GRAPES UNDER GLASS. 153 

ago that, possibly, this glass might be put to better use in grow- 
ing grapes. To do this, I started some cuttings of the Black 
Hamburg grape, and grew the vines for the first year in pots in 
my cucumber house. The next year they were set out in the 
border where they were to grow and were grown in a frame, 
raised three feet high and covered by a single string of hot-bed 
glass the vines being trained inside the frame. The vines were 
cut back in the fall to two eyes, and covered. The next spring 
the rafters of the house were built and the glass was put on about 
the last of April. 

The vines made a fair growth last year, and were allowed to 
ripen only a few bunches of grapes. But next summer I hope to 
be able to grow a fair crop. The glass with which this house is 
covered is ordinary hot-bed sashes, which are fastened to the 
rafters by means of screw-eyes in the rafters, through which 
common wood screws pass into the under side of the sashes to 
hold them in place. The glass is taken off in the fall, after the 
vines have been pruned and laid down and covered with earth. 
The glass is used on hot-beds or cold frames till April 20, when it 
is replaced upon the rafters of the grapery, just as the grapes are 
breaking into growth. The grapes treated thus will ripen in 
September. I see no difficulty in growing grapes in this way very 
cheaply. When I made my plans for this operation the price of 
Black Hamburg grapes was from seventy-five cents to one dollar 
and a quarter per pound, but the recent large importation of 
California grapes in the fall, together with the improved excellence 
of our out-door grapes, has reduced the price, so that Black 
Hamburgs sold last fall at about thirty cents per pound. This 
low price was partly due to the wet season, which made it impos- 
sible to hold the grapes for later marketing. 

I do not, therefore, regard this experiment as likely to prove a 
financial success, but any one who wishes to grow these delicious 
grapes cheaply, can do so by using his spare glass, and will be 
rewarded for the care they require, with a crop of choice fruit 
for his table or for his friends. There is, however, little induce- 
ment to grow them for market, unless they are forced early, or 
held till cold weather, which involves the use of heat and different 
arrangements. 

The span of the house is about twenty-four feet. The rafters 
are eighteen feet long, inclined at an angle of 45°, and are pre- 



154 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

vented from spreading by horizontal ties fastened about midway 
of their length. This length of rafter requires three lengths of 
sashes, each one slightly overlapping the one below it. Ever}' 
third upper sash on both sides is hinged at the top so as to be 
opened for ventilation, and there are also ventilators in the sides, 
which, however, are opened only when the grapes are coloring. 
The perpendicular sides are about two and a half feet high. The 
ground in the house is a foot or a foot and a half below the 
border, the soil having been thrown on the border. Telegraph 
wires are stretched, about fifteen inches from the glass, to bolts 
at top and bottom, by means of which they are tightened, and 
they have also a support in the middle ; on these wires the vines 
are trained. Perhaps a better plan would be, to carry the roof 
only about half as high, on the curb-roof plan, having the upper 
portion pitch just enough to shed water freely. This would make 
the working of the upper portion of the house less difficult. 

A vote of thanks to Mr. Philbrick for his able and interesting 
paper was unanimously passed. 

Discussion. 

E. W. Wood was first called on, and said that he had been 
much interested in the account of the use of heat in frames. 
Within the last few years a good deal has been done by procuring 
the old heating apparatus used in railroad cars. This has, in con- 
sequence of the change in the methods of heating, been sold for 
eight or ten dollars cash, and has been purchased to a considerable 
extent by the users of cold frames. Lettuce has, as the essayist 
said, failed without bottom heat. The heated frames are most 
useful for retarding plants. 

As to using the hot-bed sashes for grapes, Mr. Wood thought 
it a question whether it would be more profitable than continuing 
to use them for cucumbers or other vegetables. There is no fruit 
which will flourish under maltreatment as well as the grape. 
When the tops of Black Hamburg vines are destroyed the roots 
are never killed. The vines under Mr. Philbrick's plan must be 
bent down and covered with earth to protect them during the 
winter ; this can easily be done for the first four years, but after 
that it will be more difficult. The speaker has vines planted in 



HEATING COLD FRAMES, BTO« lOO 

1871, Home of which are four inches in diameter at. the surface of 
the ground and they cannot be bent down without injury. 

Mr. Philbrick said that the necessity for warming the earth in 
frames depends on what plants are to be grown. Lettuce and 
cucumbers must have bottom heat; dandelions, parsley, and 
radishes are more hardy and do not require it : in fact they do 
better without it. 

William H. Badlam thought that warming frames, as proposed 
by the essayist, would be liable to make plants more delicate. 
JJe thought steam would not give heat so quickly as hot water 
nor retain it as long. The water begins to warm the house as soon 
as it gets into circulation and does not lose its heat until the fire 
goes out. He also thought steam less economical than hot water. 

Mr. Philbrick's experience did not agree with Mr. Badlam's. 
He built a large house which he heated at first with hot water and 
afterwards with steam, and since then another, and he had found 
it decidedly more economical of* labor than hot water. You can 
get up heat with steam more quickly, because the quantity of 
water to be heated is much less. At this time of the \'ear you do 
not want heat during the day, and the pipes are much more 
quickly cooled when steam is used than with hot water. As to 
the danger of the fire going out, it does not amount to anything ; 
he leaves his fire for ten hours. In a small house he would prefer 
hot water. 

Mr. Wood gave an account of an experiment, made at the 
Agricultural Experiment Station at Amherst, to determine the 
comparative advantages of steam and hot water. A house eighty 
feet long and forty feet wide was built with a partition in the 
centre, one-half being heated with steam and the other with hot 
water, and two boilers exactly alike were put in. The only 
difference was that the side heated by steam was protected by a 
bank from the east winds, while the other side was exposed to the 
west. The coal was weighed every day, and it was found at the 
end of the season that, notwithstanding its exposure, a ton of coal 
had been saved in the part warmed by hot water, and the heat 
kept higher. This experiment was made by persons who were 
impartial and unbiassed. There may be conditions and circum- 
stances where steam can be used advantageously. The Messrs. 
Hittinger Brothers, at Belmont, have a house 600 feet long, one- 
half 25 feet wide, and the other half 30 feet, and four houses 150 



156 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

by 30 feet, in all which they use hot water. For small houses hot 
water is safer. Steam must be constantly watched. He thought 
the essayist would not say he could heat by means of steam with 
as little coal as with hot water. 

Mr. Philbrick thought that if Mr. Wood got used to steam he 
would feel as much confidence in it as in hot water. He had not 
kept an exact account of the cost, but he keeps his houses warmer 
by the use of three or four tons more of coal than was used when 
he heated the same houses previously with hot water. 

William. E. Endicott thought it would not be safe to draw final 
conclusions from the experiment at Amherst. That experiment, 
of itself, is of trifling importance. It merely shows that one style 
of steam-boiler cost more to run than one kind of hot water 
apparatus in one trial. 

Mr. Wood said that it was intended to test the whole matter as 
impartially as possible. The boilers were alike and were put in 
by the same dealer, and there was no difference between the two 
houses except the location. 

Mr. Endicott said that the question is too large to be settled by 
a single experiment. 

Joseph H. Woodford said that the method of raising Black 
Hamburg grapes, recommended by the essayist, had been practiced 
in England many years ago and illustrated in the English horti- 
cultural magazines. The houses were called "curates' vineries." 
Plans of the construction of these vineries are given in Thomas 
Rivers's "Miniature Fruit Garden." The late Stiles Frost, of 
West Newton, used sashes about three feet wide, resting on bricks 
at the base, and fastened together at the apex with hooks and 
staples. The vines were planted at the south end, and as the}' 
grew were suspended from the ridge of the sash. They produced 
large crops of grapes. In the fall the sashes were removed, and 
the vines buried until warm weather came in the spring. 

Mr. Wood said that such houses as the last speaker had 
described were used and recommended by Thomas Rivers. The 
houses were twenty-six inches high, two feet and a half wide, and 
seven feet long, without ends, so that they could be extended by 
placing in line. This had been done to the extent of seven 
houses. One vine produced sixty-three bunches of grapes. 
Those used by Mr. Frost cost seven dollars each. It is difficult 
to keep the vines within the bounds necessary for so small a space, 
but crops can be grown with little care and expense. 



MEMORIAL OF GEORGE HILL. 157 

The announcement for the next Saturday was a paper on 
*' Horticultural Education for Children," by Henry L. Clapp, 
principal of the George Putnam School, Roxbury. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, March 15, 1890. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at half-past 
eleven o'clock, President William H. Spooner in the Chair. 

Charles N. Brackett, Chairman of the Committee appointed at 
the last meeting to prepare a memorial of George Hill, reported 
as follows : 

The committee appointed to prepare resolutions on the death of 
George Hill, report the following : 

It is with feelings of sincere sorrow that we record the death of 
our esteemed associate and friend, George Hill, which occurred 
suddenly on Saturday morning, March 1st, at his residence in 
Arlington. The suddenness of the event has not only thrown 
around it a more than ordinary solemnity, but has made it difficult 
to realize that he, who but a few days ago was in our midst 
actively engaged in the duties of a busy life, should now be 
numbered with the dead. 

Mr. Hill commanded the respect and esteem of all who knew 
him, and in saying that his death is a public loss we are onlj 7 
expressing what hundreds of hearts have already declared. He 
was possessed of a noble, generous character and personal traits 
which made him very popular, and he will be missed by a large 
circle of friends who were warmly attached to him. 

For a period of more than twenty-five years he Was a constant 
and valued contributor to the Society's exhibitions. As an 
exhibitor of choice fruits and vegetables his contributions attested 
his enthusiasm and skill as a cultivator. He was a member of the 
Vegetable Committee thirteen years, and on various other Com- 
mittees rendered the Society valuable services, neglecting no 
duty. 



158 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

t 

We cannot, therefore, permit this occasion to pass without 
placing on record some expression of our appreciation of his 
virtues and our high respect for his character and memory. 
Therefore 

Resolved, That in the death of Mr. Hill this Society has lost 
one of its best cultivators and most respected members ; one who 
always felt a deep and abiding interest in its welfare and pros- 
perity. 

Resolved, That, remembering his sterling worth as a man, his 

rare integrity and purity of character, his fidelity and generous 

hearted devotion to the interests and welfare of our association, 

our hearts are made sad by his removal from the scenes of his 

earthly labors. Though dead he still lives in the hearts of not a 

few, for he lived 

" Scattering seeds of kindness 
For the reaping by-and-by." 

Resolved, That these resolutions be entered on our records, 
and that a copy be transmitted to the family of the deceased with 
the assurance of our warmest sympathy in their sad bereavement. 

Charles N. Brackbtt, } 

Henry W. Wilson, > Committee. 

Warren Heustis. ) 

The resolutions were unanimously adopted. 

Edmund Hersey, Chairman of the Committee appointed some 
years ago to collect information in regard to Large or Interesting 
Trees in New England, stated that the Committee had collected 
considerable material, but they desired to make the work credit- 
able to the Society, and therefore had had a circular printed 
asking for information on the subject committed to them, copies 
of which were upon the table for distribution to the members and 
others. 

The Secretary presented a letter from the Spencer Farmers' and 
Mechanics' Association accepting the invitation to appoint one of 
their members who should have the free use of the Library and 
Library Room during the year 1890, for the purpose of preparing 
essays to be read at Farmers' Institutes, and announcing that Mr. 
J. G. Avery, of Spencer, had been so appointed. 

Adjourned to Saturday, March 22, 1890, at half-past eleven 
o'clock. 



HORTICULTURAL EDUCATION FOR CHILDREN. 159 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 
Horticultural Education for Children. 

By Henry L. Clapp, Principal of the George Putnam School, Roxbury. 

In the paper which I am about to read I shall touch upon the 
following points : 

1. Children's natural love for digging in the earth. 

2. Why they lose that love. 

3. The abandonment of farms. 

4. The unfortunate results of our unbalanced system of educa- 
tion, in creating an overwhelming surplus of middlemen. 

5. Studies that alienate scholars from Nature. 

6. The influence of our text-books. 

7. The need of scientific farming in the United States. 

8. Some results of scientific farming. 

9. School-gardens in Europe. 

10. Results of instruction in school-gardens. 

11. The introduction of school-gardens into our system of 
education. 

12. What they should contain. 

13. Their effect on the health of city children. 

14. What horticultural socities can do to aid children in getting 
horticultural instruction. 

15. The best educational impulses in this country come from 
private individuals and private institutions. 

The child that does not like to dig in the ground is an excep- 
tional one. We see the children of the rich spending their 
vacations in digging in the sands of the sea-shore ; we see the 
children of the poor in the country digging caves in sand banks, 
making mud huts over their naked feet, and building dams for 
miniature mill-ponds. 

Not unfrequently we come across a child's flower garden, 
carelessly cultivated, but strongly characteristic of childhood. 
Children take to earth as naturally as goslings take to water, and 
their liking for flowers is hardly less marked. 

Why is it that so large a proportion of them grow away from 
such amusements soon after the}'' begin school life? Why are 
most of our pupils so intent on getting into an office or a store, as 



160 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

if either were a veritable El Dorado? Why is every avenue of 
business life crowded with middle men, commercial travellers, and 
non-producers of every description, while in every State farms 
are abandoned or worked under protest ? I have cut the following 
paragraph from a newspaper of last December : 

" In the rural districts in Wayne County, New York, there are 
no less than four hundred empty houses. It is a lamentable fact 
that the rural population of Wayne County is slowly drifting into 
the larger towns and cities, while many are going West in search 
of cheaper homes or fortunes. The town of Sodus alone has over 
fifty deserted houses, and Huron has thirty or more." 

Without attempting to give all the causes for such a state of 
affairs, to a certain extent we may fix the responsibility upon our 
common schools, since they are organized, or have been until 
recently, for turning out scholars who are bound to be non- 
producers until they are educated differently. Our pupils apply 
for such positions as our schools fit pupils for. If nine-tenths of 
them aim to be traders, or actually become such, it is because our 
schools have fitted them better to be traders than anything else. 
If a farmer's boy becomes proficient in arithmetic, no one of all 
concerned considers such proficiency as an important factor in 
making the boy a superior farmer, but rather as evidence that he 
is destined by nature and education to a higher sphere of action 
than farming/ His education, all the way through school, is of 
such a nature that its connection with farming is obscure, while 
its connection with the store, the office, or the agency is clear, 
and his aspiration to be a business man, a genteel trader, a book- 
keeper, or something above a farmer (as he thinks), is exactly in 
line with his education. In fact, with the farmer's boy, getting an 
education has come to be almost synonymous with getting away 
from the farm, since that is what really comes to pass. We 
estimate the influence of our schools b}' what the pupils have been 
and have done during a long term of 3~ears. Some studies alienate 
scholars from the cultivation of the soil and from nature gener- 
ally, more than others. Where is the scholar who, once having 
entered upon the study of Latin, so full of halos, mirages, and 
expectations to the tyro, ever thought for a moment of earning 
his living by horticulture or any kind of farm work? Though the 
Georgics and Bucolics of Virgil describe the felicities of farming 
in the choicest Latin, they never influenced one student in ten 



HORTICULTURAL EDUCATION FOR CHILDREN. 161 

thousand to try to realize those felicities. So it is with the study 
of modern languages, mathematics, music, psychology, and 
literary work generally. They have no natural connection with 
the cultivation of the soil ; they do not suggest it, and they too 
often preoccupy the mind to the complete exclusion of nature- 
studies. 

The farther they are pursued, unless balanced by studies of a 
different character, the worse it is for the best interests of educa- 
tion, — the worse it is for our agricultural interests. If children 
pore over books ail through the most impressionable years of their 
lives, even into the twenties, when students graduate from college, 
their faculties of observation and skilful manipulation become 
well-nigh atrophied, and the time when Nature can interest them 
has passed by. 

That any of the graduates of our schools and colleges cultivate 
the soil, either for pleasure or profit, may be considered a piece of 
good luck, rather than the result of proper education. If even a 
living chance, or an open field, were given in our schools, for 
the consideration of topics which pertain to agriculture, such as 
plant life, insect life, rocks, and soils, there would be less injus- 
tice done to our great agricultural interests, and less injustice 
done to the rising generation of children throughout the land. 

For years past we have been reaping the natural results of a 
system of education that, intentionally or unintentionally, turns 
all our young people for a livelihood toward the occupations of 
teachers, college professors, lawyers, physicians, clergymen, book- 
keepers, salesmen, musicians, artists, agents, and business men, 
under which head multifarious and heterogeneous legions of mid- 
dlemen are pleased to class themselves. These men have had the 
control of educational affairs, and they have kept the schools turning 
out their kind so long that there is unquestionably in this country 
an overwhelming surplus of middlemen, non-producers, and men 
living by their wits. Such a surplus is certain to make trouble. 
All are determined to live in affluence if possible, — genteelly at 
all events. 

Cities are crowded with middlemen. Thousands of men and 
women are constantly crowding into the cities only to get starva- 
tion wages, if they get any, and man} 7 spend all their hard-earned 
money seeking employment, and fail at last. Hoist a safe to an 
upper window and a hundred idlers will gather immediately. A 
11 



162 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

horse falls or a street becomes blocked, and a crowd of unem- 
ployed persons increases the blockade. Advertise for a competent 
person, — man, woman, boy, or girl, on a meagre salary, and the 
numerous applicants will show how overwhelmingly the occupa- 
tions of middlemen are overstocked. There are various grades of 
the great army of the unemployed in any city, but most of them 
are a standing menace to the general welfare, and many, if not 
actually criminal, are always on the verge of crime, often by real 
or fancied necessity. These people have been educated in our 
schools, — educated to do what they can find no opportunity to do. 
Deals, trusts, syndicates, stock-gambling, colossal monopolies, 
lotteries, confidence games, and other so-called business opera- 
tions, are the natural products of middlemen, using every artifice 
to beat each other, and make sales, and taking every possible 
advantage of those who realty develop the resources of the 
country, — farmers, miners, mechanics, and producers of various 
kinds. Competition among middlemen may be the life of trade, 
but it has been death to many a farmer. 

One of the principal causes of the present defensive movement 
on the part of farmers is middlemen. A million farmers, at least, 
in the United States, are now organized against middlemen and 
money-lenders. They say, " We must dispense with a surplus of 
middlemen, — not that we are unfriendly to them, but we do not 
need them. Their surplus numbers and their exactions diminish 
our profits. " 

Not only is this surplus of middlemen a damage to farmers, but 
to the financial standing and business reputation of the nation. 
The " Boston Herald," of January 1, 1890, contains a detailed 
account of the eight million dollars known to have been stolen by 
about two hundred middlemen, in positions of trust in this country 
during the year 1889. If those two hundred men had been 
influenced by our system of education to be good farmers, they 
would have added much to the happiness and prosperity of the 
country, and the disturbance to business enterprises and the 
distress to families, resulting from the stealing of eight million 
dollars, would have been prevented. We never associate these 
gigantic frauds with farmers, but always with traders. By the 
prevalence of such frauds we have earned the reputation of being 
the most fraudulent nation on earth. Our system of education, 
to begin with, and our hazardous tolerance of practically unre- 



HORTICULTURAL EDUCATION FOR CHILDREN. 163 

stricted and gigantic monopolies, furnish the conditions, if not the 
inducements, to frauds such as are seen nowhere else. 

Unquestionably our system of education has been, primarily, a 
scheme for making money without much work with the hands. 
Hard-working parents make every effort to establish their children 
in a petty gentility, such as they themselves have never enjoyed. 
On all sides the demand has been for an education that will pay 
in dollars and cents, whether it pays in body and soul or not ; good 
pay and little work, and that of a genteel kind, is the leading 
hope of such of our pupils as feel obliged to work ; making a good 
trade, and getting something for nothing, animates the generality 
of people ; and no talk about practical studies in our schools, has 
been untinged with the sordid spirit inherent in this nation, and 
inherent in its institutions; ''Civilization is what education 
makes it," and we may expect to see our civilization taking low 
ground, when our education fosters, rather than seeks to obliter- 
ate, the love of money, or getting money without earning it. All 
over the land labor has been fighting against capital ; the rich are 
growing richer on what they have not earned ; many work in 
poverty that one may live in affluence ; our graduates are gam- 
bling in stocks and bonds, and calling it business ; men and 
women of excellent social standing are systematically investing 
in State lotteries ; and all are imbued with that spirit which will be 
its own avenger, — that spirit which, in charity, is called practical. 
Even the text-books used in the common schools have a powerful 
influence mainly in the direction of those unfortunate conditions 
to which reference has been made. The gist of arithmetic is 
profit and loss, incomes, and stocks, and bonds, which are on the 
borders of margin and bucket shops, stock exchanges, and less 
respectable exchanges. Geography is taking on the commercial 
form more and more. Writing is extensively worked into commer- 
cial forms, business letters, book-keeping, answering advertisements 
for help, and applications for positions. All this swells the sur- 
plus of middlemen, a large proportion of whom have no natural 
aptitude for trade, but might become skilful producers, if properly 
taught. 

Why have our educational authorities been so unmindful of this 
trend of our narrow system of education? If they have lately 
been aroused to their responsibilities, so far as to establish 
schools in which the principles of mechanics may be learned, what 
reason have they for stopping there ? 



164 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Business men have complained through the newspapers and in 
many other ways, that the graduates of our schools are not pre- 
pared to take up the elementaiy stages of their business, nor to 
put on at once the habits of business men. Wh} T should they be 
especially so prepared? Why have no similar complaints come 
from agriculturists, or manufacturers? Our schools should not be 
run in the interests of trade, any more than in the interests of 
agriculture or manufactures. The fact that they have been so 
run, makes them largely responsible for the unfortunate condition 
of affairs, to which reference has been made. In Europe, the 
schools are managed better. The principles of trade, mechanics, 
and agriculture, all come in for a fair share of school time ; conse- 
quently the children are skilful workers as well as intelligent 
scholars. " Faith without works is dead." Books without works 
are no better. In view of what has been said it appears that a 
change in our system of education is of vital importance to agri- 
culture, at least, if not to the best education of our children, and 
the highest prosperity and happiness of the nation. It is time to 
inculcate the dignity of manual lal)or, in the common schools, to 
teach children the value of property by making them work for it, 
to establish schools for manual training, and to give school child- 
ren a piece of ground for observation, experiment, and work. 

The introduction of horticulture into the common schools will 
do much to counteract those baneful influences that have been 
mentioned ; it will create that respect for, and intelligent appre- 
ciation of, the cultivation of the soil, that is desirable ; it will 
check the tendency to abandon the farm as soon as possible, if 
any educational means can ; it will create a first love, to return to 
at a later period of life ; and it will lead to a real demand for 
agricultural schools of a high grade. To expect agricultural 
colleges to flourish without feeders, is chimerical. Agricultural 
colleges and scientific farming on a large scale must start from 
plenty of seeds, planted in good soil and in the spring-time of 
life. The common schools, in an eminent degree, have the points 
of vantage for the prosecution of this work and there is need 
enough of scientific farming. 

The <k Boston Evening Transcript," of November 16, 1889, has 
the following comments on agriculture in America : 

" There is no use in denying that our American agriculture is 
in a very primitive condition in all except the item of machinery. 



HORTICULTURAL EDUCATION FOR CHILDREN. 165 

Americans abroad sometimes laugh at what they are pleased to 
call the primitive methods of agriculture in Switzerland, Sweden, 
France, or Holland. As a matter of fact, our methods are primi- 
tive in comparison with theirs. * * * The Swiss, Dutch, or Swed- 
ish farmer recognizes the fact that the soil is the basis of all wealth, 
and is more important than any implements used in its cultivation. 
His methods of maintaining its fertility are as highly developed 
and perfect as the average American farmer's are primitive. In 
breeding profitable varieties of stock, too — varieties well suited 
to his purpose — he is far ahead of the American agriculturist. 
Our farmers, who are complaining almost everywhere of the 
decadence of American agriculture, could not do better than adopt 
some of these 'primitive' foreign methods." 

Farmers who would be successful in these days, must know 
" how to feed the land while the land feeds them." Owners of 
land are increasing with astonishing rapidity, and the size of 
farms is diminishing ; consequently land in the future must be 
made to yield more and more. It will yield more with better 
farming, and better farming will result from adequate facilities 
for teaching agriculture in the schools. How to produce much 
upon a small area requires study, and, other things being equal, 
children who receive proper elementary instruction in agriculture 
in school will be likely to acquire such ability at the most oppor- 
tune season. 

If such instruction were general in our common schools, the 
whole status of agriculture would be raised to a higher plane, 
better and more abundant products would result, and more lines 
of work allied to agriculture would be opened, — manufacturing 
fertilizers, landscape gardening, seed-testing, and cultivating 
flowers for perfumes and essences. 

u The increase of a single bushel per acre in the yield of the 
wheat, corn, and oats of the country, would make an increase in 
the value of those crops alone, of over one hundred and sixty-four 
million dollars per year, which would be more than doubled by a 
similar increase in other crops. This can all be accomplished by 
good seed." 

"The average yield of wheat in the United States is about 
twelve bushels per acre," with one and a half bushels of seed. 
Professor Blount, of the Colorado Agricultural College, planted 
seventy-six kernels of wheat, upon seventy-six square feet of land, 



166 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

" and the product was ten and a half pounds, or nearly at the rate 
of one hundred bushels per acre." The conclusion is, that we 
bury too much seed by unscientific farming. 

Mr. E. P. Roe made two acres of land yield a gross return of 
more than two thousand dollars. Members of the New Jersey 
Horticultural Society have made early cabbages produce $435 
per acre, and early tomatoes $585 per acre. 

Mr. J. S. Potter, consul at Crefeld, Germany, gives suggestive 
facts in regard to two farms, situated side by side, the one con- 
taining ten acres, and the other twenty. The owner of the ten- 
acre farm had been a teacher in an agricultural school in Germany, 
and worked his farm scientifically, and thus secured from it a 
comfortable living for himself and family. The owner of the 
other farm had a picked-up knowledge of farming, and u while 
working much harder, with double the investment in land, accom- 
plished with less tidy and genteel accompaniments the same 
results.'* 

A farm in France, that had been planted with olive trees, and 
yielded a rental of $115 a year, was planted with roses, geraniums, 
tuberoses, and jonquils, for the manufacture of perfumes. The 
fourth year it yielded perfumes valued at $43,154, giving a net 
profit of $7,767. 

In the wheat contest of 1889, William Gibbey, of Utah, raised 
eighty bushels on a single acre. In the corn contest, Z. J. Drake 
took two hundred and fifty- five bushels of shelled corn from an 
acre. In the potato contest, Alfred Rose raised one thousand and 
thirty-one bushels of potatoes on an acre. These results were 
due to the careful preparation and adequate fertilization of the 
soil, and good care of the growing crops. A neighbor of mine 
last year realized over $140 from his pear trees occupying hardly 
a quarter of an acre of ground. 

The education of children in horticulture is no new thing. 
Sweden, France, Bavaria, and Austria have had school gardens 
many years. The normal schools of Austria give instruction in 
the care of the mulberry tree, bees, grape vines, and orchards. 
The Austrian public school law reads, " In every school a gym- 
nastic ground, a garden for the teacher, according to the circum- 
stances of the community, and a place for the purposes of 
agricultural experiment, are to be created." School inspectors 
are "To see to it that, in the country schools, school gardens 



HORTICULTURAL EDUCATION FOR CHILDREN. 167 

shall be provided, for corresponding agricultural instruction in all 
that relates to the soil, and that the teacher shall make himself 
skilful in such instruction." As regards teachers, the law reads, 
" Instruction in natural history is indispensable to suitably 
established school gardens. The teachers, then, must be in a 
condition to conduct them." 

Twenty-five years ago there were, in Austria, 2,777 schools in 
which instruction in fruit culture was given. A recent issue of 
the " Boston Herald " contained this item : 

"School gardens, — i.e., gardens for practical instruction in 
rearing trees, vegetables, and fruits, — are being added to nearly 
all the public and private schools of Austria. There are now 
already 7,769 such in existence in the Austrian monarchy alone, 
Hungary not included. They also comprise botanical museums 
and appliances for bee-keeping." 

In France, in 1867, there were 20,000 schools in which teachers 
and pupils found recreation and profit in garden and fruit culture. 
The teachers in such schools receive medals for excellence in 
farming. 

The " Horticultural Times" for January, 1890, contains the fol- 
lowing : "Throughout France, gardening is practically taught in 
the primary and elementary schools. There are 28,000 of these 
schools, each of which has a garden attached to it, and is under 
the care of a master capable of imparting a knowledge of the first 
principles of horticulture. The Minister of Public Instruction 
has resolved that the number of school gardens shall be largely 
increased, and that no one shall be appointed master of an ele- 
mentary school, unless he can prove himself capable of giving 
practical instruction in the culture of mother earth." 

It appears, then, that school gardens in France and Austria 
have long since passed the experimental stage, and are now 
successfully established as an essential means to the education of 
children. In France, in 1867, there were 20,000, in 1890, 28,000 
and many more are to come. In Austria there were 2,700, and 
now there are 7,700, — nearly three times as many. 

In some parts of Europe, grants of money are made to schools 
that reach a given standard of excellence in agriculture. About 
eighty per cent of the children of Sweden attend the Folk 
School, corresponding to our common schools, and in them there 
were in 1871, 22,000 children, who were instructed in horticulture 



168 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

and tree planting. Each of 2,016 schools had, for cultivation, a 
piece of land varjdng from one to twelve acres. 

In regard to appropriations for agriculture, our country com- 
pares very unfavorably with some European countries. 

The Secretary of Agriculture of the United States, hopes to get 
an appropriation of $1,359,000 from our government, for the 
expenses of his department for the current year. Germany 
appropriates annually for agricultural purposes $2,850,000 ; Aus- 
tria more than $4,000,000 ; and France $8,000,000. In propor- 
tion to her population, France appropriates more than forty times 
as much as the United States ; and in proportion to her area r 
more than one hundred times as much. If Secretary Rusk gets 
the appropriation he desires, in no sense will it be commensurate 
with our position as the greatest agricultural nation on the earth. 

The beneficent results of teaching European children agriculture 
may be seen even in our own county. In 1880 the Kentucky 
Bureau of Immigration induced colonies of Swiss, Germans^ 
Austrians, and Swedes to settle poor lands in Laurel and Lincoln 
counties, Kentucky. Charles Dudley Warner writes that it is a 
sight worth a long journey, to see the beautiful farms made out of 
land that the average Kentuckian thought not worth cultivating* 
It should be noted that the settlers named came from the very 
countries where school gardens are so common and governmental 
appropriations so liberal. 

During the year 1889, more than 200,000 immigrants, from 
Germany, Austria, Sweden, and Norway, came to the United 
States. Having learned to work farms scientifically, they are 
rapidly displacing our farmers. 

A Swedish citizen of Springfield, Mass., has bought 22,000 
acres of land in Vermont, which he will colonize by immigrants 
brought directly from Sweden. Thrifty foreigners are rapidly 
becoming the landholders, and our young countrymen are flocking 
to the cities to work on cars, in stores, or to live by their wits. 
The applications for positions on the cars of the West End Rail- 
way Company, number from seventy-five to one hundred a day. 
Most of these applicants have what is called " a good common 
school education," and man}' have a college education. 

We have much to learn from the Swedish school S3 r stem in 
particular. The Sloyd system of manual training is highly com- 
mended by educational experts. The Swedish system of physical 
culture has been recommended for introduction into the Boston 



HORTICULTURAL EDUCATION FOR CHILDREN. 169" 

public schools, by the Board of Supervisors, and now, one thing 
more should be advocated by educationists and agriculturists 
combined, the Swedish school garden. 

The Swedes realize that, for the purposes of observation, 
nature is better than pictures ; and plants, growing under natural 
conditions, and visited by the birds and insects peculiar to them, 
are better than descriptions in books ; and, if we would have our 
schools as excellent as theirs, and do something to brighten the 
prospect for agriculture, we should introduce the school garden 
into our system of education. 

When we compare our system of education with the system 
commonly found in European countries, we cannot fail to see how 
much better balanced the European systems are than ours. So 
in the great jubilees of twenty } r ears ago, we found every foreign 
band better balanced than any band we could produce. Every 
educational expert who examines the systems of education in 
Europe confesses that we are far behind European schools in 
science, art, music, and physical, industrial, and agricultural 
education. 

The school garden should be not only a place for observation, 
but a field for experimentation. Budding, grafting, propagation 
by layers, cuttings, and slips, cross-fertilization, and the condi- 
tions favorable to plant growth could be taught experimentally, 
not to one class necessarily, but to every pupil somewhere in the 
course of study. Seeing and doing such things and recording the 
results, would give pupils a training peculiarly valuable. Here is 
a large field for the consideration of those who would send the 
whole boy to school. Here is an efficient means of interesting 
him. A lively personal interest is the mainspring of all proper 
mental development. Unless the boy is interested in the work of 
the school room, his mind will be on things outside of it ; he will 
be present in body but absent in mind. How is it that the varied, 
instructive, and interesting work of the school garden has escaped 
the attention and appreciation of educators so long, — much more 
the appreciation and attention of agriculturists? 

In the public schools of Boston, two hours a week are set apart 
for elementary science work, in all the primary classes and in the 
fifth and sixth grammar classes. Out-door work at all seasonable 
times should be substituted for the present in-door work. Work 
in the school garden would be as much better than work on the 
same material in the school room, as a visit to Paris is better than 



170 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

a description of it. The school garden would furnish most of the 
material necessary for the winter's work, — seeds, buds, bulbs, 
tubers., corms, fleshy roots, pressed leaves and flowers, and other 
material. 

Already much of such material has been used for a number of 
years by the pupils of the George Putnam School. Pupils of the 
fourth class make beautiful designs of pressed leaves, which they 
are accustomed to collect. Each pupil draws from five to twenty 
or more designs, according to his skill and interest, during the 
school year. The work goes on almost of itself, and the children 
are delighted to handle and adapt^pMnt material to purposes of 
ornamentation. 

Here are fifty-seven sheets of designs, representing fifty-seven 
pupils of the fourth class. These designs have been drawn 
recently from natural leaves. The pupils of the first class have 
made many pen-and-ink drawings of various kinds of grasses, 
such as timothy, red-top, Bermuda grass, knot-grass, wild oats, 
wild rye, wheat grass, panic grass, etc. Under the skilful direc- 
tion of their teacher, who is a member of this Society, these 
pupils are learning to see as never before ; are acquiring facility 
and power in representing objects that will add much to their 
usefulness and happiness in life, and at the same time are working 
toward horticulture, — not away from it. 

Here are four hundred and eighty-one drawings of grasses, 
recently made from natural specimens, by the pupils of the first 
olass. In addition they collect, press, and mount wild flowers, 
to serve as material in drawing and language work. Their 
written descriptions of many varieties of wild asters, and charac- 
teristic drawings of the mode of growth of each variety, serve the 
legitimate purposes of school work and continually suggest 
Nature. The derivation of specific names and other words from the 
same roots is made a valuable study. Such work connects 
Nature with the school ; it directs the attention towards plant life 
rather than away from it. 

The school garden is a place for children to be happy in. 
Many a child will remember it with affection, when he reaches the 
adult age, and we may naturally expect that when he acquires 
wealth he will remember it in a substantial way. At all events it 
is reasonable to suppose that many men and women will return to 
the pleasures of horticulture when they have earned a competence 



HORTICULTURAL EDUCATION FOR CHILDREN. 171 

in business, if they have received a part of their school education 
in a school garden. We know that the late Hon. Marshall P. 
Wilder returned to his early interest in horticulture, when he had 
become what has been called " forehanded." 

In an essay entitled u Horticultural Reminiscences " published 
in the Transactions of this Society, is an account of a school 
garden, established more than half a century ago, in connection 
with a boarding school in the city of Providence, R. I. At least 
four pupils of that school became eminent in agriculture, Joseph 
Brown and Obadiah Brown, of Rhode Island, and O. B. Hadwen 
and Hon. Daniel Needham, the latter two being distinguished 
members of this Society. In a letter to me, Mr. Needham wrote, 
4 'I have always believed that the training which I received in 
that school, did more for me than it would be easy to write. It 
gave me habits of punctuality and industry which in my life of 
today, are as apparent to me as they were forty or more years 
ago. I consider any boy poorly educated, who has not enjoyed 
the privileges of a technical or agricultural school." We can 
imagine what an influence for horticulture might be felt, if the 
common schools throughout the country should make good use of 
school gardens. Then children would get that general knowledge 
of horticulture that would lead to a demand for agricultural 
colleges, such as we have never known, and to the horticultural 
education of women. 

Plants and flowers enter constantly and intimately into girls' 
and women's lives. Women have been interested in flowers since 
human beings came upon the earth. Some fill their windows with 
flowering plants the year round. Others cultivate them in their 
rough little gardens before the log cabins and shanties on the 
frontiers and in the wilderness. Some suggestion from plant life 
is always present in women's lives — embroidered flower decora- 
tions, flower painting, floral decorations, bouquets, and myriads 
of designs for needlework, wall papers, carpets, and prints, — and 
they should have some regular instruction in what they will 
always see and use ; and the school garden would be the most 
efficient means of giving them instruction suited to the lives they 
are destined to lead. 

Probably two-thirds of the public schools of Boston at the 
present time, have adopted the no-recess plan, and the number is 
increasing, not only in Boston, but throughout the country ; in 
short, the recess is no longer considered necessary. 



172 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Some of the school yards in Boston have an area of three- 
quarters of an acre. What magnificent possibilities lie in those 
yards ! With the abolition of the recess what is their reason for 
being as playgrounds? How much more useful for instruction, 
for manners, and for morals, would they be as school gardens, 
than they have ever been as play grounds ! Suppose the hard, 
monotonous-looking bricks to be taken up, except where the}' are 
needed for walks — wide ones for passages to and from the build- 
ing, and narrow ones in the garden — what might we reasonably 
expect to see in the school garden ? Certainly enough to make it 
seem like a paradise to look out upon in comparison with the 
ordinary Sahara-like school yard. As representatives of commer- 
cial and monocotyledonous plants, we could have wheat, rye, 
oats, barley, millet, corn, rice, timothy, red-top, etc., each having 
a square yard of ground to itself. Of dicotyledonous plants, a hill 
of scarlet runners, a ring of sweet peas, a square planted with 
acorns, or peach or cherry stones, etc. ; plantlets in various 
stages of development ; a row each of varieties of crowfoots,, 
mints, lilies, pinks, roses, etc. ; fleshy roots, as beets, turnips, and 
parsnips, — some, in their second year's growth, to show the 
nature of biennials. Many city children have never noticed such 
plants growing. 

The flora of the vicinity could be obtained without much diffi- 
culty, even by city scholars, and with little trouble by country 
scholars. Almost any region within a radius of a few miles has 
plants that would serve as well for ornamentation as for observa- 
tion work, among which may be mentioned a dozen varieties of 
asters, shrubby cinquefoil, blazing-star, wild lupine, Joe-Pye 
weed, Canada hawkweed, jewel-weed, cone-flower, hardhack, 
sweet pepperbush, golden-rod, wild columbine, cranesbill, hare- 
bell, Solomon's-seal, bellwort, wild bean, evening primrose, 
purple flowering-raspbeny, Philadelphia lily, Canada lily, 
meadow rue, Jack-in-the-pulpit, clematis, and ferns. For every 
purpose of the school, such plants would serve better than 
cultivated flowers ; and their variation under cultivation would 
interest and instruct every observer, and lead to a better appre- 
ciation of wild flowers, and a more rational and profitable way of 
spending summer vacations than obtains now. 

Annual garden flowers and fleshy roots can be raised from 
seeds. The city forester, floriculturists, and horticulturists 



HORTICULTURAL EDUCATION FOR CHILDREN. 173 

generally, throw away thousands of plants every year, in changing 
crops and ornamental flower beds. To get rid of ' such plants 
advertising is often resorted to. How much better it would be 
to send them to school gardens, where they would be used to good 
advantage. The raising of plants for school gardens, by authority 
of a city or town, would give better returns than raising them 
simpi}' for public gardens and squares ; and the latter would be 
be better appreciated than they are now in proportion to the 
general increase of a knowledge of plants. Moreover, many 
pupils, favorably situated, would be pleased to contribute plants 
for the school garden, and in consequence would have a livelier 
interest in it. 

How will the exercise required in the cultivation of plants in 
the fresh air and sunshine affect the health of children, especially 
those living in cities ? The advocates of hygiene and school gym- 
nastics, might do well to consider that question in all its bearings. 
Those who are so zealous concerning the ventilation of school- 
Tooms, might find it worth while to determine the benefits arising 
from ventilation in school gardens in favorable seasons. Why 
not convert gymnastic wands into garden hoes? Then the 
attention would not be concentrated simply upon the movements 
of those instruments, but upon the results of those movements. 
Boys do not whittle in marked time for exercise : they whittle to 
work out the embodiment of an absorbing idea. Walking for 
exercise is of little importance compared with walking for speci- 
mens of rare minerals, plants, or game. Hold a boy down to 
your commands, and, for the time being, he is a slave ; give him 
an idea to work out by himself, and he becomes a free man. Not 
that the former is useless, but the latter is superior, and in it lies 
one of the cardinal virtues of the manual training school. 

" The Maine Board of Agriculture is agitating the question, of 
introducing agricultural books into the public schools, as text- 
books." That would be beginning at the wrong end to aid 
agriculture. There are now too many books used in teaching, as 
compared with other means of instruction. "The American 
Garden," of 1887, says : " We are thankful indeed for what our 
instructors have taught us in text-books, even though we had to 
unlearn part of it ; but, would it not be a wise move, to have a 
trifle more of the real thing to work on, in the field and garden? 
Let us labor with our sleeves rolled up, and under the blue 



174 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

heavens seek and impart instruction. With the assistance, which 
dame Nature never refuses, what may we not expect from the 
coming generation of horticulturists ?" 

Modern educators have risen above the traditional theoretical 
and authoritative education, resulting from the study of books 
alone, and now demand a symmetrical education for children. 
That is an admirable purpose ; but even the most advanced of 
those educators in this country have gone no farther than to 
provide for such an education as can be given under a roof, in a 
school building or in a shop for industrial training. I submit 
this question to the great body of agriculturists, out-door workers 
generally, and all other competent authorities : Can a symmetri- 
cal, or wholly healthful, education be given entirely under cover, 
and away from the light, the fresh air, the invigorating sunshine, 
and the smell of earth, and her exquisite productions? 

The u Journal of Health" contains this remarkable statement : 
" Patients strolling on the sea-shore, in sunny weather, are in a 
light, not two or three times, but eighteen thousand times, 
stronger than that in the ordinar}' shaded and curtained rooms of 
a city house ; and the same patients walking along the sunny side 
of a street are receiving more than five thousand times as much of 
the health-giving influence of light, as they would receive in-doors, 
in the usually heavily-curtained rooms." As regards health- 
giving light and air, the school garden is a thousand times better 
than the school room. 

What can horticultural societies do to enable children to receive 
instruction in horticulture? They have not the point of vantage, 
to give direct instruction as the common schools have, but they 
can influence instruction, if they choose. Among the members 
are persons excellently fitted by education and experience in 
agriculture, to set forth clearly the commercial value of a knowl- 
edge of it, and the training of the powers of observation and 
other mental faculties, in the process of acquiring that knowledge. 
They ought to be represented in school committees everywhere, 
as well as the lawyers, the doctors, and the ministers, who always 
influence education in the direction of the learned professions, — 
never in the interests of agriculture. 

Consider what studies have been introduced into the common 
school curriculum within a comparatively few years, — sewing, 
cooking, manual training for boys, kindergartens, and various 



HORTICULTURAL EDUCATION FOR CHILDREN. 175 

modification! and better adajjt.at.ion8 of every branch of .study. 
Kindness to animals has been advocated in aJJ the schools of 
commonwealth ; the temperance people have had a compulsory 
school Jaw passed ; in Boston an instructor in hygiene lias been 
employed for some years ; the entering wedge of the Sloyd system 
of manual training has been admitted ; a mighty conference of 
the leading spirit* in physical training has been held in Hunting- 
ton Hall, and the representatives of various religious denomina- 
tions have waged a war of words concerning the teaching of 
history and religion in the schools. Among all these things 
advocated there has been no suggestion of agriculture, but during 
their advocacy much has been said about sending the 'whole boy to 
school, when apparently what the whole boy is has not been 
determined. His earthly part, or rather his relation to the earth, 
has been entirely left out. 

Even among educators and school committees, the prevailing 
idea of a proper education is shaped from consideration of trade. 
In the Report of the School Committee of Boston, for 1889, 
read : " Those who are compelled to end their school life with the 
High Schools, are furnished with a sound, practical education, 
which enables them to enter mercantile and commercial occupa- 
tions." This new method fails to recognize the great relative 
importance of our agricultural interests. 

The Secretary of Agriculture in his report for 1889, says : " It 
may be broadly stated that upon the productiveness of our agri- 
culture, and the prosperity of our farmers, the entire wealth and 
prosperity of the whole nation depend." Nevertheless, this great 
industry, that enters so largely and intimately into the life of the 
nation, has been an unknown quantity in our schools, as if the 
mainspring of all our national prosperity, would in some way 
take care of itself, in spite of the untoward influences of our 
schools. Is every line of work, except that connected with the 
earth, to be considered as holding the indispensable principles of 
education, while the study of the natural products of the earth, 
the source of all practical ideas and all material wealth, is to be 
considered of no special importance, in training a child for life? 

A large majority of our public schools have done little or noth- 
ing in the study of plants, insects, minerals, and soils, although 
expected to do so, alleging that such study is not practical ; but 
the conning of books, and the figuring on slates, they claim to be 



176 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

practical. What is the opinion of agriculturists on that matter? 
Are not potatoes and wheat practical things? Is there anything 
theoretical about the potato bug and the currant worm ? Any- 
thing psychological about loam and phosphate? Anything 
allegorical about the codling moth and the peach tree borer ? 

The remedy for this state of affairs lies in placing the right 
kind of men upon school committees, who influence legislation and 
education, and agriculturists should be represented on school 
boards as well as the lawyer, the doctor, the clergyman, and the 
tradesman. 

This Society should secure as members teachers who are known 
to have an interest in subjects closely related to horticulture. If 
a teacher can graft trees, or raise fruit or vegetables successfully, 
or makes a speciality of bulbs, orchids, ferns, or wild flowers, or is 
a good botanist, he may be especially valuable to the Society, 
which, with its learned members and exceptionally fine library, 
may be as valuable to him. He would be likely to appreciate the 
value of school gardens in the education of children ; he could 
choose and adapt material wisely ; and, above all, he would have 
the point of vantage to influence members of the school commit- 
tee towards the legislation desired for the establishment of school 
gardens. 

Closely connected with the subject of school gardens, is a line 
of work that has been carried on very successfully for many years, 
by a few members of this Society, but has not received that full 
recognition as a valuable means of instruction to which it is 
entitled. I refer to the work done by Mrs. Richards, Mr. Hitch- 
ings, and others, in bringing collections of native plants to the 
exhibitions of this Society. If we are to estimate this work at its 
real value, in promoting the highest interests of education, we 
must come to the conclusion that these people who do it, do not 
receive a reward commensurate with the usefulness of their 
labors. 

The collections of native plants are especially interesting and 
instructive to teachers. They influenced me more than anything 
else here to become a member of this Society, and they ought to 
be studied by a hundred teachers, where they are now studied by 
one. Let us establish school gardens, and they will be so studied. 

Mr. W. W. Rawson in his seed catalogue says : " The Massa- 
chusetts Horticultural Society of Boston — the most flourishing 



HORTICULTURAL EDUCATION FOR CHILDREN. 177 

institution of its kind in this country — by offering liberal prizes, 
has done so much to stimulate growers, and improve the quality 
of the most popular vegetables and flowers, that varieties may be 
considered absolutely perfect." 

Wiry limit the offer of prizes to the present field ? In Europe, 
agricultural societies give prizes for the best school gardens. In 
the present condition of horticulture and agriculture, such prizes 
offered in this country would be more productive of good than 
prizes for the best displays of flowers, fruits, and vegetables 
from the home garden. As such prizes would concern a school as 
a whole and not individual pupils, no ungenerous rivalry need 
arise. 

The American Agriculturist has recently awarded four prizes 
for a wheat contest, the first prize being $500 in gold. It has 
awarded $500 in gold as a first prize in a recent potato contest. 
It offers $5,000 in prizes for the new potato contest for 1890. 
Mr. Z. J. Drake, of South Carolina, has received $500 from the 
American Agriculturist, and $500 from the Department of Agri- 
culture in South Carolina, as first prizes in a corn contest. The 
trustees of the Missouri Botanical Garden at St. Louis have 
established six scholarships, ranging from $200 to $300 a year, 
with free lodgings, and continuing six years. All such enterprises 
are worthy, but the enterprise that aims at raising the whole 
status of agriculture, and at the same time rounding out the 
education of all the children in the land, is more worthy. 

This Society has the well-earned reputation of being very 
liberal in offering prizes, but not unfrequently members question 
whether the sum of six thousand dollars, which is paid out in 
prizes every year b} T the Society, is expended to the best advan- 
tage. If the Society feels disposed to try a very promising field, 
now is the time, and Boston is the place for the trial, and this 
Society has everything in its favor for making the trial. Here is 
an opportunity to set an example for every city and town in the 
Union to follow, and that association or city that begins the 
movement will become famous for a magnificent enterprise. 

Some one may ask : "If there is so great an advantage in the 
establishment and use of school gardens, why has the matter not 
been attended to by the school authorities?" It is well known 
that the best educational impulses come from without, — from 
philanthropic individuals or institutions. We need not go outside 
12 



178 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

of Boston for proof of this. The sewing schools, cooking schools, 
kindergartens, and manual training schools, now corporate parts 
of our school system, were started and carried beyond the experi- 
mental stage by private individuals. Mrs. Shaw and Mrs. 
Hemenway looked farther into the future than the Boston School 
Committee. These philanthropic women are now paying for the 
instruction of public school teachers in physical training and 
industrial training. For years the Teachers' School of Science in 
Boston has been supported by private munificence. "The 
Chicago Manual Training School, owes its existence to the Com- 
mercial Club, a social organization consisting of sixty Chicago 
business men," who in 1882 guaranteed the sum of $100,000 for 
the support of the enterprise. It should be noticed that these 
movements, and many other similar ones that might be named, 
have had in view what must enter into the life of the nation. We 
should also call attention to the fact that educational authorities 
in this country seldom or never start such beneficent enterprises, 
but in Europe the case is the reverse. 

An appropriation of $30,000 has been asked of the city govern- 
ment of Boston for the purpose of establishing one manual train- 
ing school, and running it one year. Why, half of that sum would 
suffice to establish a good school garden in connection with every 
one of the fifty-five grammar schools in Boston, and keep it run- 
ning a year, allowing $275 to each school. The benefits of these 
gardens would not be confined to a comparatively few pupils, but 
full forty thousand pupils would have a share in them. The erec- 
tion of costly buildings, and the collection of costly plants, have 
no bearing upon the question. We already have the grounds nec- 
essary ; we have the time specified for such work, in the " Course 
of Study," from two to three hours a week, for each of the five 
lowest grades ; and every plant necessary will cost nothing, or 
next to nothing, comparatively speaking. 

Permission of the School Committee should be obtained to con- 
vert the most available part of some school yard into a garden, 
for observation and experimentation, to begin with. Then the 
money to pay the expenses of getting it ready in spring, and 
keeping it in order during the long vacation in summer, should be 
guaranteed. With half of two hundred and seventy-five dollars, I 
am sure I could establish a good school garden in connection 
with my school, and keep it in good order during the first season, 



HORTICULTURAL EDUCATION FOR CHILDREN. 179 

with the certain prospect of largely reducing the current expenses 
for the second season. If it can be shown in connection with 
one school, that the school garden is entirely practicable and 
comparatively inexpensive, it will not be long before other schools, 
in the suburbs at least if not in the city, will wish to establish 
school gardens. If their success has been complete in thousands 
of cases in Europe, they will succeed here. 

I trust you will think with me, that the length of this paper is 
by no means commensurate with the importance of the subject of 
it, — Horticultural Education for Children. 

The exhibition of work done by the pupils of the George Put- 
nam School, included many drawings from life of a great variety 
of plants, and ornamental designs in which the leaves and flowers 
of gathered specimens were used as models for the parts. The 
whole showed much skill and taste, and evidence of a strong 
interest in the work on the part of the young artists. 

The essay was applauded at the close, and a vote of thanks to 
Mr. Clapp for his valuable paper, which would benefit not only 
the present generation but the generations to come, was unani- 
mously passed. 

Discussion. 

E. H. Hitchings said that the essay just read recalled a para- 
graph in Higginson's " Out-Door Papers," a book which every 
lover of Nature should read. On page 243 he says: "It is no 
wonder that there is so little enjoyment of Nature in the commu- 
nity when we feed our children on grammars and dictionaries only, 
and take no pains to train them to see that which is before their 
eyes. The mass of the community have ' summered and wintered ' 
the universe pretty regularly, one would think, for a good many 
years ; and yet nine out of ten in the town or city, and two out 
of three even in the country, seriously suppose, for instance, that 
the buds upon trees are formed in the spring ; they have had them 
within sight all winter, and never seen them. So people suppose, 
in good faith, that a plant grows at the base of the stem, instead 
of at the top ; that is, if they see a young sapling in which there 
is a crotch at five feet from the ground, they expect to see it ten 
feet from the ground by and by, — confounding the growth of a 
tree with that of a man or animal." Mr. Hitchings cited as an 



180 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

illustration, the erroneous statement in an article in the " Century " 
magazine for March, 1883, by John Burroughs, who wrote : u The 
limbs of the White Pine tend to recur at regular intervals, like the 
rounds of a ladder. As it shoots upward in the forest it pulls this 
ladder up after it, so that the tallest trees are limbless for eighty 
or ninety feet." Again, the last quoted writer says in " Scrib- 
ner's" magazine for February, 1881 : " It is a curious and note- 
worthy fact, that, for the glow-worm of the Old World, Nature 
should have given us the fire-fly of the New. It strikes one as a 
typical fact. Our fire-fly is the glow-worm Americanized." The 
truth is that we have both fire-flies and glow-worms here ; the 
speaker had collected them within ten miles of Boston. The pub- 
lication of such mis-statements shows how defective is the edu- 
cation which permits their being made, and the necessity of such 
a reformation in school training as the essajist had so well pre- 
sented. 

Edmund Hersey said he had been much gratified and instructed 
by the lecture today. Children ought to be educated to read the 
great book of Nature. Too many of our people are in this re- 
spect uneducated. Parents are to blame if they do not make 
their children realize something about Nature. He would not 
have them instructed solely for the purpose of making them gar- 
deners, but that they might be fitted by their education to enjoy 
life better, whatever vocation they followed. He would educate 
children to recognize the Power which laid out the plan of growth 
in all things, and executed that plan. 

Leverett M. Chase wished to express one thought. A German 
proverb teaches that " whatever we would introduce into our 
national life we must first introduce into our schools." Our 
country has unequalled resources ; we have every variety of soil, 
temperature and humidity. Let our people but learn to utilize our 
resources and America will be the most productive and beautiful 
country in the world. But the most important result will be the 
tendency to check urban growth, — one of the most striking and 
alarming features of our civilization, whose crop is the destruction 
of what is best in men, — and to increase the production of the best 
and most profitable crop that can be raised and that is, strong, 
virtuous, intelligent men and women. 

Rev. A. B. Muzzey said there had been no paper presented 
here which goes down deeper than the one of today. Our public 



HORTICULTURAL EDUCATION JOB CHIL0BEW. 181 

school! are of transcendenl importance. Bat there fa a great 
power behind them ; the borne, the parents. He would have 
fathers and mothers brought to think on this subject The first 
thing for da to consider Is the proper development of* the powers 

Of mind which in the children are latent. We should begin with 
the home as the source of the greatest Influence. Mothers come 

here to see the flowers and plants that are brought in for exhibi- 
tion. They receive the divine influence which flows from the 
beauty and fragrance of these choice productions, and that influ- 
ence is more or less reflected in their homes. lie remembered the 
feelings with which he contemplated the first flowers he saw at his 
early home. Jt is an irreparable loss to a child not to have a 
true home-life to look hack upon in after years. He wished our 
people of New England to consider this matter, and to devise the 
best possible methods of teaching their children, by which they 
shall become attached to the soil. Where practicable, every child 
should have a spot of ground to till with his own hands. He was 
desirous that this Society should use its influence to propagate the 
idea he had tried to express. If by any means parents could be 
brought to co-operate with teachers in the education of their chil- 
dren in this work, it would year by year be steadily and surely 
accomplished. 

Rev. Calvin Terry spoke of the gratification the essay had 
afforded him ; of the great importance of the subject ; of the prin- 
ciples which lie at the foundation of all good education, which de- 
velops the tendencies to make good citizens of the children trained 
in our schools. He spoke of the contrast between the school facil- 
ities or machinery of education of half a centur}' or more ago, and 
those of today ; quoting Beecher's description of the district 
school house of the early days, which was built wherever it could 
be placer] without much expense, and, on the same principle, fin- 
ished and furnished in the plainest manner. It was destitute of 
any hint of ornament and of all illustrative apparatus. Now, we 
must have the most costly edifices and all needful appliances to 
make school life a journey of delight. He did not object to the 
present appliances. Perhaps we have gone to the other extreme. 
Children go into the primary hopper and are ground out as gram- 
mar or high-school graduates. Our schools are now run on the 
high-pressure system, which is promoted by the rivalry between 
the schools of each town, and also between those of one town and 



182 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

those of other towns around. Some children can learn four times 
as fast as others, but by the present system they all have to be 
laid on the same iron bedsteads. Mr. Terry rather liked the idea 
of school gardens, but felt some fear that if that plan were intro- 
duced the children would not be allowed generally to take re- 
sponsibility in the cultivation therein — that the janitor would cul- 
tivate and the children look on. To make the school garden a 
success the children must have a place where they can put into 
practice what they are taught about cultivation, and thus get prac- 
tical knowledge as the essayist had indicated. The speaker 
remembered that he had a taste for plant culture, when a boy ; that 
an idea of utility was connected with his cultivation of his crop and 
that the latter was a fine bed of saffron. He remembered also, that 
when he marketed the flowers the apothecary cheated him. But 
there is beauty and utility in cultivating the plants that grow nat- 
ural^ around us. There is beauty in a field of potatoes — in a bed 
of sage — beauty and music in a field of growing corn. Multi- 
tudes went to see that prize field of corn in South Carolina. That 
was a grand illustration of beauty and utility combined, and it is 
clear that we must have this combination taught even in the school 
garden instruction. 

" A thing of beauty is a joy forever; 
Its loveliness increases ; it will never 
Pass into nothingness ; but still will keep 
A bower quiet for us, and a sleep 
Full of sweet dreams, and health, and quiet breathing." 

The culture of beauty in the vegetable kingdom secures a crop 
of joy to the thoughtful culturist, and not that alone — it is a great 
promoter of health. There is with it no dyspepsia, no insomnia 
when one has been thus busied in the open air. Think of the 
wholesome effect on discontented mechanics if they could go home 
and work an hour in the garden, instead of passing their leisure 
hours in fretting and grumbling. 

Dr. C. C. Rounds, Principal of the State Normal School at 
Plymouth, N. H., being present, was called upon, and responded 
by giving a synoptical account of the present school system of 
France. Under commission from the Governor of New Hamp- 
shire, he attended the International Exposition at Paris, France, 
and while there, in connection with his official duties he made a 
study of the French system of education. At the Exposition, 



HORTICULTURAL EDUCATION FOR CHILDREN. 183 

France made far the best showing in this department. Paris was 
far ahead of any other part of France. No city or town prob- 
ably ever made any such exhibit before. The present order of 
things has been developed during the last ten years, and what 
France has done in that period is simply marvellous. They have 
done the things we have only talked about. Education is compul- 
sory for all children from seven to fourteen years of age, and 
parents are held to strict account, even to imprisonment, if their 
children are not regular in attendance. The course of study dur- 
ing that period gives a better preparation for the duties of life 
than is given by the course extending through many of our high 
schools. We have long discussed the possible connection between 
the kindergarten and our public schools. In France the essentials 
of the kindergarten have been made a part of the lowest grade of 
schools, and the name, kindergarten, has disappeared. It should 
be remembered that the mass of those who are in the schools are 
to become workers, yet the problem of manual training in the 
public schools has not secured much favor in this country. But 
in France, it is, by decree, made a branch of school work, and two 
or three hours each week, according to the grade of schools, must 
be given to manual education, beginning in the primary schools. 
In this connection the principles of agriculture and horticulture 
are also taught. France agrees with us that teachers should be 
trained ; accordingly she now has in each of her eighty-six depart- 
ments two normal schools, one for men and one for women, and 
to ensure competent teachers for these she establishes two higher 
normal schools to prepare them. The public schools are entirely 
free — tuition, text-books, everything. A law was passed favoring 
the establishment of girl's colleges, and several have been estab- 
lished. To meet a new demand, France established a school to 
train professors for these girls' colleges. The administration of 
the French system is vested in a Minister of Public Instruction, a 
national council — called the Superior Council — of forty-seven 
members, district inspectors-general, etc. The council determines 
what shall be taught, and the normal schools train the teachers to 
teach it. France is a representative republic, and her continued 
existence depends upon the intelligence of the people. She must 
therefore see to it that every child is educated, and she aims to 
educate the ivhole boy and the whole girl. Parents or guardians 
may send children to the public schools, private schools, or church 



184 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

schools, but what the national council prescribes as necessary 
studies to make the pupils good French citizens, must be taught, 
and thoroughly taught, and whatever that council proscribes as 
contra^ to the constitution, or laws, or morality, must not be 
taught. Dr. Rounds was surprised at the lead taken by the French 
schools in the inculcation of morals, duties in the family, to the 
country, and to God. The school authorities foster professional 
schools for young women, even urging them to take the education 
which will make them cultivated women. It is the purpose of the 
government to make France a democratic republic. She honors 
those who have honorably served the Republic, whatever the con- 
dition of the person, or the department of service. The advance 
already made by France under the present system, gives assurance 
that whatever else is in store for that country the Republic will be 
saved through education. 

The announcement for the next Saturday was a paper on 
" Dahlias," bv William E. Endicott, of Canton. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, March 22, 1890. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at half-past 
eleven o'clock, President William H. Spooner, in the Chair. 

The Secretary laid before the Society letters from Hon. Henry 
Cabot Lodge, Hon. John F. Andrew, Hon. Rodney Wallace, and 
Hon. Elijah A. Morse, acknowledging the receipt of the Resolu- 
tions and Memorial of the American Forestry Association, in 
regard to the preservation of forests on the national domain, with 
the approval of this Society, and stating that the Memorial and 
Resolutions would at the proper time receive attention. 

Adjourned to Saturday, March 29, 1890, at half-past eleven 
o'clock, A. M. 



THE DAHLIA. 185 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 
The Dahlia. 

By William E. Endicott, of Canton. 

In the Gardeners' Chronicle of 1879, Mr. Hemsley reckoned 
the number of species of dahlia as nine : imperialism excelsa, 
BarJcerice, Maximiliana, scapigera, variabilis, coccinea, gracilis, 
and Merckii. These are reduced to four or five in the " Genera 
Plantarum " of Bentham and Hooker. All the species and natural 
varieties, however many they may be, are natives of Mexico, and 
are found at various elevations from four thousand to ten thousand 
feet. The genus is named from the Swedish botanist, Dahl ; the 
first a therefore should be sounded as in father, though we 
generally hear the word pronounced dall-ya, and in England, if we 
may judge from Mr. Hibberd's remarks, dale-ya meets accept- 
ance. The genus was also at one time called Georgina and is 
entered under that name in German catalogues. 

Seeds of the Dahlia were sent to Madrid by the botanist 
Cavanilles, in 1789, and some of these were sent to Kew by the 
wife of Lord Bute who was then British ambassador to Spain. 

One complete century of cultivation has been expended upon 
the Dahlia ; in a few weeks we shall begin its second century of 
development. Strangely enough at the end of the century, the 
original single forms enjoy the highest degree of popularity. In 
one hundred years the entire circle has been traced and we find 
ourselves back at the point of beginning. 

The dahlia was known only as a single flower for twenty-five 
years ; it was not until 1814 that the first double was raised ; but 
the break once made double flowers became numerous. Among 
the earlier double flowers were many with flat or pointed petals, 
very like most of the so-called " cactus" varieties of the present 
day. 

The culture of the dahlia is not a difficult matter. In May the 
roots should be brought out from their winter quarters and 
examined. The tubers which are hanging to the crown by only 
a few dead fibres should be cut off and the sound part so divided 
that each portion shall have not more than one or two buds ; 
these will be readily discernible in May. If the roots are planted 



186 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

year after 3*ear without division, not only will they form unwieldy 
masses but there will be a multitude of feeble shoots whose flowers 
will be few and poor. 

The soil should be such as is neither light nor heavy and a 
plentiful suppty of manure should be used. Chemical fertilizers 
will induce a low growth, not high enough to hide a child, while 
barn} T ard manure will cause a tall growth. For my own part I 
prefer tall plants and should use manure if I could get enough of 
it, for though dahlias raised on it need staking to keep the wind 
from breaking them, the flowers are much finer both in shape and 
color and the foliage has a freshness and perfection which adds 
much to the beauty of the plant. With chemical fertilizers there 
are too many ill-shaped and ill-colored flowers and the foliage is 
more apt to be infected with a fungous growth which causes it to 
turn yellowish at the edges and to shrivel toward the end of the 
season. The roots should be planted about the end of May and 
should be covered about three inches deep and there should be at 
least four feet of clear space allowed on each side ; otherwise full 
development cannot be expected. I have seen them planted 
singly on lawns, and so treated a tall, bushy and well-flowered 
plant of a large blossomed variety makes a fine appearance. As 
in the majority of plants, the after cultivation consists simply in 
keeping the ground loose and clean and in supplying water occa- 
sionally if the season be dry, for the dahlia needs a good supply 
of water. I remember a season in which from many hundred 
plants I had but one flower, while a field of gladioli blossomed as 
well as ever. The first frost will destroy the plants but it is by 
no means necessaiy that they be then taken up. On the contrary 
they will keep better in the ground than out of it until the end of 
October ; all that is necessary is to lift them before the ground 
freezes up. I have known a root accidentally left in the ground 
over winter to come up in the spring and flourish as vigorously 
as if it had been stored in the cellar through the winter. 

In taking up dahlia roots, it is necessary to observe two precau- 
tions : not to shake them too violently in removing the earth, 
otherwise the necks of many tubers will be so injured as to rot 
awa} T during the winter ; and to invert the root for a while after 
cutting off the stems so that the moisture which drains off shall 
not run down upon the crown, there b} T causing the buds for next 
year's growth to rot. Neglect of these precautions has been the 
destruction of many a good collection. 



THE DAHLIA. 187 

The dahlia is propagated by cuttings or divisions. The latter 
method may be carried out at any time from lifting to planting ; 
it consists simply in cutting the old root into pieces, leaving one 
or more " eyes" on each. 

If it is intended to propagate by cuttings, the roots from which 
the slips are to be taken should be potted and put into a warm 
greenhouse in the first part of February. When the shoots are 
about two inches long they should be cut off just below a pair of 
leaves, the buds in the axils of which will form the eyes of the 
tubers which the cutting is to develop. If the cuttings be taken 
with a long piece of stem below the leaves they will root and 
form tubers, but these will never grow after the first year for they 
will have no buds at their crowns. 

The cuttings are rooted in sand in the ordinary way, and may 
be planted out when the weather becomes warm enough. It 
sometimes happens that a cutting has a hollow stem ; without 
special treatment this will never root, but if it be split up to the 
leaves, and one of the halves cut away the cutting will root with- 
out much trouble. 

New varieties must be raised from seed, for the dahlia rarely 
sports, though it sometimes does so. I have never seen more than 
one instance ; in that one several tubers of Emma Cheney, a very 
large rosy colored sort produced mahogany brown flowers and 
have continued to do so. It is said that the plump seed is of 
little value but that the thin ones are more apt to produce fine 
flowers. I have not found that there is any such difference. 
Whatever seed you use you will not get more than one flower 
worth saving out of a thousand seedlings. Seed is readily 
obtained ; if you pull off one of the dead dry heads left where a 
blossom withered, you will find the thin black seeds among the 
chaffy bracts ; these should be planted out of doors where the 
plants are to remain, as soon as the ground is warm enough. If 
these plants are taken care of and given room enough they will 
probably blossom in September. 

We are commonly advised to sow the seed under glass in 
March, but those who do so will be sorry before the end of May, 
for the seed starts so readily and the young plants grow so freely 
that the hasty gardener soon has to choose whether he will throw 
away some of his dahlias or some of his other plants. 

In the dahlia as we now have it the tendency to variation is 
pretty thoroughly fixed. Out of two hundred seedlings raised 



188 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

from seed of the fine white pompon variet} 7 . White Aster, I had' 
flowers of every sort and kind and every shade of color, — single,, 
pompon, and large doubles, some of the latter prettj* good and 
some poor enough to be offered as first rate " cactus" dahlias. 

We seem to be advancing from the single flowers over precisely 
the same ground formerly traversed, for most of the "cactus" 
varieties of the present day are in no respect different from varie- 
ties figured fifty years ago in the " Floricultural Cabinet " and other 
publications. I looked at a plant over a stranger's garden fence 
last summer, trying to decide whether it was the much lauded 
Henry Patrick or a poorly grown specimen of some worn-out 
variety ; I could not settle the point. 

Into what will these loose flat petalled varieties develop? 
Will they become the round, perfect, show dahlias as they did 
before, or will they take a different turn and produce some new 
form? It seems to me that the same materials — the species 
variabilis, coccinea and gracilis — must produce the same results. 
Within a year or two Merckii (glabrata of some) has been crossed 
with some of the old sorts and the offspring have been bushy 
little plants not more than eighteen inches high, and with large 
single flowers which, however, are just like what we have now. 

In so large a family as the Composite, to which the dahlia 
belongs, it seems probable that some genus exists with which 
Irybrids may be formed, and it is from such a source that new 
kinds are to be had if at all. A correspondent has lately sent to 
the " Gardener's Chronicle" what he states to be the offspring of a 
dahlia and a perennial sunflower. The learned editor declares 
that he sees nothing of the sunflower about it, but admits that he 
cannot say that such a cross is impossible, — an admission that 
botany has learned something from horticulture, for thirty years 
ago the idea of a bi-generic hybrid would have met nothing but 
derision. 

There is still one point in which the present race of dahlias- 
may be improved, — I mean hardiness. We frequently have a 
frost in the first part of September which kills all our dahlias ;. 
then succeed several weeks of bright mild weather in which our 
blackened plants present but a sorry figure. If we could infuse 
enough hardiness into them to enable them to withstand this first 
frost, it would be a great point gained. Two years ago among 
some hundreds of seedlings which the frost had destroyed, one- 



THE DAHLIA. 189 

stood up as fresh and green as ever. I ought to have marked it 
for preservation, but I put off doing so and the result was that it 
was lost. This incident shows that a moderate degree of hardi- 
ness may be attained by the single process of selection among 
seedlings ; perhaps by hybridization perfect hardiness may be 
reached. 

We frequently hear and read discussions as to whether single 
or double varieties are to be preferred ; but these two classes are 
so very unlike each other that a comparison between them is 
hardly possible. Both are desirable, — both are beautiful; each 
in its own way. The large double dahlia is certainly heavy in 
appearance, but it has a richness of color, a delicacy of shading, 
and a perfection of construction that the singles cannot approach. 
I marvel that any one can examine such a flower as Flamingo or 
Sarah McMillan without admiration. The single dahlias are so 
free in flowering, so cheerful and graceful as they stand in the 
garden beds, that I wonder that any one should declare he will 
have none of them. 

It is commonly expected that a paper of this kind shall finish 
with a list of best varieties, and warned by a previous experience 
I shall try to meet this expectation. But first I will describe such 
•of the wild species as seem to need a word. Imperialis is a very 
beautiful species, which, however, will never be much grown, 
because it does not flower until November and then only on stalks 
twelve or fifteen feet tall. Nothing can much exceed the beauty 
of its clusters, however, consisting as they do of flowers grace- 
fully drooping, white faintly flushed with pink, and with petals so 
disposed that the flowers look more like lilies than dahlias. This 
species is well worth growing for the beauty of its foliage, which 
is much divided and arches out from the stem like some kinds of 
aralia. Excelsa is another tree-like plant, coarser in foliage than 
imperialis and also late flowering ; the blossoms are pink. 
Merckii, called also glabrata, is a very dwarf species, not over a 
foot and a half high. In no respect does it resemble the other 
species in appearance. The foliage is shiny and very finely cut, 
and the blossoms much resemble the coreopsis in size, shape, and 
length of stalk. The colors are white, pink, and purple with a 
dark brown centre. The other species are much like the ordinary 
♦crimson and scarlet single varieties. 



190 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

As for varieties I cannot pretend to name the best, for the first 
rank contains a very great number of kinds ; but I will name a 
few which I think are as good as any. These best flowers are by 
no means all of modern date, for Miss Caroline, a beautiful show 
flower, was raised in 1853, and Paragon, one of the best of single 
sorts, was in existence in 1834. 

The large flowered double sorts are classed as " Show" and 
" Fancy " kinds. The distinction is not much regarded in this 
country. The possessor of the following kinds has a good collec- 
tion : 

Anne Boleyn, light flesh. 

British Triumph, dark crimson. 

Duchess of Cambridge, rose with crimson tipped florets. 

Earl of Shaftesbury, rich purple. 

Flamingo, vermilion. 

Julia Davis, rich yellow. 

Lady Allington, scarlet, tipped white. 

Lord Hawke, yellow and buff. 

Louisa Neate, pink. 

Miss Ruth, lemon yellow with white tips. 

Mrs. Gladstone, delicate soft pink. 

Prospero, plum color, tipped white. 

Some very good Pompon or small flowered double kinds are : 
Catherine, yellow. 

Cochineal Rose, deep crimson and of perfect form. 
Figaro, buff with crimson edge. 
George French, crimson if seen from the front, bluish rose if 

looked at from the side. 
Isabel, brilliant scarlet and of finest form. 
Liebchenmein, white, bordered violet. 
Little Goldlight, golden yellow, tipped scarlet. 
Lurline, yellow. 
Mercator, pink, tipped crimson. 
Pure Love, lilac. 
Snowflake, creamy white. 
Sparkler, scarlet. 
White Aster, pure white with fringed petals. 

Of the "Cactus" varieties there are by far too many, unless 
their quality improves. Juarezi, named from Juarez, the former 



THE DAHLIA. 191 

President of Mexico, was the first, and is so far the best, that I 
am almost inclined to say that no other sort is worth growing. 
Its color is intense and pure scarlet, and its shape and the 
arrangement of petals are peculiar. I regard it as a very valuable 
introduction. Lord Lyndhurst is very good, and is a reproduction 
of it on a somewhat smaller scale and in a lighter shade of color. 
It is, I think, a sport from Juarezi. Mondamin is a fine pink 
variety raised from seed of Juarezi and has the same peculiar 
shape. I can name no more than these three. I have not seen 
all that are in existence, but I have seen many and do not desire 
to own them. It is of no use to mention single varieties. 

At the close of the lecture, a vote of thanks to Mr. Endicott, 
for his very able and interesting paper, was unanimously passed. 

Discussion. 

John C. Hovey spoke in commendation of the class of Bouquet 
dahlias. They grow only from a foot and a half to two feet high 
and do not require staking. They flower very abundantly. He 
thought the varieties raised here from seed would flower earlier 
than foreign varieties. 

Leverett M. Chase said that he visited Mr. Endicott' s grounds 
two years ago and saw a variety which was one mass of flowers 
and very beautiful. It was Highland Mary, and was raised by 
Mr. Endicott some years ago from seed of White Aster. The 
most noticeable thing there was a line of this kind ; he had never 
seen anything so floriferous ; the flowers grew above the foliage 
and in unceasing abundance. They are of a delicate pink with 
patches of white florets. 

John Parker said that he had had an experience of sixty years 
in growing dahlias and had always been successful. He had 
been an exhibitor more than forty years. At the Annual Exhibi- 
tion of this Society in Faneuil Hall in 1848, he exhibited forty- 
seven varieties of dahlias. He had set out a plant in flower in 
April which had continued to flower until frost. He had had a 
plant of Lord Liverpool which grew to be fourteen feet high. 
The dahlia is in its glory when all other flowers are faded and 
gone. He gives them plenty of water and plenty of enrichment 
and trims them up to a single stalk. The French have a method 
of letting them lie on the ground and flower like bedding plants. 



192 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

He pins a piece of tissue paper over flowers to preserve them for 
exhibition. He uses every kind of fertilizer. The dahlia attempts 
too much, and is improved by taking off part of the buds. 

Mr. Hovey would encourage the cultivation of dwarf Bouquet 
dahlias rather than laying down tall growing varieties. By 
improving the dwarfs much better results may be secured. Last 
fall he saw a plant of the White Bouquet variety bearing twenty 
flowers. 

John S. Martin said he had greatly enjoyed the interesting and 
valuable lecture upon the Dahlia, its properties and needs. But 
he would recommend, especially to amateurs, the growing of 
dwarf varieties. While this class possesses great beauty of form 
and richness of colors in the flowers they are very free bloomers. 
The compact growth of the plants permits the cultivator to have a 
large number of varieties upon a small area. Another advantage 
from their low stature is the ease with which they can be fully 
protected from early frosts, thus securing the continued enjoy- 
ment of their varied beauty long after the tall growing varieties 
have been destroyed. 

The Chairman of the Committee on Publication and Discussion, 
stated that Hon. Henry L. Parker of Worcester would be unable to 
present the paper announced on the programme for next Saturday, 
and that the meeting, which would be the last of the season, 
would be open for the discussion of such subjects as might be 
suggested. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, March 29, 1890. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at half-past 
eleven o'clock, the President, William H. Spooner, in the Chair. 

The Secretary read a letter from Hon. John W. Candler, 
acknowledging the receipt of the Resolutions and Memorial of the 
American Forestry Association approved by this Society, and 
stating that he is interested in the subject to which they refer and 
would give them careful consideration. 



HORTICULTURAL EDUCATION. 193 

The Secretary also presented a letter from the Worcester 
Agricultural Society, returning thanks for the invitation to appoint 
a member who should have the free use of the Library and Library 
room for the purpose of preparing essays to be read before 
Farmers' Institutes, and stating that Calvin L. Hartshorn of 
Worcester had been appointed to enjoy that privilege. 

Mrs. H. L. T. Wolcott referred to the subject of Horticultural 
Education for children, which formed the subject at the Meeting 
for Discussion two weeks previously, expressing the desire that 
something should be done by the Society to promote that object, 
and moved that the subject be referred to the Committee on 
Window Gardening. A discussion of the subject followed. 

Edmund Hersey said that the future of the country depends 
upon the proper education of the children, and if this Society can 
do anything to get the children interested in the cultivation of 
fruits or flowers or vegetables, it should do so. We are soon to 
leave our places here, and if the Society is to prosper we must 
take action to interest children in horticulture, so that they may 
take our places when we are gone, and do better than we have 
done. There are many difficulties in the way when we attempt 
to make our ideas practical, but still we can do something. In 
Hingham, where the speaker resides, the Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural Society has a Children's Department, which strengthens 
the society and improves the children. Working on these lines, 
offering premiums for the best fruits, flowers, and vegetables grown 
by children, will be a step in the right direction. Another step 
suggested is that since this Society is affiliated with the State 
Board of Agriculture, and whatever the Board requires societies 
to do they must do, there being seven members of the Board who 
are also members of this Society, can they not influence the Board 
to do something in this direction ? The Board might require the 
societies to offer prizes for the best herbariums of ferns and 
grasses collected by children and thus educate them to observe 
better than ever before. Another point is that we now have a 
series of lectures every winter which are listened to mostly by 
gray-headed persons ; might we not have one lecture especially 
adapted to the older children in the High School? In Hingham, 
notice is sent to the teachers of whatever is done by the Agricul- 
tural Society which will be for the benefit of children, and the 
13 



194 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

result has been for the advantage of both the society and the 
children. The same course was pursued at a recent farmers' 
institute at Topsfield with promising results. The Society should 
look into this matter carefully, and wherever it sees an opportunity 
to elevate the education of children it should improve it. It has 
already done much in shaping opinion in regard to the cultivation 
of flowers, especially in New England, — perhaps more than we 
realize. That flowers are cultivated as much as they are from 
northern Maine to the southern boundary of Connecticut is largely 
due to the influence of this Societ} 7 . Whatever we can do to 
improve the cultivation of fruits, flowers, and vegetables, especially 
among children, let us try to do it. 

Francis H. Appleton said that as a member of the State Board 
of Agriculture he should be glad to promote an} 7 movement which 
the Board might make in the direction indicated by the last 
speaker. This State has been a pioneer in education, but perhaps 
some other States are now in advance of us in the special depart- 
ment under consideration. 

John S. Martin, by request, related some experience in regard 
to the subject before the meeting. When a }'oung bo} 7 he was 
transferred from the public schools in this city to one in Maine 
where the schoolhouse was very different from those in Boston. 
Near it was a piece of woods belonging to the school giounds, and 
in this a patch was cleared and planted by the boys and girls with 
flowers which they collected in the woods and elsewhere. This 
place the children made their playground and ate their dinners 
there, and there were no quarrels among them, but great comfort 
and enjoyment. No bad language was heard, and the speaker 
did not believe there was a happier group of children in the State. 
He felt much interested to have school gardens in Boston if 
possible, for there is nothing more desirable as an educational 
influence. 

Henry L. Clapp, principal of the George Putnam School in 
Roxbury, and author of the paper which had led to this discus- 
sion, said that while he thought highly of school gardens, such as 
had been described by the preceding speaker, his purpose was to 
have plant culture for educational purposes. He had known school 
gardens to be robbed, and he would not cultivate in them such 
flowers as would attract robbery, but ferns and grasses and similar 
plants. His idea was that time now given to the study of plants 



TOUR OF GRANGERS IN CALIFORNIA. 195 

in the schoolhouse should be spent in the study of plants in the 
school garden. 

The motion that the subject be referred to the Committee on 
Window Gardening was unanimously carried. 

The meeting was then dissolved. 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 
The Tour of the Grangers in California. 

By O. B. Hadwen, of Worcester. 

In speaking of my sojourn in the great State of California and 
giving an account of its agricultural and horticultural resources 
and interests, built up since the tide of emigration from the Eastern 
States set towards the western slope of the Sierra Nevadas, I can 
but declare that neither my time nor my opportunity is equal to 
more than the merest superficial account of the great orchards 
and vineyards extending from the Napa Valley of the north to 
the San Diego and the San Gabriel of the south. 

As we near the foot-hills on the western slope of the Sierra 
Nevadas the cultivation of the apple becomes manifest in small 
but well cultivated orchards. As we approach the valley of the 
Sacramento, orchards of the peach, pear, and plum, as well as 
market gardens, are seen, apparently under the best management 
and care. 

Perhaps no other given space has Nature signalized with so 
great a variet} T of climate and products, as that of forty miles 
from the mountain to the foot-hills and the valley, which challenges 
the attention of all who have a fondness for her works. 

Having seen this most charming and wonderful feature of 
landscape and cultivation, we arrive at the City of Sacramento 
to find a banquet in readiness at the State Capitol for the 
Grangers and their invited guests. Four hundred or more were 
seated at the tables, which were most bountifully supplied with 
the fruits, flowers, wines, and other products of the State, and no 
State can entertain guests with more generous hospitality. No 
State can set a table more temptingly arranged, — loaded with 
only the products of her own soil, than can California. Not only 
may be found fish and fowl with all the domestic meats, and all of 
the vegetables used in civilized communities, but the greatest 



196 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

variety of fruits. The apple, the pear, the peach, the persimmon, 
the plum and prune, the apricot, and grapes in great variety ; also 
the fig, orange, lemon, lime, olive, guava, and banana, with 
almonds, chestnuts, pecans, English walnuts, — in fact every 
product, seemingly, can be grown in California — and who can want 
more? In her flora is found an equally great variety, and in 
either summer or winter they are in readiness to decorate the 
houses and rooms and banquets with the best effect. Fruits and 
flowers were in great profusion, with a boutonnidre of exquisite 
beauty and taste at each plate. Following the example of the 
ladies of California, which we deemed worthy of imitation, we 
tasted the wines and other good cheer, and congratulated the 
Californians that they could sit under their own vines and fig- 
trees, feast upon their abundance, and have a large surplus for 
their less fortunate neighbors. The company was made up of 
representatives from all the States of the Union excepting four, — 
delegates from the Granges and their invited guests, including 
many State officials. After the banquet, music and speeches were 
in order, all expressive of good feeling and good cheer. Taking 
it as a whole — the hall, the decorations, the tables, and the com- 
pany, the banquet may well be described as of the highest order. 

The ranch of General Bidwell, at Chico, of about 30,000 acres, 
is one of the finest I saw in California. The grounds about the 
mansion are tastefully embellished with beautiful trees in endless 
variety as well as flowering shrubs and plants, artistically 
grouped and looking remarkably thrifty. There were also on the 
place beautiful orchards of the cherry, — the finest I ever saw. The 
trees were very shapely and some of the trunks measured five feet 
in diameter. Those trees were probably planted about thirty-five 
years ago. There were extensive orchards of apple trees, shapely 
and well cared for ; also large orchards of the peach, with well 
pruned branches, and very many trunks were each more than a 
foot in diameter. Orchards of the plum and apricot were exten- 
sive, set in rows absolutely straight, and with the high culture 
bestowed upon them all they could not help producing abundant 
crops. 

The plantations of the fig were, to our unaccustomed eyes, very 
unique. I should think the trees reached the height of nearly if 
not quite sixty feet, and a diameter of trunk of two feet or even 
•more ; it was certainly the finest orchard of the fig I saw in Cal- 



TOUR OF GRANGERS IN CALIFORNIA. 197 

ifornia. I was told that the fig produces three crops in the year. 
The stock of almond and English walnut and chestnut trees was 
large and well cultivated, but the native forest trees were of the 
most stately and gigantic growth. The live-oaks were immense, 
with sturdy trunks and symmetrical tops. We saw one gray oak, 
the branches of which extended sixt3'-three by seventy-three feet, 
and it was said that seven thousand men could stand beneath its 
shade. We also saw well bred and well kept cattle and swine 
in large numbers. In short this ranch was superlative in all its 
features and appointments ; a truly grand spectacle both agricul- 
turally and horticulturally speaking and such as the eye can 
feast upon but is impossible fitty to describe. 

Upon this ranch were mills for grinding grain, mostly wheat ; 
establishments for canning fruits, and substantial stables for 
horses and cattle. In every department excellent care seemed 
manifest. 

A colony of Digger Indians having become civilized dwell on 
this estate, and they are given employment in gathering fruits, 
and performing other farm work. 

We next paid a visit to Vina, the plantation and vineyard of 
Senator Stanford, of 55,000 acres. Here is a vineyard of 4,000 
acres planted with wine grapes. In the vaults were stored 
4,700,000 gallons of wine, contained in casks of two thousand 
gallons capacity. The wines of California are in great diversity, 
made from different varieties of grapes. Perhaps a dozen leading 
sorts are largely exported and sent east. It may, however, be 
termed the native beverage, and is largely used in the State. 

We next visited Woodland and there, it being Sunday, attended 
church in the forenoon. In the afternoon we left for Santa Rosa, 
passing through a very fertile valley about sixty miles in length, 
where we saw great numbers of live stock. Large vineyards and 
orchards and market gardens are seen along this route. Santa 
Rosa is the seat of Sonoma County. It is situated in the valley 
of Santa Rosa, one of the richest and most beautiful valleys, sixty 
miles in length and sixty miles in width. The streets are well 
paved and bordered with the eucalyptus and other trees. Leaving 
early in the morning, we had but little opportunity to visit the 
places of interest in which Santa Rosa abounds. 

On the way to San Francisco we pass through a valley abound- 
ing in agricultural wealth. We noted Jersey cattle on many 



198 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

farms, and fine gardens and residences, which apprized us of our 
near approach to a large city. On reaching San Francisco we 
were quartered at the Palace Hotel, one of the largest and finest 
in the world, where I spent six days with a great deal of comfort 
and satisfaction. The city abounds in public parks and squares. 
The Golden Gate Park contains 1,013 acres, the Government 
reservation at Presidio 1,200 acres, Buena Vista 20 acres, Moun- 
tain Lake 20 acres, and other city squares comprise 119 acres. 
Our first move was for Golden Gate Park, in the western portion 
of the city. Originally it was a barren waste of sand, but now it 
is a very attractive and charming spot, well planted with trees and 
shrubs. Plants that with us are grown under glass grow out of 
doors there, and many were in full bloom at this season, November 
15th. Fnschias were growing in hedges, and many other plants 
which we usually grow under glass were permanently set in the open 
ground, many of them attaining the size and form of trees. The 
conservatory is 250 feet in length and contains a fine collection 
of choice plants. The improvements were commenced in 1874 
and now many of the trees, deciduous and evergreen, are quite 
large, — even stately. But it must be borne in mind that one grow- 
ing season in California is about equal to one and a half of ours. 
The drives are well graded and macadamized, and on pleasant 
afternoons are , filled by the turnouts of the city. Vast sums of 
money have been expended on this park. We were made 
acquainted with the Superintendent, G. M. Murplry, who kindly 
showed us the places of especial interest. 

The Board of Trade Rooms were quite an interesting feature. 
Here are on exhibition the products of the several counties of the 
State, either in a green or preserved condition. These products 
were mostly large, indicating rich lands and a long season. 
There were squashes weighing 304, 208, 195, and 176 pounds and so 
on ; a beet 154 pounds ; onions six and one-half pounds ; sweet 
potatoes twenty-eight pounds ; pears five pounds ; peaches 
twelve inches round, and other products in proportion. I will 
only touch upon the productive industry of the State. The gold 
and silver products since 1848 are $2,789,207,538 ; the coinage at 
the mint to 1886 is $847,694,237. The banking capital is $45,- 
000,000. Thus will be seen the vast wealth from the mines alone. 
The productive industry of this State is immense and yearly in- 
creasing. 



TOUR OF GRANGERS IN CALIFORNIA. 199 

After two days sojourn in San Francisco we left for the 
southern portion of the State, our first destination being Menlo 
Park, in which is the residence of Senator Stanford, named 
Thurlow Lodge. Here we were charmed with the groves of live- 
oaks. The drives are through groves of beautiful pine, eucalypti, 
and other trees. Palms as well as flowering shrubs and plants 
of all kinds, are seen in great profusion. Deer parks and orna- 
mental gardens render the drives and grounds princely. 

A drive of a mile or more over finely graded avenues brought 
us to the Leland Stanford, Jr., Universit} 7 . The buildings, now in 
course of construction, are to be of granite and sandstone. We 
were told that this university has an endowment of large estates 
valued at $20,000,000. Its purpose is to educate the young men 
of California, and it is regarded as the most magnificent gift ever 
made to that State. A short drive through fine fields filled with 
horses of different ages, brought us to the stables, where are kept 
the finest stud of horses probably to be found in America. 
Some of the most noted of these herses were led out for our 
inspection. At the same time the celebrated horse Sanol was 
being tried on the track in presence of Mr. Robert Bonner. 

Returning to the station we took cars for San Jose, a beautiful 
little city, surrounded by fine orchards and vineyards. There we 
were driven out to see an olive orchard, and were favored with a 
most excellent lunch, where olives, grapes, and wine were in 
perfection and superabundant ; also a very dainty dish called 
resota, composed in the main of chicken and rice, cooked and 
incorporated with other nourishing and seasoning aliments. It 
was most highly appreciated and commended by the whole com- 
pany. The proprietor, Mr. Goodrich, made a graceful and 
finished speech, complimentary to the company, and as agreeable 
as was his abounding hospitality. The olive groves seemed 
perfection in their planting and cultivation. The trees were 
remarkable for their symmetry of shape and uniformity of size. 
The grapes were the best we found in California — long, elegant 
clusters of highly colored fruit. The atmosphere of the whole 
place indicated the most refined care and supervision. 

After an hour or more most pleasantly spent we returned to 
the city of San Jose where we were comfortably quartered at the 
hotels for the night, the day's excursion having been most 
delightful. 



200 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

In the evening a banquet was given in Horticultural Hall. 
The Hall was finely decorated and the arrangement of the tables 
was very unique — unlike anything we had seen, but the effect was 
charming, loaded as they were with the products of the State 
most tastefully displayed. After a sumptuous- repast speaking 
was in order, which together with most excellent music held the 
company to a late hour. 

After a good night's rest we took our train for Monterey r 
situated on the southern extremity of the Bay of Montere}'. A 
short ride brought us to our first stop, at Del Monte, situated 
near the Bay of Monterey. From the station we walked through 
a beautiful avenue shaded with live-oaks and conifers seemingly 
old as the hills, approaching the famous Hotel Del Monte, which 
was built within two or three years to replace one that was 
burned. This hotel is situated in the centre of a natural park of 
two hundred acres. Here were some of the largest and tallest 
pines we saw on the trip. Though native trees, by Nature 
planted, they were grouped for the most charming effect, each 
tree in its grandeur seeming indispensable to the others. Beneath 
their shade was fine artificial planting of the Cacti in great 
variety, as well as all other desirable ornamental plants. The 
roses, which seem to receive especial attention, were in full bloom 
November 28. At this hotel we took our Thanksgiving lunch. 
The dining room was well filled and ample justice was done to 
the bill of fare. 

There is a "Labyrinth" here, planted with a species of cedar t 
in hedge form, with intricate paths. Our company seemed to 
have but little difficult} 7 in getting in, but there was a great deal 
of noise and confusion in getting out. We were told of some 
who failed to find their way out and had to remain over night. 

I have never seen a spot where everything seemed so entirely 
wrapped up in Nature — in fact where Nature seemed so entirely 
supreme ; where trees of gigantic growth have lived for ages and 
still look vigorous and well preserved. The hotel with its sur- 
roundings seems to have an air of royal and generous hospitality, 
as well as an indescribable kindly rural aspect. Monterey is 
favored with a beautiful contour of countr} 7 and ocean in close 
proximity ; and they seem to unite most happily, with no rugged 
waste in view. As we neared the beach curious shells were found r 
of which many were gathered by our party. The harbor is crescent- 



TOUR OF GRANGERS IN CALIFORNIA. 201 

shaped and very beautiful to look upon. The Old Mission Church 
is one of the most ancient buildings, and there are also several old 
fortifications. The town is curiously tame and seems satisfied 
with itself. 

We arrived at Los Angeles on Monday morning, December 2, 
and breakfasted at the station. We were then invited to carriages 
and rode about the city and suburbs. We drove through miles of 
vegetable gardens and orchards, which surrounded the city in all 
directions. All kinds of fruits and vegetables seem to thrive ; they 
were in all stages of growth and represent a great industry. 
The city is well laid out with wide streets, but while some portions 
were well paved others were wet and muddy. Shade trees were 
abundant ; the live-oak, pine, cypress, pepper, eucalyptus, syca- 
more, poplar, palm, etc., were most conspicuous. Orange, lemon, 
lime, pomegranate, and fig trees were to be seen in ever} 7 yard, 
and grand mountains loomed up in the distance. 

Before noon we took the cars for Alhambra, a beautiful town 
in the San Gabriel valley, seven miles from Los Angeles ; a 
pleasant ride of thirty minutes brought us to our destination, where 
we dined. Teams were in readiness to conve} 7 us about the place 
and through the orange groves, which seemed to occupy all the 
lands about. The ride was a delightful one. Everything was 
new to us. 44,000 bearing orange trees with extensive orchards 
and vinej^ards seemed to stretch away for miles. Our time was 
short and at 3 p. m. we were in the cars for San Diego, about 
53 miles distant. There we arrived at dark and supped at the 
station, after which another ride over a neck of land fifteen miles 
long brought us to the Grand Hotel Del Coronado, where we 
were glad to retire for the night. 

The Hotel Coronado is deservedly called one of the first hotels 
in California. It is said to cover five acres of ground rising 
gradual^ from the beach. It contains rooming capacity for 
twelve hundred persons. The dining room is the largest I have 
ever seen. It is shaped like the famous Mormon Tabernacle ; is 
finished in oak of the natural color of the wood and is beautifully 
frescoed ; it is said that it will accommodate a thousand persons. 
After a refreshing night's rest and an excellent breakfast, we take 
the cars, return over the neck of land to National City, and thence 
a distance of seven miles to Rosarito, at the Mexican line. Here 
we find a few houses, a custom house, and some half-breeds of 



202 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Indians and Mexicans. Through an interpreter we had an 
informal introduction to the officials, and after some pleasant 
interchange of compliments took our departure. On our return 
trip we stopped first at the residence of one of the Kimball 
Brothers. There we went through the groves planted with the 
orange, lemon, olive, and guava ; also through the grounds about 
the residence, which were planted with ornamental trees and 
flowering plants. Roses were in perfection, being in superb 
bloom, the buds showing most exquisite form and color. After 
passing through the grounds and mansion, and it being about 
noon, each member of the party was presented with a basket 
containing a very delicate and appetizing lunch covered with a 
Japanese napkin, and on each basket was a boutonnidre of the 
most exquisite flowers. Lemonade was freely served and par- 
taken of ; it was made from lemons to the manor born and was 
deliciously refreshing and duly appreciated. 

With lunch in hand we boarded the cars again for a trip to the 
famous Sweetwater Dam, built by the San Diego Land and Town 
Company at a cost of $200,000. It is designed to supply the 
city with water and also to irrigate lands in the vicinity. The dam 
presents a fine appearance. It is a strong, durable, and hand- 
some structure, and the reservoir, which has the capacity of 
6,000,000,000 gallons, covers an area of seven hundred acres. 
Resuming our journey, we next stopped at some large orange 
groves, which were under excellent management, the trees being 
loaded with fine fruit, now approaching ripeness. On our arrival 
at San Diego we were shown to the rooms of the Chamber of 
Commerce, where we found an exhibition of fruits, vegetables, 
and flowers. All were well arranged and showed the intelligent 
care bestowed upon their cultivation. After some speeches we 
repaired to the ferry boat and were soon landed again at the 
Hotel Del Coronado, where we took supper. Later on the 
company met in one of the large parlors, for an interchange of 
speeches of a complimentary nature, which proved very interest- 
ing to us. We were really the guests of Messrs. F. A. and W. C. 
Kimball, formerly of Massachusetts, and we acknowledged as 
best we could our heartfelt gratitude for their kindness and 
generous hospitalitj', as nowhere else in the State were we shown 
more liberal and considerate attention. 



TOUR OF GRANGERS IN CALIFORNIA. 203 

The next morning, December 3, we recrossed the ferry and 
taking the cars going north visited the famous orange groves at 
Riverside. We found it a beautiful place covering an area of 
25,000 acres. The orange groves and vineyards occupy the whole 
place and the verj- best care and skill are manifest everywhere. 
The cit} T and county have a population of about 7,000. It is a 
city of magnificent avenues and residences. The avenues are 
tastefully planted with palms and pepper trees and nothing can 
surpass them in their grace and beauty. 

After viewing Riverside and receiving the hospitalities of the 
citizens, which were most generous, we reentered the cars for Los 
Angeles, and on our arrival were quartered at the hotels for the 
night. All were tired, and desired rest from the constant strain 
and excitement of the ten days excursion and banquets, which 
were kept up without any intermission. We needed to prepare 
ourselves for the grand finale on the following morning, when the 
tour of the Grangers over the State of California was to end and 
the party to separate. The pleasant associations and incidents, 
the hallowed memories, the dignified, graceful, and charming 
courtesies we received during our absence from home and friends, 
made the farewell truly heartfelt, and prompted the wish that we 
might reciprocate such generous hospitality. We feel that hence- 
forth our houses shall be open to the Californians if they ever 
come to sojourn among us. We can only hope that we have been 
worthy of the attentions which we received as visitors to their 
glorious State, and we know and feel that their kindness must 
-ever keep a green spot in our memories while life lasts. The 
final parting at the railroad station, where the larger part were 
gathered to go eastward to their homes, was a scene such as the 
most of us never before witnessed. An express wagon came 
loaded with Navel oranges in baskets for our refreshment by the 
way, supplemented with bottles of native wine, of which one was 
presented to each member of the party. Governor Robie, of 
Maine, mounted the wagon and made the parting speech, com- 
mending the people for their generous hospitality ; praising the 
great agricultural resources of the State, with its mountains, its 
foot-hills, and vast valleys, and thanking all who had so gener- 
ously contributed to the welfare and pleasure of the party. All 
was expressed with his charming felicity of speech, which flowg so 
easily upon every occasion. The cry, " all aboard !" was heard 



204 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

from the conductor, cheers were given with a will, the locomotive 
gave its resounding puff, the wheels turned on their axles, and 
the train soon took the visitors out of sight. The mind of each 
one of the travellers was filled with wonder and amazement at 
the scenes which formed the indescribable panorama of this 
excursion. Their cups of pleasure and happiness were filled to 
the brim as they wended their way homeward, thinking, as they 
will ever think, of their very pleasant visit to California. 

Perhaps the most pleasing spot in California, if not in the 
world, is Passadena and its vicinity. The great stretch of the 
San Gabriel valley of fifty miles, with the Sierra Madre moun- 
tain range on the north and east, from four thousand to five 
thousand feet high and reaching back for forty miles, is seen ; as 
the eye follows the range it discerns further back Old Baldy, eleven 
thousand feet high, snow-capped the year round. Turning to the 
west the Virdugos loom up, and nearer the foot-hills and ridged 
hills, which on the 10th of December were clothed with foliage of 
pea-green hue. From the Raymond hill, the site of the Raymond 
Hotel, can be seen the most charming scenery, combining moun- 
tains, hills, the vast valley and through a gap in the hills the 
Pacific Ocean, with the cit} T of Passadena in full view, and a 
fertile and highly cultivated country, planted with the trees and 
orchards of a semi-tropical climate. 

The grounds around the Raymond, about fifty acres, are only 
recently planted but, in a ver} r few years will form an arboretum 
in themselves. Here I saw the greatest variety of trees, both indige- 
nous and foreign. The flowers about the grounds, by far surpassed 
any I saw elsewhere. La France Roses, — if the rose is the Queen 
of flowers, La France is the Queen of Roses, — are grown about 
the Raymond in the greatest abundance, with the finest buds and 
flowers, — three times as large as we usually see them in New Eng- 
land. The tea and other tender roses seemed perfectly at home in 
the open air. Connected with the grounds are glass houses for 
orchids and tender plants. Roses are also extensively planted in 
cheap houses where glass can be used in case of rain storms. 
The hotel was virtually surrounded with flowers, and they all seemed 
kindly to bloom when most needed, and were fully appreciated by 
the guests of the house. The planting is under the supervision of 
Charles H. Hovey, formerly of Boston, and the gardener, Jame s 
Barratt, was with Charles M. Hovey for twenty } 7 ears. The Hotel 



TOUR OF GRANGERS IN CALIFORNIA. 205 

Raymond is not only delightfully situated but is admirably kept. 
It is one of those hotels that are plain but luxurious. One feels as 
though everything to be desired in a hotel was there. The scenery 
grew upon me every day, and I can now view it in my mind's 
eye as the finest I have ever witnessed. 

I should like to describe some private places, but having taken 
more than the allotted time must close by commending California 
to all who have a fondness for the unlimited charms of Nature, 
which seem so ever varied over that State. 

A vote of thanks to Mr. Hadwen for his interesting paper was 
proposed, and as this was the last of the series of meetings for 
the discussion of horticultural subjects the present season, 
William D. Philbrick moved that the vote include the thanks of 
the Society to the Committee on Publication and Discussion for 
the interesting and instructive papers and lectures which they 
had provided, and in this form the vote was unanimously passed. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Prefatory Note, 3 

Business Meeting, January 4,1890; Address of President Spooner, pp. 5-8; 
Awards by Committee on Gardens, 8 ; Report of Committee on Win- 
dow Gardening read, 9; Appropriations for 1890, 9; Appointment of 
Secretary and Treasurer, 9; Prizes for Reports, 9; Committee on Por- 
trait of President Walcott, 9 ; Proceedings of American Pomological 
Society presented, 10 ; Letter from F. Lyf ord, 10 ; Appointment of Com- 
mittee of Conference, 10 ; Election of Member, 10 ; Announcement of 

Meetings for Discussion, 10 

Business Meeting, January 11 ; Letter from Montreal Horticultural Soci- 
ety, and appointment of Delegate, . . 10, 11 

Meeting for Discussion; Horticulture of California, by Benjamin P. 

Ware, pp. 11-15; Discussion, 15,16 

Business Meeting, January 18; Report of Treasurer read, p. 16; Letter 

from Montreal Horticultural Society, 16 

Meeting for Discussion; Huckleberries and Blueberries, by E. Lewis 

Sturtevant, M. D., pp. 17-33; Discussion, 33-38 

Business Meeting, January 25; Notices, etc., to be sent to members, p. 39; 

Library Committee authorized to employ assistance, .... 39 
Meeting for Discussion ; Fruits and Flowers of Northern Japan, by Pro- 
fessor William P. Brooks, 39-59 

Business Meeting, February 1 ; Report of Committee on Gardens presented, 
p. 60 ; Vote concerning appropriation for Committee on Window Gar- 
dening, 60; Protection of fruit from juvenile trespassers, 60; Election 

of member, 60 

Meeting for Discussion; Galls found near Boston, by Miss CoraH. Clarke, 

pp. 61-69; Discussion, 7* 

Business Meeting, February 8 ; Gypsy Moth, 71 

Meeting for Discussion; Chrysanthemums, by W. A. Manda, pp. 71-78; 

Discussion, *. . . . 78,79 

Business Meeting, February 15; Use of Library Room and Library by Ag- 
ricultural Societies, p. 80; Committee to nominate Committee on Win- 
dow Gardening, 80 

Meeting for Discussion ; Cemeteries and Parks, by John G. Barker, pp. 

81-109; Discussion, 110-112 

Business Meeting, February 22; Committee on Window Gardening, . . 112 
Meeting for Discussion ; The Growth and Nutrition of Plants, by Profes- 
sor G. H. Whitcher, pp. 113-127; Discussion, 127-129 



CONTENTS. 11 

Business Meeting, March 1 ; Appointments by Agricultural Societies, p. 
129 ; Election of Member, 129 ; Vote approving resolutions of American 
Forestry Association, 130 

Meeting for Discussion; Some Aspects of the Present Forestry Agitation, 

by Professor Joseph T. Rothrock, pp. 130-145; Discussion, . . . 146-150 

Business Meeting, March 8; Decease of George Hill announced, p. 150; 

Appointments by Agricultural Societies, etc., 150,151 

Meeting for Discussion; Heating Cold Frames and Growing Black 
Hamburg Grapes under Glass, by "William D. Philbrick, pp. 151-154; 
Discussion 154-156 

Business Meeting, March 15; Memorial of George Hill, pp. 157, 158; Com- 
mittee on Large and Interesting Trees, p. 158 ; Appointment by Spen- 
cer Farmers' and Mechanics' Association, 158 

Meeting for Discussion; Horticultural Education for Children, by Henry 

L. Clapp, pp. 159-179; Discussion, . . 179-184 

Business Meeting, March 22 ; Letters received from Members of Congress, 184 

Meeting for Discussion ; The Dahlia, by William E. Endicott, pp. 185-191 ; 

Discussion, 191, 192 

Business Meeting, March 29; Letter from Hon. John W. Candler read, p. 
192; Appointment by Worcester Agricultural Society, 193; Horticul- 
tural Education for Children, 193-195 

Meeting for Discussion ; The Tour of the Grangers in California, pp. 195- 

205 ; Closing Proceedings, 205 



Experiment Station Reports Wanted. 



The Massachusetts Horticultural Society is endeavoring- to collect complete 
sets of the Bulletins and other publications of all the Agricultural Experi- 
ment Stations in the United States and Canada. Those named below are 
wanting, and any person having a spare copy will confer a favor by address- 
ing the Librarian of the Society, Horticultural Hall, Boston. 

A considerable number of duplicates are on hand, which will be exchanged 
for any of those in which the Society is deficient. 

Alabama (Ag. and Mech. College Station). — All Bulletins of First Series. 

Arkansas. — Bulletins 1, 4, and 11. First Annual Eeport. 

California. —Bulletins, 1, 2, 3, 5, 50, 66, 68. Annual Keports for 1877 
and 1882. 

Colorado. — Bulletin 3. 

Connecticut ( New Haven Station). — Bulletins 1 to 67, inclusive. An- 
nual Reports for 1877 to 1883, inclusive. 

Georgia. — First Annual Report. 

Indiana (Purdue Univ. School of Ag.). — Bulletin 1. All Annual Reports. 

Kentucky. — Bulletins 8 and 10, All Annual Reports. 

Louisiana. — First Annual Report. 

Maine. — Bulletins 1 to 20, inclusive. All Annual Reports previous to 1886,-7. 

Maryland. — All Bulletins later than No. 5. 

Michigan.— Bulletin 3. 

Minnesota. — All Reports previous to the Biennial Report for 1887 and 1888. 

Missouri.— Bulletins 9, 13, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 22, 25 to 31, and 33, of Old 
Series. Second Annual Report. 

Nevada. — First Annual Report. 

New Hampshire. — Second Annual Report. 

New Jersey. — Bulletins 1 to 34, inclusive. 

New York. (State Station). — All Bulletins of Old Series. 

North Carolina. — Bulletins 1 to 56, inclusive. Second to Ninth Annual 
Reports, inclusive. 

Ohio. — All Bulletins of First Series. 

South Carolina. — All Bulletins of Old Series. 

South Dakota (formerly Dakota). — Bulletin 7. Second Annual Report. 

Texas.— First Annual Report. 

Vermont. — Bulletin 3. 

Virginia. — Bulletin 1. All Annual Reports'. 

Wisconsin.— Bulletin 2. 

Ontario Ag. College, Experimental Farm. — Bulletins 2. 3. IS. and 47. 
1st, 2d, and 12th Annual Reports^ 

Ottawa Ont., Central Experimental Farm. — All Annual Reports previous 
to that for 1888. Also, Dairy Bulletin 3. 

Toronto, Ont., Bureau of Industries. — Bulletins 1 to 21. inclusive. 



TRANSACTIONS 



Jamcjjusetts |jtortiatltaral Sbcieig, 



FOR THE YEAR 1890. 



PAET II. 




BOSTON : 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY. 

1891. 



m** SEE LAST PAGE OF COVER. 



TRANSACTIONS 



or THE 



Hfessacjmsetts pflriintltoal Society 



FOR THE TEAR 1890. 



PART II. 




BOSTON: 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY. 

1891. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



'$$Mm 1 hnMlA& gottoitual $ mt% 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, April 5, 1890. 

This was the day for the stated meeting of the Society, which 

was duly notified, but no quorum was present, and the meeting 

was 

Adjourned to Saturday, May 3, at 11 o'clock. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, May 3, 1890. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, William H. Spooner, in the chair. 

The Secretary read a letter from Hon. Henry L. Dawes, ac- 
knowledging the receipt of the Resolutions and Memorial of the 
American Forestry Congress in regard to the preservation of 
forests on the national domain, with the approval of this Society, 
and expressing his heart}' approval thereof. 

A letter was also presented from the Hingham Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society, giving notice of the appointment of Samuel 
Pratt, of Hingham Centre, to have the free use of the Library and 
Room of this Society during the year 1890, for the purpose of 
preparing essays to be read at Institutes of that Society. 



212 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The following named persons, having been recommended by the 
Executive Committee, were on ballot duly elected members of the 
Society. 

Michael J. Flynn, of Roxbury. 

John J. Merrill, of Roxbury. 

Warren Ewell, of Dorchester. 

Franklin H. Beebe, of Boston. 

Isaac Y. Chubbuck, of Roxbury. 

Charles H. Smith, of Providence, R.I. 

Adjourned to Saturday, June 7. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, June 7, 1890. 
An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, William H. Spooner, in the chair. 

Joseph H. Woodford, Chairman of the Committee on Plants 
and Flowers, moved that the Committee of Arrangements be au- 
thorized to supply moss for the rose boxes at the coming Rose 
Exhibition, at a cost not exceeding $10. The motion was carried. 

Mrs. H. L. T. Wolcott, Chairman of the Committee on Window 
Gardening, stated that in consequence of the additional duties de- 
volved upon that Committee by vote of the Society on the 29th of 
March, more funds would be required, and asked for an additional 
appropriation of $150. The subject was referred to the Executive 
Committee. 

The Secretary read a letter from Dr. Robert P. Harris, of Phil- 
adelphia, on the Potato, designed to awaken interest in the culti- 
vation of wild North American species, for the production of new 
and hardy varieties. On motion of Leverett M. Chase, the letter 
was referred to the Committee on Vegetables, and ordered to be 
published in the Transactions. 

The letter is as follows : — 

Philadelphia, April 10, 1890. 

To the Massachusetts Horticultural Society : — 

The interests of Potato Culture in the United States require 
that an early repetition of the work of the late Rev. Chauncy E. 



LETTER OF DR. ROBERT P. HARRIS. 213 

Goodrich, of Utica, N.Y., should be made, and new seedlings be 
produced from developed wild tubers, not of South American 
stock, — under which he had eleven out of twelve varieties fail, in 
consequence of the long season required for the growth of hot- 
climate tubers, — but from North American wild stock, such as 
may be dug up in Washington Territory, California, Arizona, 
Texas, and Mexico. 

From one Chilian potato Mr. Goodrich produced the Rough 
Purple Chili, the seed of which again produced the Garnet Chili, 
which was the father of Bresee's Early Rose, the most noted 
American White Potato that has yet been produced by seed-cul- 
ture. Through this Early Rose has been produced a new dynasty 
of hardy tubers, originating in its Chilian grandfather, and our 
tables are now chiefly supplied by one or other of the descendants of 
this potato-line. But this stock, after more than thirty years, has 
begun, like that of the Mercer, to die out. Can any one now pro- 
duce a true Garnet Chili? The value of the Early Rose, and its 
adaptation to certain soils, still preserves it in some sections, as 
in the State of Maine, where it appears to grow in its original 
quality. But here, no doubt, we have history only repeating itself, 
for those who are old enough will remember the Maine Mercers, 
as the}' were sold in New York and Philadelphia long after their 
failure in the Middle States. 

The potato-rot of 1844 and 1845 started Mr. Goodrich in his 
humanitarian scheme of obtaining hardiness by cultivating and dis- 
seminating seedlings from wild potato stock, and such was his zeal 
and activity during sixteen years prior to his death in 1864, — 
although much of the time in poor health from lung trouble, — that 
he produced from thirteen thousand to fifteen thousand tuber-seed- 
lings. He unfortunately died before the Garnet Chili family could 
be seen in its full development, and, sad to say, in poverty ; but 
his country honors his name today for the great good he accom- 
plished in his last years, and he is regarded in Europe as having 
commenced a new era in potato culture. When we consider that 
the loss by the potato-rot in the British Isles alone was estimated 
at $50,000,000 for its maximum year, and that the disease pro- 
duced a famine in Ireland, we can learn to value the expedients 
which restored a healthy condition of crops, and were thereby the 
means of saving life. 

To prepare for the future results of deterioration, the work of 



214 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

raising new varieties from wild stock should be commenced at 
once, and be undertaken by the younger horticulturists, as it will 
be the labor of some years to effect a full fruition. Wild American 
potatoes vary in size from that of a pea to that of a marble, and 
first crop seedlings are as large as buckshot. The former will 
generally require seven seasons to bring them to full size, and 
the latter four seasons. The soil should be fed with the proper 
materials to make the tubers enlarge, and for this purpose a 
dressing of wood ashes will be found available. 

Wild potatoes are early, late, and too late for our climate. 
They are white-fleshed, yellow-fleshed, round, oval, and oblong. 
The plants are erect, semi-pronate, and recumbent, spreading over 
a wide surface ; bearing white or purple flowers, but chiefly white. 
Some will bear seed-balls when cultivated ; others will not. Seeds 
may produce varieties by accident, or as the result of hybridization 
effected by hand or insect fertilization. " Sports " from under- 
ground change will also produce changes upon the original tuber 
planted. Such are liable to a repetition, and gardeners have less 
faith in them. Potato plants that blossom but do not bear fruit 
can be made productive by hand-fertilizing, or by planting another 
variety in alternate hills ; the Early Rose has been made to bear 
seed-balls in this latter way. 

By a wise provision of the Creator wild potatoes always remain 
very small in their native soil unless cultivated ; but for which 
they would exhaust the land and die out. In South America 
they grow on lofty plateaux like that of Quito (9,500 feet), or 
Bogota (8,500 feet), on the sides of the Andes at suitable eleva- 
tions, and often have a season of eight months' activity, after 
which the newly formed tubers remain dormant for four months, 
when they in turn sprout. The soil is largely replenished by the 
dying of the old tubers and plants, just as that of a forest is by 
the formation of leaf-mould. 

The pecuniary value of a new seedling potato maybe very great, 
as is shown by the history of the Early Rose, which brought as 
high as $2 for a single five-ounce tuber. As there would be one 
hundred and ninety-two such potatoes — or sixty pounds — in a 
bushel, the price would be equivalent to $384 for a bushel. From 
$2 to $3 for a pound was often obtained, and $20 for a peck was 
considered reasonable. These prices do not appear so extravagaut 
when we bear in mind that the five-ounce potato was made to pro- 



AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS. 215 

duce one hundred and fifty plants, which yielded four hundred and 
fifty pounds, or seven and a half bushels, and that one pound 
(four potatoes) has produced two thousand plants, and nineteen 
hundred and eighty-two pounds, or thirty- three bushels of potatoes. 
The second season of the Early Rose brought the price down to 
810 per bushel, the third year to $3, and the fourth to an edible 
valuation. 

Yours verjr respectfully, 

ROBERT P. HARRIS. 

The following named persons, having been recommended by the 
Executive Committee, were on ballot duly elected members of 
the Society. 

William Thomas Park, of Boston. 

Robert C. Winthrop, Jr., of Boston. 

A. Chandler Manning, of Reading. 

William O. Rogers, of Chelsea. 

The meeting was then dissolved. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, July 5, 1890. 

A duly notified stated meeting of the Society was holden at 
eleven o'clock, the President, William H. Spooner, in the chair. 

The President, as Chairman of the Executive Committee, re- 
ported a recommendation that the Society make an additional 
appropriation of $150 for the use of the Committee on Window 
Gardening, to be expended under the joint approval of the Presi- 
dent and the Chairman of the Committee on Window Gardening. 
The report was accepted and adopted, and the appropriation was 
voted . 

The Executive Committee also recommended to the Society the 
adoption of the following amendment to the Constitution and 
By-Laws : — 

Add at the end of Section 1 the words u and provided also that 
no person shall be eligible to the office of Treasurer or Secretary 
who is not a member of the Society." 



216 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The following substitute for the amendment offered by the 
Executive Committee was offered by Joseph H. Woodford and 
seconded by George W. Warren : — 

In the last clause of Section 1, which now reads " provided, 
however, that no person shall be eligible to the office of President 
unless he shall have been a member for the three years preced- 
ing/' strike out the word " the " before " office " and insert 
" any," and strike out the words "of President," so that the 
clause shall read : — 

" Provided, however, that no person shall be eligible to any 
office unless he shall have been a member for the three years 
preceding. " 

The question was taken on the substitute offered by Mr Wood- 
ford, and it, having been read twice, was by a unanimous vote 
ordered to be entered on the records, to lie over for considera- 
tion at the quarterly meeting in October. 

The Executive Committee further recommended that the Com- 
mittee of Arrangements be authorized to hire Music Hall for the 
Exhibition of Plants and Flowers, August 19-22, which recom- 
mendation was unanimously adopted. 

The following named persons, having been recommended by the 
Executive Committee for membership in the Society, were on 
ballot duly elected. 

William Wallace Ltjnt, of Hingham. 
James Rankin, of Dorchester. 
Charles V. Whitten, of Dorchester. 
W. Henry White, of Lowell. 

Adjourned to Saturday, August 2, 1890. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, August 2, 1890. 
An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at eleven 
o'clock, the President, William H. Spooner, in the chair. 

Ex-President William C. Strong presented, with some appro- 
priate remarks, the following memorial of the late Patrick Barry, 
and moved its adoption. • 



MEMORIAL OF PATRICK BARRY. 217 

The Massachusetts Horticultural Society desires to express and 
to place on record its high appreciation of the services in the field 
of horticulture, of the late Patrick Barrj', of Rochester, N.Y., 
a Corresponding Member of this Society. 

More than forty years ago Mr. Barry entered upon his work as 
a nurseryman at a time when the business was in its infancy at 
the West. Since then, in connection with his partner, he has 
pursued the profession with such skill, enterprise, and integrity as 
to place the house in the front rank, and to give it a world-wide 
reputation. And this credit and success have been won without a 
resort to extravagant descriptions of "novelties," but rather by 
a judicious selection and production of articles of sterling merit 
which might with reason be expected to benefit the public. Yet, 
valuable as Mr. Barry's work has been in the distribution of im- 
mense quantities of trees and plants for so long a period, it is 
probable that his public services will be regarded as of still more 
importance. As Chairman of the Frtit Committee of the Ameri- 
can Pomological Society, Mr. Barry was called upon to catalogue 
and arrange the entire list of varieties of fruits recommended for 
general cultivation in North America. The ability and thorough- 
ness with which he commenced and completed this task, embracing 
every State in the Union, and also the Dominion of Canada, is 
recognized by fruit cultivators as a permanent monument to his 
praise. 

As editor of "The Horticulturist," succeeding the honored 
Downing, and as an author and frequent writer upon Fruit Cult- 
ure, Mr. Barry has also obtained a deservedly high reputation. 
Of his success in other departments of life it is not our province 
to speak. In whatever he engaged he played his part well. We 
honor his memory while we mourn his loss. And while we extend 
to his family our sympathy in their sorrow, we must also add our 
congratulations on their rich inheritance of his example — a well- 
spent life. 

Robert Manning seconded the motion to adopt the memorial, 
and said that on the departure of a friend whom he had long 
known, his mind always went back to the time of their first meet- 
ing, and to a review of their long friendship. He had a vivid 
recollection of the occasion when he first met Mr. Barry. It was 
w r hen the Pomological Garden at Salem — which was established 
by the father of the speaker — was a place to which pilgrimages 



218 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

of fruit growers were directed, — for there could be seen more 
varieties of fruit trees in bearing, especially pears, than anywhere 
else in this country. It was then and there that he received a call 
from Mr. Barry. It was not the less pleasant for being entirely 
unexpected, and he knew that his guest was pleased with what he 
saw in that garden. The}' met again soon afterwards at the first 
Pomological Congress, and also from time to time, when they were 
associated in labors connected with that Society, besides on occa- 
sional visits of Mr. Bany to Boston. Mr. Manning recalled 
especially a four weeks' journey in the South with Mr. Barry, 
Col. Wilder, and Mr. Ellwanger. He did not believe a pleasanter 
or more harmonious part} T ever travelled together. He always 
thought of Mr. Barry as a true and sincere man, who never gave 
forth an uncertain sound ; a man of quick perception and sound 
judgment, — two qualities not always united in the same indi- 
vidual. 

Benjamin Gr. Smith said l*e had been much with Mr. Barry, and 
thought that whoever had the pleasure of knowing him could never 
forget him. He was a man of great individuality, — a mirror of 
manhood. He was at the first meeting of the American Pomologi- 
cal Society, and acted as its Secretary. He always manifested a 
strong and active interest in that organization, and his labors for 
promoting its welfare and objects ceased only with his life. 

The memorial was unanimously adopted. 

The Secretary read a circular from the Illinois State Horticult- 
ural Society, inviting all National, State, and .other prominent 
horticultural and floral societies and kindred organizations to 
send two delegates each to a convention to be held in Chicago, 
August 27, to consider and take action on the best method of 
properly representing the horticultural interests of the country at 
the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893. It was voted to accept 
the invitation, and the President appointed as delegates, Benjamin 
G. Smith and O. B. Hadwen, with power to appoint substitutes. 

Joseph H. Woodford stated that the expense of supplying moss 
for the rose boxes, agreeably to the vote passed on the 7th of June, 
had amounted to $18, — a larger sum than it was then supposed 
would be required. On his motion the Treasurer was authorized 
to pay the bill for the moss. 

Ex-President Strong moved that the members of the Society of 



APPOINTMENT OF NOMINATING COMMITTEE. 219 

American Florists be admitted to the Exhibition of Plants and 
Flowers in the Music Hall by their badges, which motion was 
carried . 

Patrick Norton moved that the same invitation be extended to 
the Association of American Cemetery Superintendents, and this 
motion was also carried. 

Agreeably to the Constitution and By-Laws, the President ap- 
pointed the following Committee to nominate suitable candidates 
for the various offices of the Society for the year 1891 : — 

James F. C. Hyde, Chairman. 
C. H. B. Breck, Benjamin Gr. Smith, 

Nathaniel T. Kidder, Patrick Norton, 

E. W. Wood, Warren Heustis. 

William J. Stewart, Secretary of the Gardeners and Florists' 
Club, of Boston, stated that the Club would give a harbor excur- 
sion to the Society of American Florists, and invited the Ex- 
Presidents, and the present officers and chairmen of committees of 
the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, with ladies, to join in the 
excursion. The invitation was accepted, and the thanks of the 
Society were voted therefor. 

The Librarian laid before the Society ten volumes of works on 
Forestry, presented to the Library by the author, John Croumbie 
Brown, LL.D., of Edinburgh, Scotland, and moved that the thanks 
of the Society be presented to him for his valuable gift. The 
motion was unanimously carried. 

Adjourned to Saturday, September 6. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, September 6, 1890. 
An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, William H. Spooner, in the chair. 

James F. C. Hyde, Chairman of the Committee on Nominations, 
reported a printed list of candidates for Officers and Standing 
Committees. The report was accepted, and it was voted that the 
Committee be continued, and requested to nominate candidates in 
place of any who might decline before election. 



220 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Joseph H. "Woodford moved that the thanks of the Society be 
presented to all the contributors of Special Prizes at the Annual 
Exhibition of Plants and Flowers in August, as these prizes added 
greatly to the attractions and success of the Show, and that the 
Secretary notify each contributor of the above vote. 

The motion was unanimouslv carried. 

The Secretaiy read a letter from William C. Barry, of Roches- 
ter, N.Y., acknowledging the receipt of the memorial of his father, 
the late Patrick Barry, adopted at the last meeting of the So- 
ciety, and conveying the thanks of the family for this expression 
of sympathy and regard. 

Also a letter from William J. Stewart, Secretary of the Society 
of American Florists, communicating a resolution of thanks for 
the use of the Society's halls for their late meeting, and for the 
magnificent Exhibition of Plants and Flowers, which symbolized 
their gathering as had never been done before. 

Also a letter from John Simpkins, President, and F. C. Swift, 
Secretary, of the Barnstable Agricultural Society, thanking this 
Society for- its courtesy in offering the free use of the Library to 
aid in preparing papers to be read at the institutes of that Society, 
and accepting the invitation, with the appointment of Mr. Nathan 
Edson, of Barnstable, to be the representative of that Society for 
the purpose above mentioned. 

It was voted that these letters be placed on file. 

Patrick Norton, Chairman of the Committee of Arrangements, 
moved that the thanks of the Society be presented to His Honor 
Thomas N. Hart, Mayor of the City of Boston, and to the City 
Government, for the interest manifested by them in this Society 
by granting to it the use of the Common for the August Exhibi- 
tion, and that the Secretary notify the Mayor and City Govern- 
ment of the above vote. 

Also that the thanks of the Society be presented to the Press of 
Boston for their kind and appreciative notices of the late Exhibi- 
tion, which contributed largely to its success, and that the Secre- 
tary communicate this vote to the various newspapers to which we 
are indebted. 

Both these motions were unanimously carried. 

The meeting was then dissolved. 






ANNUAL ELECTION. 221 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, October 4, 1890. 

A stated meeting of the Society, being the Annual Meeting for 
the choice of Officers and Standing Committees, was holden at 
eleven o'clock, the President, William H. Spooner, in the chair. 

The Recording Secretary stated that the requirements of the 
Constitution and By-Laws in regard to notice of the meeting had 
been complied with. 

On motion of Edmund Hersey, Chairman of the Committee on 
Large and Interesting Trees, it was voted that Francis H. Ap- 
pleton be added to the Committee. 

The amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws, changing the 
last clause of Section 1 so as to read, " Provided, however, that 
no person shall be eligible to any office unless he shall have been a 
member for the three years preceding," which at the stated meet- 
ing in July received a majority of votes and was ordered to be 
entered on the records, came up for final action, and two-thirds of 
the members present voting in favor of said amendment, it was de- 
clared by the President to be adopted as a part of the Constitution 
and By-Laws. 

On motion of Joseph H. Woodford, Chairman of the Committee 
on Plants and Flowers, it was voted as the sense of the meeting 
that an additional appropriation of three hundred dollars should 
be made for the use of that Committee the present year. 

It was then voted to proceed to the election of officers and 
standing committees for the year 1891, and that the polls be kept 
open for one hour. 

Agreeably to the Constitution and By-Laws the Chair appointed 
John C. Hovey, I. Gilbert Robbins, and William J. Hargraves a 
Committee to receive, assort, and count the votes given and re- 
port the number. The polls were opened at twenty-eight minutes 
past eleven o'clock. 

The Secretary laid before the Society a letter from the Oxford 
Agricultural Society announcing that the Hon. J. W. Stockwell 
had been appointed to have the free use of the Library of this 
Society, agreeably to the circular dated February 15, 1890. 



222 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Walter Raymond, of Cambridgeport, 

having been recommended by the Executive Committee, was, on 
ballot, duly elected a member of the Society. 

The polls were closed at twentj-eight minutes past twelve 
o'clock, and the Committee to receive, assort, and count the votes, 
reported the whole number of ballots to be . . . .105 
Necessary for a choice ....... 53 

The report of the Committee was accepted, and the persons re- 
ported as having the number of ballots necessary for a choice 
were, agreeably to the Constitution and By-Laws, declared by the 
President to have a majority of votes and to be elected Officers 
and Standing Committees of the Society for the year 1891. 

Adjourned to Saturday, November 1, 1890. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, November 1, 1890. 
An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at eleven 
o'clock, the President, William H. Spooner, in the chair. 

The President, as Chairman of the Executive Committee, re- 
ported from that Committee a recommendation that the Society 
appropriate the sum of $6,800 for prizes for the year 1891, this 
amount to be apportioned among the several committees as deemed 
best by said committees. The report was accepted, and agreeably 
to the Constitution and By-Laws was laid over until the stated 
meeting on the first Saturday in January next for final action. 

Francis H. Appleton stated that the plate for Members' Diplomas 
was much worn, and moved that the subject of repairing it or pro- 
viding a new plate be referred to the Committee on Publication. 
It was so referred. 

The Secretaiy stated that when the amendment to the Constitu- 
tion and By-Laws was proposed on the first Saturday in July, 1889, 
it was itself amended so as to provide for a Committee on Plants 
of five members instead of three, and that this change having 
been overlooked when the nomination of officers and committees 
was made, two vacancies existed in the Committee. On motion of 
Joseph H. Woodford, it was voted that the three members-elect of 



DECEASE OF MRS. FRANCIS B. HAYES. 223 

this Committee be requested to report to the Society at the next 
meeting the names of two members whom they would recommend 
to fill these vacancies. 

Hon. William H. Haile, of Springfield, and 
Thomas B. Fitz, of West Newton, 

having been recommended by the Executive Committee, were, on 
ballot, duly elected members of the Society. 

Adjourned to Saturday, December 6, 1890. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 6, 1890. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at eleven 
o'clock, the President, William H. Spooner, in the chair. 

The President announced the decease of Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, 
and said that as a contributor to the weekly exhibitions of the 
Society no one was more constant ; she never needed urging. She 
was also noted for her generous hospitality which she was specialty 
pleased to show to this Society. 

The President, as Chairman of the Executive Committee, pre- 
sented the Schedule of Prizes prepared by the Committee on Estab- 
lishing Prizes, with the recommendation that it be amended by the 
offer of Prospective Prizes for Herbaceous Pseonies, Tuberous- 
Rooted Begonias, and Chrysanthemums ; that the Prospective 
Prizes for Flowers be made uniformly fifty dollars ; that Chrysan- 
themum plants exhibited for prizes be required to be single 
stemmed, branching above ground ; and that in the prize for forty 
Chrysanthemum plants in six-inch pots, the words u each bearing 
a single bloom " be stricken out. These amendments were carried, 
excepting the last. 

On motion of Joseph S. Chase, it was voted that three prizes 
for Herbert Grapes be offered at the October exhibition. 

The Schedule was then adopted. 

Frederick L. Harris, Chairman of the Committee-elect on Plants, 
to which was referred the nomination of two members to fill the 
vacancies in that Committee, presented the names of Azell C. 



224 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Bowditch and William Robinson. The report was accepted' and 
adopted, and the gentlemen named were elected to fill the vacancies 
in the Committee on Plants. 

On motion of Francis H. Appleton, of the Committee on Publi- 
cation, to which the matter of the Society's Diploma was referred, 
it was voted to continue the Diploma in its present form. 

The Annual Report of the Committee on Plants and Flowers 
was read by Joseph H. Woodford, Chairman, accepted and referred 
to the Committee on Publication. 

The Annual Report of the Committee on Fruits was read by 
E. W. Wood, Chairman, accepted and referred to the Committee 
on Publication. 

Charles N. Brackett, Chairman of the Committee on Vegetables, 
asked further time to prepare his report ; which was granted. 

On motion of William E. Endicott, Chairman, it was voted that 
the Library Committee be authorized to employ such assistance as 
is necessary to complete the rearrangement and cataloguing of the 
Library. 

The Secretary read a letter from Frank Higgins, Secretary of 
the Association of American Cemetery Superintendents, express- 
ing the thanks of that Association for the courtesy shown to its 
members and their ladies, in providing them with complimentary 
tickets to the Exhibition of Plants and Flowers, held at Music 
Hall during their Fourth Annual Convention in August last. It 
was voted that the letter be placed on file. 

The following-named persons, having been recommended by the 
Executive Committee, were, on ballot, duly elected members of 
the Society : — 

Everell F. Sweet, of Maiden. 

Charles W. Quinn, of Roxbury. 

Frederick C. Becker, of Cambridge. 

George D. Wilcox, M.D., of Providence, R.I. 

Adjourned to Saturday, December 20. 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEES READ. 225 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 20, 1890. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at eleven 
o'clock, the President, William H. Spooner, in the chair. 

The President announced the decease of Warren Heustis, of 
Belmont, and spoke of him as a member of this Society for many 
years ; a valued member of the Committee on Vegetables ; a 
skilful cultivator of vegetables ; the originator of the Belmont 
Strawberry ; a lover and grower of roses ; a good friend ; a pleas- 
ant and honest man, and one of the class of men who have made 
Arlington and Belmont the market garden of Boston. It was 
voted that a delegation from the Society attend the funeral of Mr. 
Heustis, and that their expenses be paid by the Societj'. 

Charles N. Brackett, Chairman of the Committee on Vegetables, 
read the Annual Report of that Committee. 

William E. Endicott, Chairman of the Library Committee, read 
the Annual Report of that Committee. 

William C. Strong, member from this Society of the Board of 
Control of the State Agricultural Experiment Station, read a re- 
port of the doings of the Station. 

Mrs. H. L. T. Wolcott, Chairman of the Committee on Window 
Gardening, read the Annual Report of that Committee. 

Robert Manning read his Annual Report as Secretary and 
Librarian. 

These reports were severally accepted and referred to the Com- 
mittee on Publication. 

Joseph H. Woodford, from the Committee of Arrangements, 
read a portion of the Annual Report of that Committee, which 
was accepted and referred to the Committee for completion. 

It was voted that a committee of three be appointed by the 
Chair to prepare a memorial of the late Mrs. Francis B. Hayes. 
The Chair appointed as that Committee, Mrs. E. M. Gill, Mrs. 
A. D. Wood, and Joseph H. Woodford. 

The Secretary laid before the Society a circular from the Michi- 
gan Horticultural Societ} r , accompanied by a classification of 
objects to be exhibited in the Horticultural Department of the 



22 b* MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

coming Chicago Exposition, which the Michigan Society deemed 
so faulty that they asked the cooperation .of sister societies in the 
endeavor to secure a more proper classification. The subject was 
referred to the Committee of Arrangements. 

The Secretary also presented circulars from a committee ap- 
pointed by the conference held on the twenty-fourth of May last 
by persons interested in the Preservation of Beautiful and His- 
torical Places in Massachusetts, asking the cooperation and assist- 
ance of everjr historical, improvement, and out-door society in the 
State. This subject was referred to the Executive Committee. 

The meeting was then dissolved. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS, 

FOB THE YEAR 1890. 



By JOSEPH H. WOODFORD, Chairman. 



The year which is now approaching its close has been a 
memorable one in the history of our Society. The season has 
been favorable for the development of both plants and flowers, 
and our stated exhibitions have been crowded with the very best 
specimens of these we have ever seen. 

The gardeners seem to have taken advantage of every known 
method to improve and perfect the growth of their plants and 
flowers, so that they have been enabled to exhibit them in their 
most attractive forms and best conditions. 

The " Boston Daily Advertiser " of August 7, said : " The part 
that flowers play in life today is a striking and creditable feature 
of modern civilization. The result has not come about of its own 
accord. It is due in a great measure to the energy of a compara- 
tively few enthusiasts who have labored to extend the beneficent 
influence of floral beauty. In this work there is no one agency 
that can look back on a more honorable record than the Massa- 
chusetts Horticultural Society. Its founding, its growth, and its 
vicissitudes during the sixty odd years of its existence, cover 
about all that is worth knowing of the history of "horticulture." 
It is a very pleasant thing to have the indorsement of so able and 
so venerable a newspaper as the " Advertiser." 

One great stimulant with the gardeners this year to produce 
superior cultivation, was the knowledge that the Society of Ameri- 



228 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

can Florists would hold their annual convention in this city, and 
that our Society had tendered, to them the use of our halls for that 
purpose. We had also arranged to hold our Annual Exhibition of 
Plants and Flowers during the same week as the Convention. 

To enable us to do so with credit to ourselves, we engaged 
Music Hall in which to display the wonderful collections of plants 
and flowers contributed from the private stoves and greenhouses 
of some of our opulent members. 

The combined collection was the most superb and beautiful of 
any gathering together of plants ever beheld in this country, and 
elicited unbounded praise from every visitor and florist present. 

This season the number of contributors has largely increased, 
and several of o*ur members, who had in late years become weary 
in well-doing, have returned to their former allegiance, and have 
contributed from their abundance, so that our shows during the 
past year have been complete, and have received tlfe most favor- 
able mention possible by the public press, and by distinguished 
visitors from all parts of our own country and from abroad. 

This state of things is very gratifying to your Committee, and 
it becomes a pleasure under such circumstances to chronicle the 
events as they have developed themselves during the year now 
closing. Therefore we will now specify some of the most notable 
features of the exhibitions as they occurred. 

On January 4, John L. Gardner showed a fine plant of Cattleya 
Percivaliana and a Kalanchoe carnea, the latter of which was 
awarded a First Class Certificate of Merit. 

On January 11 and 18, James Comiey showed fine blooms of 
his rose Francis B. Hajes, and on January 25, the seedling rose 
Oakmount. John L. Gardner also showed some fine Orchids. 

February 1, Jackson Dawson showed a cross between the 
Hybrid Perpetual Rose, Gen. Jacqueminot, and Rosa Japonica 
multiflora, giving a miniature rose of a deep pink color, quite full 
and very fragrant. 

On February 15, James Comiey again showed very fine blooms 
of the seeding rose Oakmount. 

February 22, Norton Brothers showed a new Tea Rose, Lu- 
ciole ; its color, a bright pink and yellow. 

March 1, Jackson Dawson exhibited four seedling Indian 
Azaleas, of good substance and clear colors ; also a box containing 
about fort}' plants of Cypripedium acaule in full bloom. This 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 229 

was a fine exhibition of one of our hardy native orchids. Wil- 
liam H. Spooner showed the Tea Rose Hon. Edith Gifford. This 
rose is after the style of the Gloire de Dijon, but lighter in color. 

March 8, Charles J. Dawson sent in some branches of forced 
hardy shrubs, Moss Pinks, and Mayflowers (Epigcza repens). 

March 15, Augustus P. Calder exhibited a beautiful collection 
of Roman Anemones, the finest specimens we have ever seen ; 
and William H. Spooner and Mrs. Francis B. Hayes showed large 
collections of forced Hybrid Perpetual and Tea Roses in perfect 
form and condition. 

SPRING EXHIBITION. 

March 26, 27, and 28. 

This exhibition was superb, and there were more contributors 
of plants and flowers than usual, so that nearly all the prizes were 
awarded. 

The Indian Azaleas exhibited by Nathaniel T. Kidder were fine 
large plants, and well worthy of the Lyman Plate which they re- 
ceived. Indian Azaleas were also shown by Joseph H. White, 
Dr. C. G. Weld, and Edward Butler. 

The display of Orchids was also very grand, coming from E. W. 
Gilmore, Nathaniel T. Kidder, Jackson Dawson, John L. Gard- 
ner, and Edward Butler. 

The forced Roses displayed were of the finest quality and in 
abundance, and were from Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Thomas H. 
Meade, E. M. Wood & Co., Ernest Asmus, of West Hoboken, 
N.J., Thomas Clark, Charles W. Galloupe, William H. Elliot, 
Augustus P. Calder, and Norton Brothers. Mr. Asmus was 
awarded a First Class Certificate of Merit for the new Tea Rose 
Madame Hoste, a veiy pale yellow rose of large size and good 
form. 

Denys Zirngiebel exhibited one hundred and fifty blooms of the 
Bugnot and Cassier strains of Pansies, which were of superior 
excellence. 

The displays of Carnations by William Nicholson and Richard T. 
Lombard were particularly good, and embraced a large number of 
the best kinds. 

The competition for prizes on Holland Bulbs was the most 
marked for years, and all the prizes but three were taken. Al- 



230 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



though we did not have the Holland medals as an incentive this 
year, we were pleased to see so much interest manifested in these 
plants, which give such good results with a minimum amount of 
care. 

The large number of plants contributed by Norton Brothers, 
Frank Becker, William E. Doyle, and the Botanic Garden of 
Harvard University, formed a splendid feature of the Exhibition 
and elicited many expressions of commendation, as did also the 
Lilium Harrisii shown by Dr. C. G. Weld, Thomas Clark, and 
Thomas H. Meade. 

April 12, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes presented a seedling Rhodo- 
dendron, named William Power Wilson. The color is white, 
tinged with pink, having a reddish-brown blotch, a good, large, 
and compact truss ; it is said to be hard} 7 . It was awarded a First 
Class Certificate of Merit. It has been entered for the Prospective 
Prize. 

On April 26, Mrs. P. D. Richards made her first exhibition of 
Wild Flowers, consisting of seventeen varieties of the flowers 
which bloom in the spring. 

MAY EXHIBITION. 
May 10. 

The competition for prizes was not so marked at this exhibition 
as is usuall} 7 the case, owing to the prevailing fine weather, which 
was taken advantage of by the gardeners to get their grounds 
ready for planting. Nevertheless, there was a very good show, 
particularly of plants not entered for prizes. 

A. W. Spencer was awarded the Society's Silver Medal for a 
fine plant of Anguloa Clowesii; and Jacob W. Manning was 
awarded a First Class Certificate of Merit for Spircea astilboides, 
a new herbaceous plant of great promise. 



RHODODENDRON SHOW. 

June 7. 

This exhibition fully realized the expectations which had been 
formed in regard to it. The largest exhibitors were H. H. Hun- 
newell, who showed sixty-four of the best varieties, all named, 
besides a very large number unnamed ; and Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 231 

whose contributions more than filled the whole centre table running 
the length of the lower hall. Fine collections of trusses of Rho- 
dodendrons were sent in by Joseph H. White, John L. Gardner, 
Nathaniel T. Kidder, Edwin Sheppard & Son, Joseph Clark, and 
from Newton Cemetery. 

Mrs. Hayes also showed several plants of Bignonia prcecox 
superba, from Japan ; a superb addition to the class of hardy 
drooping shrubs. This was awarded a First Class Certificate of 
Merit. 

John L. Gardner was awarded a First Class Certificate of Merit 
for Utricalaria nelumbifolia. 

June 14, we had a continuation of the Rhododendron Exhibi- 
tion, and the display made by Mrs. Francis B. Hayes fairly eclipsed 
the grand show she made the Saturday previous. She staged more 
than five hundred trusses, comprising more than one hundred 
varieties of the best kinds grown. We cannot say too much in 
praise of this great exhibition of grand flowers, but, as a slight 
expression of appreciation of their merit, she was awarded the 
Society's Gold Medal, which is the highest award we can confer, 
and well she deserved the honor. 

ROSE EXHIBITION. 
June 24 and 25. 

It is gratifying to be able to record the fact that this Rose Show 
was an unqualified success. 

The arrangement of the hall was such that on entering one 
saw nothing in bloom but roses. " Taverner," the correspondent 
of the *' Boston Post," wrote : "Ido not remember a finer collec- 
tion of magnificent specimens." A contributor to " Garden and 
Forest," also wrote as follows : — 

u The Roses as a whole were distinguished b} 7 a remarkable 
evenness of excellence which must have made judging a diffi- 
cult matter; by good foliage and by flowers well colored, but not 
of such enormous size as these shows have sometimes called out. 
Not the least attractive part of this exhibition was the display of 
Foxgloves grouped on the stage at the end of the upper hall, which 
produced a remarkable and striking effect." 

It is well to have our own opinions confirmed by such reliable 



232 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

authorities. There were other plants at this exhibition deserving 
special notice, such as the Japan and native hardy roses and 
shrubs contributed by Jackson Dawson, the Canterbury bells 
(Dean's Strain) by R. & J. Farquhar & Co., and the display of 
Foxgloves on the stage by Joseph H. Woodford. 

WEEKLY EXHIBITIONS. 

The weekly Saturday exhibitions began this year early in July 
and continued into September. The shows have been very full, 
and have been well attended. The prizes for herbaceous plants, 
having been revised and made more nearly adequate to the labor 
required in staging large collections properly, have again received 
the attention of growers, and we have had especially fine exhibi- 
tions of these throughout the season. 

July 12 was memorable for the grand display of Japan Irises. 
It was the best show of this beautiful plant we have ever seen. 

July 19, the special object of interest was the great collection 
of that old-fashioned flower, the Hollyhock. Joseph S. Fay, of 
Wood's Holl, brought a large number of long spikes of the finest 
varieties, filling the centre table in the lower hall, and he was 
awarded the Society's Silver Medal for the grand display he made. 

July 26, the place of honor was allotted for the display of 
Native Ferns, and splendid collections were brought in by Mrs. P. 
D. Richards; Walter E. Coburn, and E. H. Hitchings. Unless 
one is familiar with this order little does he realize the beauty and 
grace expressed in their varied forms. Mrs. P. D. Richards 
staged fine specimens, comprising fifty species and varieties. 

August 2 was Sweet Pea Day, and the displays made by James 
F. C. Hyde, George S. Harwood, and H. A. Jones were particu- 
larly good. This is one of the most satisfactory flowers that a 
person can grow, for it produces its beautiful, fragrant blossoms 
continuously from early in July till the frost kills the vines. 

August 9, Perennial Phloxes and Native Plants held the right 
of way, and a hall full of charming flowers was the result. 

August 30, the display of Asters was very good, notwithstand- 
ing a new disease has attacked them. 

September 6, Pitcher & Manda, of Short Hills, N.J., showed 
a hybrid Cypripedium, named by them Amoldianum, a cross 
between Veitchii and concolor. It was awarded the Society's 
Silver Medal. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 233 

ANNUAL EXHIBITION OF PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 

August 19, 20, 21, and 22. 

The Annual Exhibition of Plants and Flowers was held this year 
in August at Music Hall, so as to give the National Convention of 
the Society of American Florists a chance to see some of the collec- 
tions of choice plants as grown by our opulent members for their 
own gratification. One of the newspapers said : " The exhibit this 
year is the largest and most complete in the history of the Society, 
and is a well-nigh exhaustive exposition of horticultural art." 
Another newspaper said :." Music Hall has presented the past week 
a scene of exceeding beauty, and all adjectives expressive of 
admiration could find no better work than to free themselves 
amid the tropical charms of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society's beautiful exhibition." 

There were several features out of the ordinary course connected 
with this show which we must recount. The first, and one to be 
commended, was the offering of prizes for Decorations of Dining- 
Tables and Mantlepieces. The four compartments devoted to these 
displays were very beautiful and attractive, and gave all observers 
an idea, or foretaste, of how delightful it must be to dine at such 
lovely tables while listening to the strains of entrancing music. 

But the most* gratifying feature of our exhibition was the very 
friendly spirit manifested by the following-named persons and 
firms in offering special prizes of plate, to the value of $820, to be 
competed for at this show, viz. : — 

Abram French & Co., of Boston. 
R. & J. Farquhar & Co., of Boston. 
Marshall B. Faxon, of Boston. 
The Society of American Florists. 
American Florist, Chicago. 
Henry A. Dreer, Philadelphia. 
Peter Henderson & Co., New York. 
Parker & Wood, Boston. 
American Agriculturist, New York. 
J. C. Vaughan, Chicago. 
Benjamin Grey, Maiden. 
Siebrecht & Wadley, New York. 



234 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

John Gardiner & Co., Philadelphia. 
American Garden, New York. 
Bowker Fertilizer Co., Boston. 
George Johnson & Co., Boston. 

Another feature which we must not omit to mention was the 
delightful music, afternoon and evening, by the Germania orches- 
tra. This was a charming and appropriate accompaniment to the 
exhibition, and greatly increased the enjoyment of visitors. 

George A. Nickerson brought in the best colored and finest 
Croton — Queen Victoria — ever seen in our halls, and he was 
awarded the Society's Silver Medal. Mrs. J. Lasell sent a splendid 
new Alocasia which was brought into this countiy from the 
Malayan Archipelago in the year 1884 by David Allan, and she 
was awarded a Silver Medal. W. R. Smith, of the Botanic 
Garden at Washington, D.C., brought a very large collection of 
Carnivorous Plants, which were wonderfully curious and interest- 
ing, and he was awarded the Society's Silver Medal. Robert 
Cameron, of the Botanic Garden at Cambridge, brought in a large 
collection of Cacti of most peculiar formation, and he also received 
the Society's Silver Medal. 

In fact, we might go on indefinitely enumerating the wonderful, 
the curious, and the beautiful productions of nature which were 
staged in Music Hall, but even then we should convey no adequate 
idea of the floral loveliness revealed at this exhibition, unless the 
reader had seen it. 

CHRYSANTHEMUM EXHIBITION. 

November 11, 12, 13, and 14. 

The grand final exhibition of the floral productions of the year 
is the Chrysanthemum Show, and this year gave us verj* marked 
improvement in the size, style, and finish of the blooms. A new 
enemy has appeared in the shape of a small beetle, which commits 
such depredations on plants in the open ground that it is almost 
impossible to protect them from total denudation of flower-buds. 
Plants grown all summer in the house, where sulphur and tobacco 
are used, come into flower as usual. But not every one has the 
space indoors to accomplish this, therefore our exhibition did 
not secure an over-abundance of plants, yet those we did have were 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 235 

generally of larger size, and in other respects finer specimens, than 
were exhibited last year. 

The arrangement of the lower hall, wherein the cut flowers were 
staged, was excellent, and never in the history of our Society was 
there a larger or better show of cut flowers. 

The flowers grown by S. J. Coleman, gardener to Charles J. 
Powers, and exhibited by himself and Galvin Brothers, were 
the largest and best finished flowers ever seen in our halls. Mr. 
Coleman was awarded the Society's Silver Medal for superior 
cultivation of Chrysanthemums in general, and T. D. Hatfield re- 
ceived the same for superior cultivation of the Chrysanthemum 
Mrs. Alpheus Hardy, of which he showed a fine large plant 
bearing upwards of one hundred large blooms. 

Henry A. Gane, one of our most enthusiastic growers of Seed- 
ling Chrysanthemums, exhibited a large number of seedlings, — 
most of them of superior merit, — and he was awarded the Apple- 
ton Silver Medal for his collection. 

The more we become acquainted with the Nee Sima Collection 
of Chrysanthemums, which were sent to Mrs. Hardy, the more we 
are convinced that it is the very best collection ever sent out of 
Japan. 

A Seedling Orchid — a ver} T beautiful Calanthe — was shown by 
Richard Gardner. It is a cross between C. vpstita and C. vestita 
rubro-oculata, and gained the award of the Society's Silver Medal. 

E. M. Wood & Co. have established a sport from the Tea Rose 
Catherine Mermet, which they have named Waban. This is 
vivid pink in color, and of the same form and comeliness as the 
parent, and also its sister, The Bride. It received the Society's 
Silver Medal. 

The displays of hardy herbaceous plants made by Jacob W. 
Manning during the season have been very fine, and the manner 
he has adopted in labelling them, with both the botanical and 
common names, and adding the name of their native country, is 
greatly to be commended. He won the award of the Appleton 
Silver Medal. 

The amount appropriated by the Society for the use of our 
Committee was S3, 300, and out of this we have awarded in Prizes, 
Medals, and Gratuities, $3,272. 

We cannot close this report without reverting to the great loss 



236 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

our Society has very lately sustained by the death of Mrs. Francis 
B. Hayes. She always stood ready to further our interests in any 
manner most conducive to the progress of horticulture, and we 
shall miss her genial presence and cordial welcome ; but the mem- 
ory of her benevolence and kindly deeds will always remain with 
us. May she rest in peace. 

In taking leave of the Plant and Flower Committee the Chair- 
man wishes to thank the other members for the courtesy and for- 
bearance shown him during the }^ears they have been associated. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Joseph H. Woodford, \ 

F. L. Harris, , Committee on 

M. H. Norton, I 

A. H. Fewkes, ) Pla?its and 

W. J. Stewart, 

J. H. Moore, Flowers. 

E. H. HlTCHINGS, ' 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 237 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES AWARDED FOR PLANTS 

AND FLOWERS. 



January 4. 

Gratuity : — 
John L. Gardner, Cattleya Percivaliana . 



$5 00 



January 25. 

Gratuity : — 

John L. Gardner, Orchids, Cattleya Triance (two), Toxicophloea 
spectabilis, and Vanda Amesiana ; also Boronia mega- 
stigma, and Violets ........ 

March 1. 
Gratuity : — 
Jackson Dawson, Box of Cypripedium acaule, forty blooms 

March 8. 
Gratuity : — 
Charles J. Dawson, Two plants of Pyrus spectabilis 



5 00 



2 00 



2 00 



SPRING EXHIBITION. 

March 26, 27, and 28. 
Theodore Lyman Prizes. 

Indian Azaleas. — Six distinct named varieties, in pots, Nathaniel 

T. Kidder, the Lyman Plate, value $35 00 

Orchids. — Ten plants in bloom, E. W. Gilmore, the Lyman Plate, 

value 30 00 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder, the Lyman Plate, value . . 25 00 



Society's Prizes. 

Indian Azaleas. — Four distinct named varieties, i 
ten-inch pots, Joseph H. White 
Second, Joseph H. White .... 
Two distinct named varieties, Dr. C. G. Weld 
Second, Dr. C. G. Weld .... 
Specimen plant, named, Edward Butler 



n not exceeding 



10 00 
8 00 
6 00 
4 00 
4 00 



238 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.' 



Single plant, of any named variety, in not exceeding an eight-inch 
pot, Joseph H. White 

Second, Dr. C. G. Weld 

Hybrid Perpetual Roses. — Twelve cut hlooms, of not less than 
six distinct named varieties, excluding Gen. Jacqueminot, 
Mrs. Francis B. Hayes ....... 

Six cut blooms, distinct named varieties, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes 
Tender Roses in Vases. — Twelve blooms of Catherine Mermet 

Thomas H. Meade 

Second, Edmund M. Wood & Co 

Twelve blooms of Cornelia Cook, Edmund M. Wood & Co. . 
Second, Thomas H. Meade ...... 

Twelve blooms of Mme. de Watteville, Ernest Asmus, West 

Hoboken, N.J. 

Twelve blooms of Papa Gontier, Thomas H. Meade 
Twelve blooms of The Bride, Edmund M. Wood & Co. 
Second, Thomas Clark . . . . 

Twelve blooms of any variety of Yellow Tea, Thomas H. Meade 
Perle des Jardins ........ 

Orchids. — Three plants in bloom, John L. Gardner 

Second, E. W. Gilmore 

Single plant in bloom, Edward Butler ..... 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder ...... 

Third, E. W. Gilmore ....... 

Stove or Greenhouse Plant. — Specimen in bloom, other than 
Azalea or Orchid, named, John L. Gardner 
Second, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes ...... 

Hardy Flowering Shrubs, Forced. — Four, in pots, of four dis 
tinct named varieties, John L. Gardner .... 

Second, Charles J. Dawson 
Cyclamens. — Ten plants in bloom, Dr. C. G. Weld 
Second, Mrs. Mary T. Goddard 
Three plants in bloom, Dr. C. G. Weld 

Second, Mrs. Mary T. Goddard 
Single plant in bloom, Thomas Clark 
Hardy Primroses and Polyanthuses. 
varieties, in bloom, Thomas Clark 
Second, Dr. C. G. Weld . 
Cinerarias. — Six varieties in bloom, in 
Thomas Clark 
Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder 
Third, Dr. C. G. Weld 
Violets. — Six pots, in bloom, Nathaniel 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder 
Pansies. — Six distinct varieties, in pots, in bloom, Joseph S. Fay 
Fifty cut blooms in the Society's flat fruit dishes, Denys Zirn 
giebel 



— Ten plants, of distinct 



not over nine-inch pots 



T. Kidder 



$3 


00 


2 


00 


6 


00 


4 


00 


5 


00 


4 


00 


5 


00 


4 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


4 


00 


5 


00 


12 


00 


8 


00 


6 


00 


5 


00 


3 


00 


8 


00 


6 


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6 


00 


5 


00 


8 


00 


6 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


5 


00 


4 


00 


6 


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5 


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4 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 



4 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 239 

Second, Denys Zirngiebel $3 00 

Third, " " 2 00 

Carnations. — Display of cut blooms, with foliage, not less than 

six varieties, in vases, William Nicholson . . . . 5 00 

Second, Richard T. Lombard 4 00 

Centre Piece for Table. — Last day of the Exhibition, Mrs. E. 

M. Gill 10 00 

Second, Mrs. A. D. Wood 8 00 

Spring Flowering Bulbs. 

Hyacinths. — Twelve distinct named varieties in pots, one in each 

pot, in bloom, John L. Gardner . . . . . 10 00 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder 8 00 

Third, Thomas Clark 6 00 

Six distinct named varieties in pots, one in each pot, in bloom, 

John L. Gardner ......... 6 00 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder 5 00 

Third, Dr. C. G. Weld . 4 00 

Three distinct named varieties in pots, one in each pot, in bloom, 

Dr. C. G. Weld 4 00 

Second, John L. Gardner 3 00 

Third, Thomas Clark 2 00 

Single named bulb in pot, in bloom, Thomas Clark . . . 2 00 

Second, Dr. C. G. Weld 1 00 

Three pans, ten bulbs of one variety in each pan, Nathaniel T. 

Kidder 10 00 

Second, Thomas Clark 8 00 

Third, Dr. C. G. Weld 6 00 

Two pans, ten bulbs of one variety in each pan, Thomas Clark . 8 00 

Second, Dr. C. G. Weld . . 6 00 

Third, John L. Gardner . . . . . . . 5 00 

Single pan, with ten bulbs of one variety, Thomas Clark . . 5 00 

Second, Dr. C. G. Weld . . . . _ . . . . 4 00 

Third, « « « « 3 00 

Tulips. — Six six-inch pots, five bulbs in each, in bloom, Nathaniel 

T. Kidder 5 00 

Second, Arthur H. Fewkes 4 00 

Three six-inch pots, five bulbs in each, in bloom, Dr. C. G. Weld, 4 00 

Second, Arthur H. Fewkes 3 00 

Third, " " " 2 00 

Three pans, ten bulbs of one variety in each pan, John L. Gard- 
ner 6 00 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder 5 00 

Third, Dr. C. G. Weld 4 00 

Fourth, W. S. Ewell & Son 3 00 

Polyanthus Narcissus. — Four seven-inch pots, three bulbs in 

each, in bloom, Dr. C. G. Weld 6 00 



240 



MASSACHUSETTS' HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Second, Dr. C. G. Weld 

Hardy Narcissus and Daffodils. — Twelve pots, not less than 
six varieties, Dr. C. G. Weld ........ 

General Display of Spring Bulbs. — All classes, Charles J. 
Dawson ........... 

Second, Thomas Clark . . . . . # . 

Third, W. S. Ewell & Son 

Lilium Longiflorum, or Harrisii. — Three pots, not exceeding 
ten inches, Dr. C. G. Weld 

Second, Thomas Clark .......... 

Lily of the Yalley. — Six six-inch pots, in bloom, W. S. Ewell 
& Son ........... 

Second, John L. Gardner . . ... 

Third, Nathaniel T. Kidder 

Anemones. — Three pots or pans, Thomas Clark . 

Freesias. — Six pots or pans, Nathaniel T. Kidder .... 

Ixia Crocata. — Six pots, John L. Gardner 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder ........ 

Roman Hyacinths. — Six pots or pans, John L. Gardner 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder ....... 

Gratuities : — 
William E. Doyle, Display of Palms, Crotons, Lilies, Astilbe, and 

Ferns .......... 

F. Becker, Display of Palms, Araucarias, Sweet Bays, etc. 
Botanic Garden, Cambridge, Display of Agaves, Cacti, Ferns, etc 
Temple & Beard, Ten Plants ....... 

Nathaniel T. Kidder, Seventy Plants 

William C. Strong, Thirty-two Evergreens .... 

Norton Brothers, Fourteen Rhododendrons and Orchids, and Cut 

Flowers . . . . ■ . 
John L. Gardner, Ten pots of Plants and Twelve pots of Bulbs 
Charles J. Dawson, Thirty pots of Hardy Herbaceous Plants . 
Nathaniel T. Kidder, Orange Tree .... 
John L. Gardner, Eleven Orchids .... 
E. W. Gilmore, Twelve Orchids .... 

Edward Butler, Cattleya amethystoglossa . 
William C. Strong, Eight pots Hydrangeas 
Mrs. Mary T. Goddard, Twelve pots Primula obconica 
Joseph S. Fay, Twenty pots Pansies 
T. Rowland, Five pots Mignonette .... 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, Eleven pots Tulips .... 
Dr. C. G. Weld, Seven pots Narcissus bulbocodium 
Thomas H. Meade, Three Lilies and Twenty-four Tea Roses . 
Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Three Hundred Hybrid Perpetual Roses 
Norton Brothers, Two vases Roses, Gabriel Luizet and Ulrich 

Brunner ........ 

William II. Elliott, Four vases Hybrid Perpetual Roses 



$4 00 



8 00 



12 


00 


10 


00 


8 


00 


8 


00 


6 


00 


5 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


4 


00 


5 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 



25 


00 


20 


00 


20 


00 


10 


00 


10 


00 


10 00 


8 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


15 


00 


3 


00 


3 


00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 241 

C. W. Galloupe, Eight vases Hybrid Perpetual Roses and Pinks . $4 00 
Ernest Asmus, West Hoboken, N.J., Five vases roses, Mme. Cusin, 

Catherine Mermet, Mme. Hoste, and Mme. de Watteville . 2 00 

Augustus P. Calder, Two vases Papa Gontier roses . . . . 1 00 

Augustus P. "Calder, Four vases Anemones and Ranunculuses . . 1 00 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, Cut Flowers 1 00 



MAY EXHIBITION. 

May 10. 

Indian Azaleas. — Six plants in pots, named, John L. Gardner 
Single specimen, Nathaniel T. Kidder ...... 

Second, John L. Gardner ........ 

Calceolarias. — Six varieties, in pots, John L. Gardner 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder 

Single plant, Dr. C. G. Weld 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder 

Tulips. — Twenty-four blooms, distinct named varieties, Dr. C. G. 

Weld 

Basket op Flowers. — Mrs. A. D. Wood 

Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill 

Pansies. — Fifty cut blooms, in the Society's flat fruit dishes, Isaac 

E.. Coburn 

Herbaceous Plants. — Jacob W. Manning, forty-seven species 

Gratuities : — 

Edwin Sheppard & Son, Pelargoniums, Pinks, etc. 
John L. Gardner, Azalea .... 
A. W. Spencer, Calceolarias 
Nathaniel T. Kidder, Cattleya intermedia 
John L. Gardner, Cypripedium Haynaldianum 
Norton Brothers, Dendrobium Jamesianum 
Joseph H. White, Gloxinias and Begonias 
Dr. C. G. Weld, Urica Cavendishiana 
William S. Ewell & Son, Lilies of the Valley 
H. H. Hunnewell, Rose W. A. Richardson 
Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Cut Flowers 
Mrs. P. D. Richards, Wild Flowers . 
E. H. Hitchings, Wild Flowers 



May 24. 



Gratuities : — 



00 


4 00 


3 00 


6 00 


5 00 


2 00 


1 00 


6 00 


6 00 


5 00 


4 00 


4 00 


8 00 


3 00 


2 00 


3 00 


3 00 


3 00 


2 00 


2 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


2 00 


1 00 



Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Flowering Trees and Shrubs 
Mrs. P. 1). Richards, Native Plants .... 



3 00 
2 00 



May 31. 

Gratuities : — 

H. H. Hunnewell, Rhododendrons and Azaleas 



3 00 



242 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Hardy Shrubs, etc. 
Joseph Comley, Gen. Jacqueminot Roses . 



$2 00 
1 00 



RHODODENDRON SHOW. 

June 7. 

H. H. Hunnewell Premiums. 

Rhododendrons. — Twelve trusses, distinct hardy varieties, 
named, in the Society's vases, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, a piece 

of plate, value $20 00 

Second, John L. Gardner, a piece of plate, value . . 15 00 

Eighteen tender varieties, named, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes . . 8 00 

Ten tender varieties, named, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes . . . 5 00 

Second, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes . . . . . . 4 00 

Six tender varieties, named, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes . . . 3 00 

Single truss of any tender variety, named, Joseph Clark . . 1 00 
Hardy Azaleas, from ant or ale classes. — Fifteen named 

varieties, one truss each, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes . . . 8 00 
Six named varieties, one truss each, the second prize to Benjamin 

G. Smith 2 00 



Society's Prizes. 

German Iris. — Six distinct named varieties, one spike of each, the 
second prize to Jacob W. Manning ..... 

Clematis. — Named varieties, display of cut blooms, with foliage, 
Joseph H. Woodford 

Hardy Pyrethrums. — Display, the third prize to Joseph H. 
Woodford .......... 

Hardy Flowering Trees and Shrubs. — Largest and best col- 
lection, named, cut blooms, Nathaniel T. Kidder . 
Second, Joseph S. Fay ........ 

Basket or Flowers. — Mrs. A. D. Wood ..... 
Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill 

Herbaceous Plants. — Jacob W. Manning ..... 

Native Plants. — Display of named species and varieties, one vase 
of each, Mrs. P. D. Richards ....... 

Second, E. H. Hitchings ........ 

Gratuities : — 

H. H. Hunnewell, Sixty-four named Rhododendrons, and others 

Joseph Clark, Rhododendrons .... 

E. Sheppard & Son, Rhododendrons, Azaleas, etc. 

John L. Gardner, " and Azaleas 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Indian Azaleas . 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Display of flowers 

Newton Cemetery " " 



2 00 



4 00 



1 00 



6 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


4 


00 


4 00 


4 00 


3 


00 


10 


00 


2 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


10 


00 


5 


00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 243 

Joseph H. Woodford, Three vases of flowers $3 00 

Mrs. A. D. Wood, One vase " 100 

Joseph Comley, Vase of Jacqueminot Roses . . . . . 1 00 

Leverett M. Chase, Pseonies 1 00 

June 14. 

Gratuities : — 

Miss Ellen M. Harris, Paeonies 2 00 

Benjamin D. Hill, Clematis ........ 3 00 

Joseph H. Woodford, Pyrethrums, etc ' . 2 00 

ROSE EXHIBITION. 
June 24 and 25. 

Special Prize, Theodore Lyman Fund. 

Hardy Perpetual Roses. — Twenty -four distinct named varieties, 

three of each, John B. Moore & Son $35 00 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son 30 00 

Third, William H. Spooner 25 00 

Special Prize, offered by President William H. Spooner. 
Ulrich Brunner. — For the best twelve blooms, Mrs. Francis B. 

Hayes 10 00 

Regular Prizes. 

Hardy Perpetual Roses. — Sixteen distinct named varieties, 

three of each, John B. Moore & Son 25 00 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son 20 00 

Twelve distinct named varieties, three of each, John L. Gardner . 20 00 

Second, John B. Moore & Son 15 00 

Six distinct named varieties, three of each, Joseph H. White . 15 00 

Second, John B. Moore & Son 10 00 

Three distinct named varieties, three of each, Dr. C. G. Weld . 10 00 

Second, Joseph H. White 8 00 

Third, John B. Moore & Son 5 00 

Twenty-four distinct named varieties, one of each, John L. 

Gardner ........... 15 00 

Second, William H. Spooner 10 00 

Third, John B. Moore & Son 8 00 

Eighteen distinct named varieties, one of each, William H. 

Spooner 12 00 

Second, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes 8 00 

Twelve distinct named varieties, one of each, Mrs. Francis B. 

Hayes 10 00 

Second, John L. Gardner ........ 6 00 

Third, William H. Spooner 4 00 



244 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Six distinct named varieties, one of each, Dr. C. G. Weld . $6 00 

Second, Joseph H. White 4 00 

Third, John B. Moore & Son 3 00 

Three distinct varieties, one of each, Warren Heustis & Son . 3 00 

Second, John L. Gardner ........ 2 00 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son 1 00 

Moss Roses. — Six distinct named varieties, three clusters of each, 

John B. Moore & Son 6 00 

Second, John L. Gardner 4 00 

Third, Joseph S. Fay 3 00 

General, Display of One Hundred Bottles of Hardy Roses, J. B. 

Moore & Son . . . 10 00 

Second, Edwin Sheppard & Son 9 00 

Third, John L. Gardner 8 00 

Fourth, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes 7 00 

Fifth, Mrs. E. M. Gill 6 00 

Stove and Greenhouse Flowering Plants. — Two distinct named 
varieties, in bloom, no Orchid admissible, Nathaniel T. Kid- 
der 15 00 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder 10 00 

Specimen Plant in Bloom. — Named, other than Orchid, John L. 

Gardner 7 00 

Orchids. — Six plants, of six named varieties, in bloom, John L. 

Gardner 20 00 

Second, E. W. Gilmore 12 00 

Three plants, of three named varieties, in bloom, John L. Gard- 
ner 10 00 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder 8 00 

Single specimen, named, John L. Gardner . . . . . 6 00 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder . . . . . . . 5 00 

Herbaceous Peonies. — Ten named varieties, Thomas C. Thurlow, 8 00 

Second, William C. Strong 6 00 

Sweet Williams. — Thirty spikes, not less than six distinct varie- 
ties, Edwin Sheppard & Son 4 00 

Second, L. W. Goodell 3 00 

Third, Dr. C. G. Weld 2 00 

Vase of Flowers. — Best arranged, in one of the Society's glass 

vases, Mrs. A. D. Wood 5 00 

Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill 4 00 

Gratuities : — 

Joseph S. Fay, Display of Hardy Perpetual Roses . . . . 20 00 

Jackson Dawson, Japan and Native Hardy Roses and Shrubs . . 10 00 

Norton Brothers, One hundred bottles Hardy Perpetual Roses . . 6 00 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Rhododendrons . . . . . . 5 00 

Edwin A. Hall, Kalmia 1 00 

Thomas C. Thurlow, Red and White Kalmia 100 

Joseph H. Woodford, Display for the Platform . . . . 15 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 245 



Jacob W. Manning, One hundred varieties of Hardy Trees and 
Shrubs ....... 

William C. Strong, Foliage Trees and Shrubs . 
Benjamin D. Hill, Paeonies .... 

Miss Ellen M. Harris, Pseonies and Sweet Williams 

Newton Cemetery, Irises and Sweet Williams . 

Edwin Sheppard & Son, Pelargoniums, etc. 

Walter E. Coburn, Pelargoniums 

Nathaniel T. Kidder, Four Pelargoniums . 

Richard T. Lombard, Pinks, etc. 

Neale Boyle, Stock Gilliflower .... 

William S. Ewell & Son, Campanulas, etc. 
Marshall B. Faxon, Pansies .... 

R. & J. Farquhar & Co., Canterbury Bells (Dean's strain) 

Jacob W. Manning, Herbaceous Plants 

Miss Sarah M. Vose, Basket of Flowers . 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, Basket of Flowers . 

E. H. Hitchings, Native Plants .... 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, Native Plants . 



July 5. 

Lilium Candtdum. — Twelve spikes, Leverett M. Chase 
Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder .... 
Gratuities : — 

John L. Gardner, Delphiniums ..... 

Anthony McLaren, " ..... 

William C. Strong, Iris Kcewvpferi .... 

Charles J. Dawson, Poppies ..... 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, Basket of Flowers . . . 

Miss Sarah M. Vose, " " 



$5 00 



2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


2 


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1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


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1 


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1 


00 


2 00 


3 


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1 


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3 


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2 


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2 


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1 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 



July 12. 

Hardy Carnations. — Twelve cut blooms, distinct varieties, tree 
or tender kinds not admissible, Charles Jackson Dawson 

Second, William C. Winter 

Iris KLempferi. — Fifteen varieties, three of each, in vases, John 
L. Gardner .......... 

Second, William C. Strong 

Third, Newton Cemetery 

Six named varieties, three of each, in vases, John L. Gardner 

Second, William C. Strong 

Basket of Flowers. — Mrs. A. D. Wood 

Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill 

Vase of Flowers. — Mrs. E. M. Gill 

Second, Mrs. A. D. Wood 

Herbaceous Plants. — Jacob W. Manning 



3 


00 


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8 


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6 


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4 


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4 


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4 


00 



246 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Gratuities : — 
William C. Strong, Irises .... 
Newton Cemetery, "..'.. 
Edwin Sheppard & Son, Irises and Hollyhocks 
Dr. C. G. Weld, Hollyhocks, etc. . 
Charles F. Curtis, " . . 

Joseph S. Fay, " . 

John L. Gardner, Gloxinias 

" " Dendrochilum filiforme 

John Irving, Candytuft 
Joseph H. Woodford, Two vases of flowers 
Mrs. P. D. Richards, Wild Flowers . 
Walter E. Coburn, " " . . 

E. H. Hitchings, " " 

July 19. 

Hollyhocks. — Double, twelve blooms of twelve distinct colors, 
in the Society's flat fruit dishes, Joseph S. Fay 
Second, Edwin Sheppard & Son . 
Six blooms, of six distinct colors, Joseph S. Fay 
Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder 
Parlor Bouquet. — Mrs. E. M. Gill 

Second, Mrs. A. D. Wood .... 
Third, Joseph H. Woodford 

Gratuities : — 
Edwin Sheppard & Son, Display of Hollyhocks . 
Charles F. Curtis, " 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Display of Flowers 
Dr. C. G. Weld, " " 

Frederick S. Davis, Poppies .... 
Walter E. Coburn, Native Plants and Pelargoniums 
Mrs. P. D. Richards, " " ... 



$2 00 



2 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


1 


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2 00 


2 


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1 


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1 


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4 


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2 


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1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 



July 26. 

Special Prize, offered by M. B. Faxon. 

Sweet Peas. — For the best Bouquet or Vase, and best arranged, 
other foliage than that of Sweet Peas admissible, Mrs. Francis 
B. Hayes , 



3 00 



Regular Prizes. 

Gloxinias. — Display of Cut Flowers, John L. Gardner . 

Second, Dr. C. G. Weld 

Hydrangeas. — Pair, in tubs or pots, Nathaniel T. Kidder 

Second, Dr. C. G. Weld 

Single plant, in tub or pot, Dr. C. G. Weld . 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder 



4 00 
3 00 
8 00 
6 00 

5 00 
3 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 247 

Native Ferns. — Best display, Mrs. P. D. Richards . . $4 00 

Second, Walter E. Coburn 3 00 

Gratuities : — 

Jackson Dawson, Habenaria ciliaris and Epidendrum odora . . 2 00 

Joseph S. Fay, Collection of Hollyhocks . . . . . . 1 00 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Cut Flowers 2 00 

E. H. Hitchings, Ferns, etc 2 00 

August 2. 

Sweet Peas. — Display, filling thirty vases, James F. C. Hyde . 6 00 

Second, H. A. Jones 4 00 

Third, George S. Harwood 3 00 

Basket of Flowers. — Mrs. A. D. Wood . . . . . 4 00 

Second, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes 3 00 

Third, Mrs. E. M. Gill 2 00 

Herbaceous Plants. — Jacob W. Manning 4 00 

August 9. 

Perennial Phloxes. — Collection of twenty spikes, Edwin Shep- 

pard & Son 5 00 

Ten distinct named varieties, Edwin Sheppard & Son . . . 4 00 

Vase of Flowers. — Mrs. E. M. Gill 4 00 

Second, Mrs. A. D. Wood 3 00 

Native Flowers. — Collection, Mrs. P. D. Richards . . . 4 00 

Second, Walter E. Coburn . . . ... . . . 3 00 

Third, E. H. Hitchings 2 00 

Gratuities : — 

J. Warren Clark, Gladioli 3 00 

August 16. 

Gladioli. — Twenty named varieties in spikes, J. Warren Clark . 6 00 

Ten named varieties, in spikes, J. Warren Clark . . . . 3 00 

Six named varieties, in spikes, J. Warren Clark . . . . 2 00 

Display of named and unnamed varieties, filling one hundred 

vases, J. Warren Clark ........ 6 00 

Phlox Drummondi. — Thirty vases, not less than six varieties, 

L. W. Goodell . . . . ' 4 00 

Second, Dr. C. G. Weld 3 00 

ANNUAL EXHIBITION OF PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 
August 19, 20, 21, and 22. 

Special Prizes, offered by H. II. Hunnewell. 

Coniferous Trees not Natives of New England. — Display in 

pots or tubs, named, Temple & Beard $15 00 

Second, Jacob W. Manning 10 00 



248 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Special Prize, offered by R. $ J. Farquhar § Co., Boston. 

Annuals. — Display, filling not less than one hundred vases, Mrs. 

E. M. Gill, a piece of plate, value . . . . . . . $40 00 

Special Prizes, from the Theodore Lyman Fund. 

Floral Design. — For the best, and best kept for three days, and 
prizes awarded the last day, O. A. Ruggles, the Lyman plate, 

value 35 00 

Second, Galvin Brothers, the Lyman plate, value . . 30 00 

Third, James Comley, the Lyman plate, value . . . 25 00 

Special Prospective Prize, offered by M. B. Faxon, Boston. 

Sweet Peas. — For the best display, other foliage than that of 
Sweet Peas admissible, prize to be taken by the same person 
or firm twice in three consecutive years : first year, George S. 
Harwood, a silver vase, value . . . . . . 25 00 

Special Prizes, offered by the Society of American Florists. 

Decoration of Mantlepiece and Fireplace. — For the best ar- 
ranged, David Allan, a piece of plate, value . . . . 75 00 
Second, William E. Doyle, a piece of plate, value . . 50 00 

Special Prizes, offered by Abram French fy Co., Boston. 

Dinner Table Decoration. — For the best, of flowers, or plants 

and flowers, William E. Doyle, a piece of plate, value . . 60 00 
Second, Galvin Brothers, a piece of plate, value . . 40 00 

Special Prizes, offered by " The American Florist," Chicago. 

Hardy Herbaceous Flowers. — For the best collection, named, 
with foliage, from plants not having woody or shrubby stems, 
and from all hardy bulbs, filling one hundred vases, with not 
less than seventy-five varieties, Jacob W. Manning, a piece 
of plate, value . . . . . . . . 40 00 

Second, Temple & Beard, a piece of plate, value . . . 30 00 

Special Prizes, offered by Henry A. Dreer, Philadelphia. 

Gloxinias. — For the best collection of the flowers, by Amateur 

Exhibitors, Dr. C. G. Weld, a piece of plate, value . . 15 00 
Second, Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, a piece of plate, value . 10 00 

Special Prizes, offered by the "American Agriculturist" New York. 

Ornamental Foliage. — For the best collection, from Hardy Trees 
and Shrubs, filling fifty vases, William C. Strong, books, 

value 12 00 

Second, Temple & Beard, books, value . . . . . 8 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOAVERS. 249 

Special Prizes, offered by Benjamin Grey, Maiden. 

Nymph^eas and other Aquatic Plants and Flowers. — For the 

best display, L. W. Goodell, a piece of plate, value . . $25 00 
Second, Fairman Rogers, Newport, R.I., a piece of plate, 
value 15 00 

Special Prizes, offered by Siebrecht § Wadley, New York. 

Orchids. — For the best collection of plants in bloom, Frederick L. 

Ames, a piece of plate, value . . . . . . 25 00 

Second, H. H. Hunnewell, a piece of plate, value . . . 15 00 
Single plant, Frederick L. Ames, Lcelia crispa superba, a piece- of 

plate, value . . . . . . . . . 15 00 

Special Prizes, offered by John Gardiner $ Co., Philadelphia. 

Gladioli. — For the best collection, filling one hundred vases, J. 

Warren Clark, a piece of plate, value . . . . . 25 00 
Second, Dr. C. G. Weld, a piece of plate, value . . 15 00 

Special Prizes, offered by the Society. 

Palms. — Pair, in tubs not less than twenty-four inches in diameter, 

H. H. Hunnewell 15 00 

Second, Joseph H. White 10 00 

Pair, in tubs not less than twenty inches in diameter, Joseph H. 

White 12 00 

Pair, in tubs not less than sixteen inches in diameter, Joseph H. 

White 10 00 

Pair, in tubs not less than twelve inches in diameter, Frederick L. 

Ames 8 00 

Second, Joseph H. White 5 00 

Regular Prizes. 

Stove and Greenhouse Plants. — Six distinct named varieties, 

two Crotons admissible, H. H. Hunnewell . . . 30 00 

Second, John L. Gardner 25 00 

Third, Nathaniel T. Kidder 20 00 

Single plant, for table decoration, dressed at the base, only one 

entry admissible, the second prize to Nathaniel T. Kidder . 8 00 

Third, John L. Gardner 6 00 

Specimen Flowering Plant. — Single named variety, Joseph H. 

White 8 00 

Second, John L. Gardner 6 00 

Ornamental Leaved Plants. — Six named varieties not offered 
in the collection of greenhouse plants, Crotons and Dracaenas 

not admissible, Nathaniel T. Kidder 20 00 

Second, Joseph H. White 15 00 



250 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Single specimen, variegated, named, not offered in any collection, 

Frederick L. Ames $6 00 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder 5 00 

Third, George A. Nickerson ....... 4 00 

Caladiums. — Six named varieties, H. H. Hunnewell . . . 6 00 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder 4 00 

Ferns. — Six named varieties, no Adiantums admissible, Nathaniel 

T. Kidder 10 00 

Second, Frederick L. Ames ....... 8 00 

Third, Dr. C. G. Weld . 6 00 

Adiantums. — Five named varieties, Nathaniel T. Kidder . . 8 00 

Second, Dr. C. G. Weld 5 00 

Tree Fern. — Single specimen named, Dr. C. G. Weld . . 10 00 

Second, Joseph H. White 8 00 

Ltcopods. — Four named varieties, Nathaniel T. Kidder . . 5 00 

Second, Dr. C. G. Weld 4 00 

Drac^nas. — Six named varieties, H. H. Hunnewell . . . 8 QO 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder 6 00 

Crotons. — Six named varieties, in not less than twelve-inch pots, 

Nathaniel T. Kidder 10 00 

Six in six-inch pots, Dr. C. G. Weld 6 00 

Second, John L. Gardner ........ 5 00 

Third, George A. Nickerson ....... 2 00 

Cycad. — Single plant, named, Joseph H. White . . . 10 00 

Second, Joseph H. White 8 00 

Nepenthes. — Three plants, named, Frederick L. Ames . . . 6 00 

Second, John L. Gardner ........ 5 00 

Orchids. — Six plants, named varieties, in bloom, Frederick L. 

Ames 12 00 

Second, John L. Gardner .... .... 10 00 

Three plants, named varieties, in bloom, Frederick L. Ames . 8 00 

Single plant in bloom, Frederick L. Ames . . . . . 4 00 

Second, H. H. Hunnewell 3 00 



Gratuities : — 
Frank Becker, Display of Plants on the platform 
William E. Doyle, " " " " 

Thomas Clark, Plants .... 

George McWilliam, Plants 
Dr. C. G. Weld, Plants .... 
George A. Nickerson, Plants 
Botanic Garden, Cambridge, Plants . 
John L. Gardner, Stove and Greenhouse Plants 
Robert C. Winthrop, Plants 
David Allan, Anthuriums, etc. . 
John L. Gardner, Agapanthus and Hydrangeas 
Joseph H. White, Monstera and other Plants 



25 00 

25 00 

20 00 

15 00 

10 00 

10 00 

10 00 

10 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 251 

William Patterson, Caladiums, etc $2 00 

Fisher Brothers, Ferns, etc. . 2 00 

Albert Scott, Begonias 2 00 

Benjamin Grey, Nymphseas 20 00 

E. D. Sturtevant, Bordentown, N.J., Nelumbiums . . . . 5 00 

Chipman Brothers, Pink Pond Lilies . . . . . . . 3 00 

Denys Zirngiebel, Asters . . . . . . . . 10 00 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, Native Flowers 2 00 

Jacob W. Manning, Native Ferns 1 00 

August 30. 

Special Prize, offered by Marshall B. Faxon. 

Asters. — For the best display of Cut Flowers, filling twenty-five of 

the Society's glass vases, Mrs. Mary T. Goddard . . . 4 00 

Regular Prizes. 

Asters. — Truffaut's Paeony Flowered, thirty blooms, not less than 

twelve varieties, the second prize to Mrs. Mary T. Goddard . 4 00 

Third, William Patterson 3 00 

Victoria Flowered, thirty blooms, not less than twelve varieties, 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes 5 00 

Second, William Patterson . . . . . . . 4 00 

Lilium Lancifolium. — Collection, the second prize to Mrs. E. M. 

Gill 2 00 

Basket of Flowers. — Mrs. A. D. Wood 4 00 

Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill 3 00 

September 6. 

Special Prize, offered by Marshall B. Faxon. 

Trop^olums. — For the best display, filling twenty of the Society's 

glass vases, Dr. C. G. Weld 3 00 

Regular Prizes. 

Double Zinnias. — Twenty-five flowers, not less than six varieties, 

Frederick L. Davis 4 00 

Second, Nellie B. Cook 3 00 

Third, Mrs. Francis B.Hayes 2 00 

Dianthus. — Collection of Annual and Biennial varieties, filling fifty 

bottles, L. W. Goodell 4 00 

Third, Dr. C. G. Weld 2 00 

Herbaceous Plants. — Jacob W. Manning 4 00 

Gratuity : — 
Benjamin Grey, Nymphseas, etc 3 00 



252 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



CHRYSANTHEMUM SHOW. 
November 11, 12, 13, and 14. 

Special Prizes, from the Josiah Bradlee Fund. 

Chrysanthemums. — Fifty blooms, S. J. Coleman, the Bradlee plate, 

value $30 00 

Fifty blooms, viz., thirty Japanese, ten Chinese, and ten Anemone, 

Joseph H. White, the Bradlee plate, value . . . 20 00 



Special Prizes, offered by the Society. 

Best Seedling op 1889. — The Second prize to S. J. Coleman, for 
Albert Henry .......... 

Third, Joseph H. White, for Mrs. J. H. White .... 



5 00 
4 00 



Regular Prizes. 

Display of twenty named plants, all classes, distinct varieties 
Walter Hunnewell . . . . . . t . 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder 

Third, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes . 
Display of twelve named plants, all classes, distinct varieties, Mrs 
Francis B. Hayes ........ 

Six Japanese, distinct named varieties, the second prize to 

Nathaniel T. Kidder 

Third, Dr. C. G. Weld 

Six plants, Large Flowered Chinese, in not over eight-inch pots 
distinct varieties, bearing not more than four blooms each 
the second prize to the Bussey Institution 
Six Japanese, in not over eight-inch pots, distinct named varieties 
bearing not more than four blooms each, Dr. C. G. Weld 
Second, the Bussey Institution ...... 

Specimen, Incurved, or Chinese, named variety, Dr. Henry P 

Walcott 

Second, Walter Hunnewell 

Specimen Japanese, named variety, Walter Hunnewell 
Second, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes ..... 

Third, Dr. Henry P. Walcott 

Specimen Pompon, named variety, Dr. Henry P. Walcott 
Second, Walter Hunnewell ..... 

Specimen Anemone, named variety, Nathaniel T. Kidder 
Second, Walter Hunnewell ..... 

Specimen trained Standard, any class, named, Nathaniel T 
der .......... 

Second, Joseph H. White ...... 

Third, Nathaniel T. Kidder . . . ... 



Kid 



60 00 
50 00 
40 00 

40 00 

15 00 
10 00 



8 00 



10 


00 


8 


00 


6 00 


5 


00 


6 


00 


5 


00 


4 


00 


5 


00 


4 00 


6 


00 


5 


00 


S 


00 


6 


00 


5 


00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 253 



Twelve cut blooms, Large Flowered, or Chinese, named, in vases, 
E. A. Wood 

Second, Richard T. Lombard 

Third, Patrick Malley 

Twelve cut blooms, Japanese, named, in vases, Joseph H. White, 

Second, E. A. Wood 

Third, Dr. C. G. Weld 

Six cut blooms, Large Flowered, or Chinese, named, in vases, 
Joseph H. White 

Second, the Bussey Institution 

Third, Richard T. Lombard 

Six cut blooms, Japanese, named, in vases, E. A. Wood 

Second, Dr. C. G. Weld 

Third, George B. Gill 

Display of cut blooms, of all classes, filling fifty vases, Mrs. Fran- 
cis B. Hayes . . . . . . . 

Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill 

Third, Joseph H. White 

Fourth, Mrs. A. D. Wood 



10 


00 


8 


00 


4 00 


10 


00 


8 


00 


4 00 


6 


00 


4 


00 


2 


00 


6 


00 


4 


00 


2 


00 


12 


00 


10 


00 


8 


00 


6 


00 



" Seedling Chrysanthemums 
Display of Seedling Chrysanthe 



Gratuities : — 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Display of Chrysanthemums in pots (thirty 
five plants) ......... 

The Bussey Institution, " " " " " 

William H. Elliott, 

Joseph S. Fay, " 

Norris T. Comley, " 

Arend Brandt, Newport, R.I 

mums ........ 

Miss Jennie W. May, Chrysanthemums of Open Culture 

George Hollis, Chrysanthemums in vases . 

Richard T. Lombard, " " " . 

George M. Anderson, " " " 

Galvin Brothers, Display on the Platform, Lower Hall 

William E. Doyle, " " " " Upper Hall 

Norton Brothers, " of Plants and Flowers 

Edward Butler, Orchid, Stanhopea oculata 

C. V. Whitten, Tea Rose Mme. Hoste 

Edmund M. Wood & Co., Five vases of Tea Roses 

Azell C. Bowditch, Vase of La France Roses . 

Galvin Brothers, Display of Carnations 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Cut Flowers 



15 


00 


10 


00 


5 


00 


3 


00 


4 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


25 


00 


20 


00 


6 


00 


5 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


3 


00 



254 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



SOCIETY'S GOLD MEDAL. 

June 14. Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Display of Rhododendrons and Azaleas, 
five hundred blooms, one hundred varieties. 

SILVER APPLETON MEDALS. 

Chrysanthemum Show, Nov. 11-14. Henry A. Gane, Superior Seedling 

Chrysanthemums . 
December 31. Jacob W. Manning. Having taken all the First Prizes of the 

year for exhibits of Herbaceous Plants. 

SOCIETY'S SILVER MEDALS. 

May Exhibition, May 10. A. W. Spencer, Orchid, Anguloa CLowesii. 

July 19. Joseph S. Fay, Display of Hollyhocks. 

Annual Exhibition of Plants and Flowers, August 19-22. George A. Nicker- 

son, Croton, Queen Victoria. 
Annual Exhibition of Plants and Flowers, August 19-22. Robert Cameron, 

Collection of Cacti. 
Annual Exhibition of Plants and Flowers, August 19-22. George McWil- 

liam, Variegated Alocasias. 
Annual Exhibition of Plants and Flowers, August 19-22. William R. Smith, 

Washington, D.C., Carnivorous Plants. 
September 6. Pitcher & Manda, Short Hills, N.J., Cypripedium Arnoldi- 

anum, C. Veitchii, and C. concolor. 
Chrysanthemum Show, November 11-13. Arthur H. Fewkes, Best Seedling 

Chrysanthemum of 1889. 
" " " " T. D. Hatfield, Superior cultiva- 

tion of the Chrysanthemum 
Mrs. Alpheus Hardy. 
" " " " S. J. Coleman, superior cultiva- 

tion of Chrysanthemums. 
" " " " E. M. Wood & Co., New Rose, 

Waban. 
11 " " " Richard Gardner, Newport, R.I., 

New Seedling Calanthe, a 
cross between C. vestita and C. 
vestita rubro-oculata. 

FIRST CLASS CERTIFICATES OF MERIT. 

January 4. John L. Gardner, Kalanchoe carnea. 

Spring Exhibition, March 26-28. Jackson Dawson, superior cultivation of 

Cypripedium acaule. 
«< " " " Ernest Asmus, West Hoboken, N.J., New 

Yellow Rose, Mme. Hoste. 
April 12. Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Seedling Rhododendron William Power 
Wilson, entered for Prospective Prize. 



PHIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 255 

May Exhibition, May 10. Jacob W. Manning, Spircea astilboides. 
Rhododendron Show, June 7. John L. Gardner, Utricularia nelumbifolia. 
" " " " Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Begonia prcecox 

superb a. 
July 19. William E. Endicott, Gladiolus President Carnot. 
" 26. John L. Gardner, Gladiolus John Laing. 
" " " " " " Lamartine. 

August 9. William E. Endicott, Seedling Gladiolus, Kehydius. 

" 30. Joseph T. Comley, Seedling Gladiolus, Eclaireus. 
September 6. Botanic Garden, Cambridge, Cereus triangularis. 
Chrysanthemum Show, November 11-13. George B. Gill, Chrysanthemum 

sport, Mrs. Dudley C. Hall. 
" " " " John McGowan, Orange, N.J. , 

White Carnation, Lizzie Mc- 
Gowan. 

HONORABLE MENTION. 

Rose Exhibition, June 24-25. R. & J. Farquhar, Annual Carnation. 
July 26. J. Warren Clark, Seedling Gladioli. 
September 6. Dr. C. G. Weld, Cyrtanfhus hybridus. 
" " Thomas Cox, Seedling Gladiolus. 

" " Botanic Garden, Cambridge, Collection of Herbaceous Plants. 

Chrysanthemum Show, November 11-13. T. H. Spaulding, Orange, N.J., 

Seedling Chrysanthemum, D. 
D. Farson. 
" " " " John McGowan, Orange, N.J., 

Yellow Carnation, Louise 
Porsch. 
" " " " Lathrop Wright, Carnation 

Helen Galvin. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE ON FBTJITS, 



FOR THE YEAR 1890. 



By E. W. WOOD, Chairman. 



The season opened favorably for the fruit crop, the vines, 
shrubs, and trees having suffered little or no injury during the 
winter ; the mild weather in the early spring encouraged a strong, 
vigorous growth ; the fruit buds on the peach trees had been less 
injured than for several years, and, it being the bearing year for 
the apple in this State, the prospect had seldom looked more 
favorable for an abundant fruit crop. 

The apple trees bloomed profusely, and there was a full average 
bloom among the pears ; but it was noticed after the blossoms had 
fallen that a comparatively small amount of fruit had set. In 
some places the apple showed little or no fruit at all. Among the 
pears some varieties seemed to be much more unfavorably affected 
than others. There was a full average crop of Bartletts and 
Seckels. It will be remembered that during the time the apple and 
pear trees were in bloom we had almost continuous cold storms, 
which would seem to be the only unusual atmospheric condition to 
affect unfavorably these two species of fruit. 

Notwithstanding the partial failure of two of our most impor- 
tant fruits, our exhibits, taken as a whole, have seldom, if ever, 
been better than during the past year. They have been fully up 
to the average in quantity and superior in quality. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FRUITS. 257 

The Strawberry Show was more than usually successful ; the 
competition was earnest and close, especially for the larger prizes. 
While several past favorites have disappeared from our tables, 
new varieties have taken their places, and the interest in seed- 
lings and the practice of growing them are constantly increasing, 
and several promising new ones were shown at this exhibition. 
Messrs. Campbell & Gowing showed on June 21 a new seedling 
variety which very closely resembled the Jewell in size, form, and 
color ; but they claimed that it is some ten days earlier, and that 
the berries shown were among the last picked from the vines, and 
they were unable to show any specimens at the Rose and Straw- 
berry Exhibition on the 24th and 25th. Unless these were grown 
in an exceptionally warm situation this new variety bids fair to 
meet the demand of the market-growers, who have long felt the 
need of a large-sized, early variety, thus extending the season 
and furnishing what the trade demands — large-sized, handsome 
fruit. Benjamin M. Smith showed a seedling from Miner's 
Prolific, which he has named the Beverly, from the town where 
it originated. It resembled the parent very closely, but was 
somewhat larger in size, and, as grown by Mr. Smith, was a 
strong, vigorous plant, and very productive. Among the recently 
introduced varieties that seemed the most promising were the 
Jessie, Bubach, Louise, and Crawford. 

There has been the usual quantity of summer fruits shown at 
the weekly exhibitions, and the quality has been above the 
average. The Currant has generally been a partial, and in some 
places a total, failure the past season, and those who were so 
fortunate as to have a crop, realized about double the usual prices 
for them. There were no new varieties of Raspberries or Black- 
berries shown, the Dorchester, as usual, carrying off most of the 
prizes for the latter. The fruit growers in this vicinity give less 
attention to these two species of fruit, in proportion to their 
merit, than to any others. Their liability to winter-killing, and 
the consequent failure of a crop, prevents their more general cul- 
tivation. 

At the Plant and Flower Show held at Music Hall in August, 
prizes were awarded for fruit, amounting to one hundred and five 
dollars. This amount was not taken from the appropriation made 
by the Society, but was contributed by private individuals. 

At the annual exhibition in September a most interesting and 



258 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

instructive exhibit was made by the Horticultural Department 
of the Agricultural College at Amherst. Very careful experiments 
have been made there in the application, by spraying, of the so- 
called Bordeaux mixture to the grape vine, to prevent mildew. 
The application has been made where there were duplicate vines 
of the same variety growing side by side, upon one vine only, and 
where there was a single vine upon a portion of it, and branches 
of the vines, with fruit and foliage attached, were exhibited, show- 
ing a very marked improvement in both fruit and foliage where the 
mixture had been applied. 

Another interesting feature of this exhibition was from Dr. 
Jabez Fisher, who showed sample bunches of Concord grapes, all 
from the same vine, one-half of which had been girdled. The 
berries from the girdled portion of the vine were about one-third 
larger than those from the part not girdled and fully ripe, while 
the fruit from the other portion of the vine was not even fully 
colored. There were also several bunches of Eaton and Worden 
from girdled vines showing; the same result. 

As we were to have only fruits and vegetables at the September 
exhibition, thus affording very much more space than has hereto- 
fore been thus occupied, the Committee decided to invite some of 
the largest dealers in preserved fruits to make an exhibit. With- 
in the last few years the improvement in the methods of preserv- 
ing fruits has been greater than in growing them, and the business 
has been very largely increased. It is estimated that within the 
circle limited by a radius of forty miles around the city of 
Rochester, N.Y., there have been some years in which more than 
six million bushels of apples have been evaporated. 

Some fifteen years ago, when the export of green fruit was ver}' 
considerably increased, leading horticulturists thought the ques- 
tion of how to dispose of an abundant crop was solved. But 
here we have in this limited area around Rochester a consump- 
tion of fruit larger than all the green fruit exported from the 
whole country. 

The Royal Horticultural Society of London has recently held a 
four days' exhibition, confined entirely to preserved fruits. We 
found upon soliciting contributions in September, that it was the 
most unfavorable time in the year, as the dealers had on hand only 
the stock they had carried over, expecting to receive their new 
stock later in the season ; but Messrs. S. S. Pierce & Co. and George 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FRUITS. 259 

Johnson & Co. made very handsome displays, which proved of 
much interest to visitors. With more time and a more extended 
display of all kinds of canned and evaporated fruits, both 
growers and consumers would be equally interested. 

The fruit exhibits on the first Saturdays of October and No- 
vember, as heretofore, were much better in quality than at the 
Annual Exhibition. The fall and winter fruits were then in perfec- 
tion. The show of apples at the last exhibition, considering the 
season, was remarkably good. Several plates of Northern Spy 
were shown which were superior to any previously exhibited with- 
in the remembrance of the Committee. 

There have been more peaches shown this season than for 
several years, and a very large proportion of them were seedling 
varieties. Remarkably fine specimens of Crawford's Late, grown 
under glass, were exhibited by D. B. Fearing, Newport, R.I., 
some of them measuring twelve inches in circumference. 

Plums have been shown in less quantity than previously, and 
there is little probability of any considerable increase until some 
effectual means have been discovered to prevent injury to the 
trees by the black wart. 

The Committee have awarded in prizes and gratuities the sum of 
$1,617, leaving an unexpended balance of $83. 

In closing their report the Committee feel that they can congrat- 
ulate the growers upon the general results of the year's work. 
While there have been partial failures in some lines, the prices 
received through the season will make a full average showing on 
the right side of the balance-sheet. 

E. W. Wood, \ 
O. B. Had wen, I Committee 
C. F. Curtis, \ on 

Sam'l. Hartwell, I Fruits. 
Warren Fenno, 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES AWARDED FOR FRUITS. 



SPRING EXHIBITION. 

March 26, 27, and 28. 

Winter Apples. — Any variety, William T. Hall, Northern Spy, $3 00 

Second, Warren S. Frost, Baldwin 2 00 

Winter Pears. — C. A. Smith, Anjou 3 00 

Second, Edwin A. Hall, Winter Nelis . . . . . 2 00 

Strawberries. — Cephas H. Brackett, Sharpless . . . . 3 00 

Gratuity: — 
Asa Clement, Apples 1 00 

June 7. 

Gratuity : — 
Winter Brothers, Foreign Grapes 2 00 

June 14. 

Gratuities : — 

Leonard W. Weston, Crescent Strawberries 1 00 

William Doran & Son, Downing " 1 00 

June 21. 

Gratuities : — 

Charles N. Brackett, Strawberries 1 00 

Charles E. Grant, " . . . • . . . . 1 00 

Campbell & Gowing, Seedling Strawberries 1 00 

William G. Prescott, " " 1 00 

ROSE AND STRAWBERRY EXHIBITION. 

June 24 and 25. 

Special Prizes from the Theodore Lyman Fund. 

Strawberries. — For the best four quarts of any variety, Samuel 

Barnard, Jewell, the Lyman Plate, value . . 20 00 

Second, Varnum Frost, Belmont, the Lyman Plate, value . 16 00 

Third, Artemas Frost, Belmont, the Lyman Plate, value . 12 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 



261 



Special Prizes offered by the Society. 

For the best two quarts of any variety, to be judged by points, 

Winter Brothers, Henderson $6 00 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son, Bay State • . . . 5 00 

Third, John B. Burgess, Burgess Seedling . . . . 4 00 

Fourth, Isaac E. Coburn, Jessie 3 00 

For the best exhibition of a Seedling Strawberry introduced with- . 



in the last five years, Benjamin M. Smith, for the Beverly, Silver Medal, 



Regular Prizes. 

For the largest and best collection, not less than twenty baskets, 
of two quarts each, and not less than five varieties, Samuel 

Barnard 

Ten baskets of one variety, two quarts each, Samuel Barnard, 
Jewell ...... 

Second, Varnum Frost, Belmont 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son, Belmont 
Five baskets of one variety, two quarts each, Isaac E. Coburn 
Jessie ..... 

Second, Varnum Frost, Belmont 

Third, William Doran & Son, Sharpless 
Two quarts of Belmont, Varnum Frost 

Second, George F. Wheeler 

Third, Charles N. Brackett 
Bidwell, Isaac E. Coburn 

Second, Samuel Barnard 
Champion, A. B. Howard 

Second, Samuel Barnard 

Third, George F. Wheeler 
Charles Downing, Nathaniel T. Kidder 

Second, Charles E. Grant . 

Third, William Doran & Son 
Crescent, Leonard W. Weston 

Second, Isaac E. Coburn . 
Cumberland, George F. Wheeler 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder 

Third, Winter Brothers 
Jewell, Samuel Barnard 

Second, Isaac E. Coburn . 
May King, Samuel Barnard . 

Second, Isaac E. Coburn . 

Third, George F. Wheeler 
Miner's Prolific, Isaac E. Coburn 

Second, George F. Wheeler 

Third, Samuel Barnard 
Sharpless, Samuel Barnard . 



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262 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Wilder, the second prize to Winter Brothers ..... 

Two quarts of any other variety, Nathaniel T. Kidder, Jessie 
Second, Samuel Barnard, Parry ....... 

Third, A. B. Howard, Jessie . . . . 

Collection of not less than six varieties, one quart each, Samuel 
Barnard ........... 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder 

One quart of any new variety, Charles N. Brackett, Louise . 
Second, Campbell & Gowing, Seedling ..... 

Cherries. — Two quarts of any variety, Oliver R. Robbins, 
Black Tartarian ......... 

Second, Edwin Hastings, Black Tartarian ..... 

Foreign Grapes. — Two bunches of any variety, Joseph H. White, 
Black Hamburg ......... 

Second, Winter Brothers, Black Hamburg . . 

Forced Peaches. — Six specimens of any variety, Winter Brothers, 

Waterloo 

Second, Winter Brothers, Amsden . . . . 

Gratuities : — 

George V. Fletcher, Strawberries 
C. S. Pratt, " . . 

Charles E. Grant, " . . 

Samuel H. Warren, Crawford Strawberries 
A. B. Howard, Seedling Strawberries 
George Johnson & Co., Grapes on vine 



$3 00 


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June 28. 
Gratuities : — 

William Doran & Son, Sharpless Strawberries . ... . 1 00 

E. W. Howe, Red and White Wood Strawberries . . . . 1 00 

Charles N. Brackett, Cherries ........ 1 00 

July 5. 

Strawberries. — One quart of any variety, Benjamin M. Smith, 

Beverly 3 00 

Second, Charles E. Grant, Longfellow 2 00 

Cherries. — Two quarts of Black Tartarian, Charles F. Curtis . 3 00 

Two quarts of Downer's Late, Charles F. Curtis . . . . 3 00 
Two quarts of any other variety, John L. Bird, Napoleon Bigar- 

reau 3 00 

Second, Marshall W. Chadbourne, White Heart . . . 2 00 

Third, " " " Governor Wood . . . 1 00 



July 12. 

Cherries. — Two quarts of Black Tartarian, Leverett M. Chase . 3 00 
Two quarts of Downer's Late, Charles N. Brackett . . . 3 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 263 

Two quarts of any other variety, Charles F. Curtis, Hyde's 

Black $3 00 

Second, Marshall W. Chadbourne, White Heart . . . 2 00 

Third, Leverett M. Chase, Seedling 1 00 

Raspberries. — Two quarts of any variety, Charles E. Grant, Cuth- 

bert 3 00 

Second, William Doran & Son, Highland Hardy . . . 2 00 
Currants. — Two quarts of any Red variety, Benjamin G. Smith, 

Versaillaise . . . . . . . . • . . 4 00 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith, Fay's . . . . . . 3 00 

Third, William Doran & Son, Versaillaise . . . . 2 00 

Two quarts of any White variety, Benjamin G. Smith, Trans- 
parent 3 00 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith, White Gondouin . . . . 2 00 

Gratuities : — 

William G. Prescott, Golden Queen Raspberries . . . . 1 00 

Joseph H. Woodford, Gooseberries ....... 1 00 

Winter Brothers, Grapes and Peaches 2 00 

July 19. 

Raspberries. — Collection of not less than four varieties, two 

quarts each, William Doran & Son . . . . . 4 00 

Two quarts of any variety, Charles E. Grant, Cuthbert . . 3 00 

Second, William Doran & Son, Red Antwerp . . . . 2 00 

Currants. — One quart of Versaillaise, William Doran & Son . 2 00 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith . . . . . . . 1 00 

One quart of any other Red variety, Benjamin M. Smith, Fay's 

Prolific . . 2 00 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith, Fay's Prolific . . . . 1 00 

One quart of any White variety, Benjamin G. Smith, Trans- 
parent ........... 2 00 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith, White Gondouin . . . . 1 00 

Gratuities : — 

Charles N. Brackett, Cherries 1 00 

Marshall W. Chadbourne, Cherries and Currants . . . . 1 00 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, " " " .... 1 00 

Joseph S. Chase, Gooseberries 1 00 

July 26. 

Raspberries. — Two quarts of any variety, William Doran & Son, 

Red Antwerp 3 00 

Second, Charles E. Grant, Cuthbert 2 00 

Currants. — One quart of any Red variety, Benjamin G. Smith, 

Versaillaise .......... 3 00 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith, Fay's Prolific . . . . 2 00 

Third, Benjamin M. Smith, " " .... 1 00 



264 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



One quart of any White variety, Benjamin G. Smith, Trans- 
parent $2 00 

Second, Winter Brothers, White Grape 1 00 

Blackberries. — Two quarts of any variety, Nathaniel T. Kidder, 

Dorchester . . . ..-,.-. . . . . 3 00 

Second, Marshall W. Chadbourne, Dorchester . . . . 2 00 
Gooseberries. — Two quarts of any Native variety, Benjamin G. 

Smith, Smith's Improved . • 3 00 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith, Downing . . . . . 2 00 

Third, Joseph S. Chase, Smith's Improved . . . . 1 00 

Gratuities : — 

William Doran & Son, Raspberries . . . . . . . 2 00 

Charles S. Smith, Alexander Peaches . . . . . . 1 00 

Winter Brothers, Hale's Early Peaches 1 00 



mith 



August 2. 

Blackberries. — Two quarts of any variety, Nathaniel T. Kidder, 
Dorchester ........ 

Second, Marshall W. Chadbourne .... 

Third, S. M. Vose, Dorchester .... 

Gooseberries. — Two quarts of Industry, Winter Brothers 
Two quarts of any other foreign variety, Benjamin G. 

Bang-Up 

Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill, Whitesmith 
Pears. — Summer Doyenne, Benjamin G. Smith 
Second, Leverett M. Chase 

Third E. W. Payne 

Any other variety, Warren Eenno, Giffard 
Peaches. — Any variety, William P. Walker, Hale's Early 
Second, John L. Bird, Hale's Early .... 



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August 9. 

Apples. — Early Harvest, Warren Eenno .... 

Sweet Bough, Warren Heustis & Son ..... 

Second, William T. Hall . . . . . 

Third, George V. Fletcher 

Any other variety, John L. Bird, Red Astrachan 

Second, William T. Hall, " " . 

Third, Marshall W. Chadbourne, " " . . 

Pears. — Giffard, Charles N. Brackett ..... 

Second, Mrs. Mary Langmaid ...... 

Third, John L. Bird 

Any other variety, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, Manning's Elizabeth 

Second, Charles N. Brackett, Brandywine 

Third, Charles N. Brackett, Jargonelle .... 



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PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 



265 



Blackberries. — Two quarts of any variety, Nathaniel T. Kidder, 

Dorchester $3 00 

Second, Marshall W. Chadbourne, Dorchester . . . . 2 00 

Peaches. — Any variety, Nathan D. Harrington, Seedling . . 3 00 

Gratuities : — 

Joseph H. White, Peaches 2 00 

Warren Fenno, Apricots 1 00 

August 16. 

Apples. — Oldenburg, Warren Fenno 3 00 

Red Astrachan, C. C. Shaw . . . . . . . . 3 00 

Second, William T. Hall 2 00 

Third, John L. Bird 1 00 

Pears. — Clapp's Favorite, Aaron S. Mcintosh • . . . 3 00 

Second, Leverett M. Chase 2 00 

Third, E. J. Hewins 1 00 

Manning's Elizabeth, Mrs. Mary Langmaid 2 00 

Second, Frank Ware 1 00 

Any other variety, J. M. Sweet, Tyson . . . . 2 00 

Second, John L. Bird, " 1 00 

Apricots. — Warren Fenno 3 00 

Peaches. — Twelve specimens of out-door culture, of any variety, 

John D. Woodbury, Seedling 3 00 

Second, Nathan D. Harrington, Crawford's Early . . . 2 00 

Third, Nathan D. Harrington, Seedling . . . . . 1 00 
Six specimens of cold-house or pot culture, Joseph H. White, 

Noblesse 3 00 

Foreign Grapes. — Two bunches of any variety, Nathaniel T. Kid- 
der, Black Hamburg ........ 5 00 

Second, Joseph H. White, Bowood Muscat . . . . 4 00 

Gratuities : — 

Charles F. Curtis, Apples 1 00 

Charles N. Brackett, Apples and Pears 1 00 



August 30. 

Apples. — Williams's Favorite, Reuben Handley 

Second, C. C. Shaw ...... 

Third, Artemas Frost ..... 

Any other variety, Warren Fenno, Summer Pippin 

Second Varnum Frost, Gravenstein . 

Third, Nathaniel T. Kidder, Porter . 
Pears. — Bartlett, Mrs. Mary Langmaid 

Second, Varnum Frost 

Third, Leverett M. Chase 



3 00 

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266 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Rostiezer, S. F. & F. L. Weston . 

Second, Charles N. Brackett 

Third, Marshall W. Chadbourne 
Tyson, John L. Bird ..... 

Second, Aaron S. Mcintosh 

Third, Benjamin G. Smith 
Any other variety, Aaron S. Mcintosh, Clapp's Favorite 

Second, Charles N. Brackett, Souvenir du Congres 

Third, E. J. Hewins, Clapp's Favorite 
Peaches. — Any variety, Nathan D. Harrington, Seedling 

Second, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, Foster 

Third, C. H. Johnson, Seedling . 

Plums. — Any variety, William H. Hunt, Bradshaw 

Second, Leverett M. Chase .... 

Third, Benjamin G. Smith, Imperial Gage. 
Native Grapes. — Any variety, Samuel Hartwell, Moore's Early 

Second, Cephas H. Brackett, " " 

Third, Benjamin G. Smith, Champion .... 



$3 00 



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September 6. 

Apples. — Foundling, Reuben Handley 
Gravenstein, Reuben Handley 
Second, Warren Heustis & Son 
Third, Artemas Frost 
Maiden's Blush, Warren Fenno 

Second, E. R. Cook . 
Porter, Reuben Handley 
Second, E. R. Cook . 
Third, E. H. Thompson . 
Any other variety, Warren Fenno, Alexander 
Second, E. R. Cook, Fall Orange or Holden 
Third, Jesse F. Wheeler, Summer Pippin . 
Pears. — Andrews, Mrs. Mary Langmaid 
Second, Benjamin G. Smith 
Third, Arthur Timmins 
Boussock, Mrs. Mary Langmaid 
Second, Charles F. Curtis . 
Third, Leverett M. Chase . 
Any other variety, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, Bartlett 
Second, Charles N. Brackett, Bartlett 
Third, Aaron S. Mcintosh, " 

Peaches. — Collection, Charles S. Smith 
Second, Nathan D. Harrington . 
Third, C. H. Johnson. 
Plums. — Bradshaw, Leverett M. Chase 
Second, Benjamin G. Smith 



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PEIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 267 

Imperial Gage, Mrs. Mary Langmaid $2 00 

Second, William H. Hunt 1 00 

Jefferson, William P. Walker 2 00 

Lombard, William Christie 2 00 

Second, Leverett M. Chase . . . . . . . 1 00 

Washington, J. W. Goodell 2 00 

Any other variety, William H. Hunt, Pond's Seedling . . . 2 00 

Second, Charles F. Curtis, Seedling 1 00 

Native Grapes. — Six bunches of Cottage, William H. Hunt. . 3 00 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith . . . . . . . 2 00 

Moore's Early, Samuel Hartwell 3 00 

Second, William H. Hunt 2 00 

Any other variety, William H. Hunt, August Rose . . . 3 00 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith, Lady 2 00 

Gratuity : — 

Robert Manning, Figs 1 00 

ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 

September 17 and 18. 

Special Prizes. 

Samuel Appleton Fund. 

Baldwin Apples. — Best twelve, William C. Eustis . . . , 5 00 

Hubbardston Apples. — Best twelve, Samuel Hartwell . . 5 00 

Bosc Pears. — Best twelve, John L. Bird . . . . . 5 00 

Sheldon Pears. — Best twelve, Mrs. Mary Langmaid . . . 5 00 

Benjamin V. French Fund. 

Gravenstein Apples. — Best twelve, Jabez Fisher . . . 5 00 

Rhode Island Greening Apples. — Best twelve, Jabez Fisher . 5 00 

Marshall P. Wilder Fund. 

Anjotj Pears. — Best twelve, Mrs. Mary Langmaid . . . 4 00 

Second, Samuel G. Damon . . . . . . . 3 00 

Third, Cephas H. Brackett 2 00 

Fourth, Leverett M. Chase . 1 00 

Bartlett Pears. — Best twelve, Mrs. Mary Langmaid . . . 4 00 

Second, Frank Ware 3 00 

Third, C. H. Johnson 2 00 

Fourth, Varnum Frost 1 00 

Concord Grapes. — Best six bunches, Arthur J. Bigelow . . 3 ,00 

Second, William H. Hunt ........ 2 00 

Third, William Doran & Son 1 00 

Moore's Early Grapes. — Best six bunches, Samuel Hartwell . 3 00 

Second, E. A. Hubbard 2 00 

Third, John B. Moore & Son 1 00 



268 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Theodore Lyman Fund. 
Foreign Black Grapes. — Heaviest and best ripened bunch, not 

less than six pounds, George Mc William .... $10 00 
Foreign White Grapes. — Heaviest and best ripened bunch, not 

less than six pounds, George Mc William ... 10 00 

Special Prizes offered by the Society. 

Anjou Pears. — Best twelve, Mrs. Mary Langmaid . . . 5 00 

Bartlett Pears. — Best twelve, Mrs. Mary Langmaid . . 5 00 
Native Grapes. — Best twelve bunches of any variety, Arthur J. 

Bigelow, Concord 5 00 

Theodore Lyman Fund. 

Apples. — Baldwin, E. R. Cook •••.... 4 00 

Second, Reuben Handley ^ . 3 00 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son ....... 2 00 

Danvers Sweet, Warren Fenno ....... 3 00 

Second, S. P. Buxton ........ 2 00 

Third, C. C. Shaw \ 00 

Dutch Codlin, James H. Clapp ....... 2 00 

Second, T. N. Russell 1 00 

Fall Orange, Reuben Handley 3 00 

Second, E. R. Cook ......... 2 00 

Third, Asa Clement . . . . . . . . 1 00 

Fameuse, Benjamin G. Smith ....... 3 00 

Second, George V. Fletcher ....... 2 00 

Third, Marshall W. Chadbourne ...... 1 00 

Fletcher Russet, John Fletcher ....... 3 00 

Foundling, Asa Clement ........ 4 00 

Second, Reuben Handley ........ 3 00 

Garden Royal, Oliver B. Wyman . 3 00 

Second, Reuben Handley . . . . . . . . 2 00 

Golden Russet, Warren Fenno . . . . . . . 2 00 

Gravenstein, Reuben Handley ....... 4 00 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son ....... 3 00 

Third, J. H. .Butterfield . . 2 00 

Hubbardston, Reuben Handley ....... 4 00 

Second, William H. Hunt . . . . . . . 3 00 

Third, Jabez Fisher 2 00 

Hunt Russet, William H. Hunt . . . . . . . 3 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell ........ 2 00 

Third, Calvin Terry 1 00 

Lady's Sweet, David L. Fisk 2 00 

Second, Asa Clement ......... 1 00 

Lyscom, Asa Clement ......... 2 00 

Maiden's Blush, Jabez Fisher 2 00 

Second, C. C. Shaw 1 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS, 



269 



Mother, Benjamin G. Smith, 

Second, James H. Clapp 

Third, E. W. Wood . 
Northern Spy, George V. Fletcher 

Second, William T. Hall . 

Third, William C. Eustis . 
Porter, Aaron S. Mcintosh . 

Second, E. R. Cook . 

Third, Reuben Handley 
Pumpkin Sweet, David L. Fisk 
Rhode Island Greening, Nathaniel T. Kidder 

Second, Reuben Handley . 

Third, Charles E. Grant . 
Roxbury Russet, E. R. Cook . 

Second, John L. Bird 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son 
Tolman's Sweet, Artemas Frost 

Second, David L. Fisk 

Third, Asa Clement . 
Tompkins King, Jabez Fisher 
. Second, Judson Hartshorn . 

Third, Herbert Wilkinson . 
Washington Royal, Charles N. Brackett 
Washington Strawberry, Warren Fenno 
Any other variety, Warren Fenno, Alexander 

Second, William T. Hall . . 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, Gloria Mundi - . 
Crab Apples. — Hyslop, Marshall W. Chadbourne 

Second, C. C. Shaw 

Society's Prizes. 

Pears. — Angouleme, Mrs. Mary Langmaid . 

Second, A. H. Lewis . . . 

Third, Samuel G. Damon 

Belle Lucrative, Mrs. Mary Langmaid . 

Second, Leverett M. Chase . 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son ...,-. 
Bosc, J. M. Sweet 

Second, Charles F. Curtis 

Third, John L. Bird 

Fourth, Mrs. Mary Langmaid . 
Boussock, Leverett M. Chase . 

Second, Arthur Timmins . . . . 

Third, George W. Eaton 

Clairgeau, Mrs. Mary Langmaid . . . . 

Second, William T. Hall . . . 

Third, Charles F. Curtis 



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270 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Cornice, Charles N. Brackett 
Second, William P. Walker 
Third, Warren Fenno 
Dana's Hovey, E. W. Wood 
Second, Samuel G. Damon 
Third, David L. Fisk 
Diel, William P. Walker 
Second, Charles A. Smith 
Third, Edwin A. Hall 
Hardy, Aaron S. Mcintosh 
Second, J. M. Sweet . 
Third, Arthur Timmins 
Howell, Leverett M. Chase 
Second, Benjamin G. Smith 
Third, Mrs. Mary Langinaid 
Lawrence, tlohn McClure 
Second, Samuel Hartwell . 
Third, Mrs. Mary Langmaid 
Louise Bonne of Jersey, Arthur Timmins 
Second, Leverett M. Chase 
Third, Thomas M. Davis . 
Marie Louise, Warren Fenno 
Second, Samuel G. Damon 
Third, Edwin A. Hall 
Merriam, Samuel G. Damon . 
Second, Charles F. Curtis . 
Third, Aaron S. Mcintosh . 
Onondaga, Leverett M. Chase 
Second, Charles A. Smith . 
Third, Arthur Timmins 
Paradise of Autumn, Leverett M. Chase 
Second, William H. Hunt . 
Third, Warren Fenno 
Seckel, William Doran & Son 
Second, Thomas M. Davis . 
Third, Leverett M. Chase . 
Sheldon, Nathan D. Harrington 
Second, Arthur Timmins . 
Third, Leonard W. Weston 
Souvenir du Congres, Benjamin H. Ober 
Second, J. M. Wetherbee 
Third, Charles N. Brackett 
St. Michael Archangel, Warren Heustis & 
Second, Thomas M. Davis 
Third, Benjamin G. Smith 
Superfin, Leverett M. Chase 
Second, Samuel G. Damon 
Third, Thomas M. Davis 



Son 



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PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 271 

Urbaniste, Aaron S. Mcintosh $3 00 

Second, Marshall W. Chadbourne 2 00 

Third, John L. Bird 1 00 

Vicar, Leverett M. Chase 3 00 

Second, Charles A. Smith 2 00 

Third, Edwin A. Hall . . 1 00 

Winter Nelis, Thomas M. Davis 3 00 

Second, Edwin A. Hall 2 00 

Third, William. P. Walker . . 1 00 

Any other variety, Warren Heustis & Son, Bonne d'Ezee . . 3 00 

Second, Frederick R. Shattuck, De Tongres . . . . 2 00 

Third, Warren Fenno, Adams ....... 1 00 

Quinces. — Any variety, Benjamin G. Smith, Re a . . . . 3 00 

Second, George S. Curtis, Rea . . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, George V. Fletcher, Orange 1 00 

Peaches. — Coolidge's Favorite, the second prize to Charles S. 

Smith 2 00 

Crawford's Early, William H. Hunt 3 00 

Second, G. W. Goddard 2 00 

Third. George W. Stevens 1 00 

Foster, David L. Fisk 3 00 

Second, John L. Bird 2 00 

Oldmixon, Charles S. Smith 3 00 

Third, W. A. Bemis 1 00 

Stump the World, Charles S. Smith 3 00 

Any other variety, W. D. Kelly 3 00 

Second, G. W. Goddard ........ 2 00 

Third, G. W. Goddard 1 00 

Peaches, Orchard House Culture. — Charles E. Grant . . 4 00 

Second, Joseph H. White 3 00 

Plums. — Lombard, Leverett M. Chase . . . . . . 2 00 

Second, G. W. Goddard 1 00 

Any other variety, Mrs. Mary Langmaid . . . . . 2 00 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith . . . . . . 1 00 

Native Grapes. — Brighton, Samuel Hartwell . . . . 3 00 

Second, Joseph S. Chase 2 00 

Third, Marshall W. Chadbourne 1 00 

Cottage, William H. Hunt . . . . . . . « . 3 00 

Second, Samuel G. Damon ....... 2 00 

Third, Benjamin H. Ober 1 00 

Delaware, Joseph S. Chase ........ 3 00 

Second, Samuel G. Damon 2 00 

Third, E. R. Cook 1 00 

Eumelan, Benjamin G. Smith ....... 3 00 

Massasoit, Benjamin G. Smith 3 00 

Second, Joseph S. Chase 2 00 



272 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Niagara, Samuel Hartwell '. $3 00 

Second, E. A. Hubbard . 2 00 

Third, P. G. Hanson 1 00 

Wilder, Benjamin G. Smith 3 00 

Second, Samuel G. Damon ....... 2 00 

Worden, F. J. Kinney 3 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell ........ 2 00 

Third, E. R. Cook 1 00 

Any other variety, William H. Hunt, August Rose . . . 3 00 

Second, John B. Moore & Son, Moore's early . . . . 2 00 

Third, John B. Moore & Son, Hayes 1 00 

Foreign Grapes. — Four varieties, two bunches each, George 

McWilliam 10 00 

Second, E. W. Wood 8 00 

Third, Benjamin G. Smith 6 00 

Black Hamburg, two bunches, Nathaniel T. Kidder . . . 5 00 

Second, George McWilliam 4 00 

Third, Joseph H. White . 3 00 

Buckland Sweetwater, Nathaniel T. Kidder . . . . . 5 00 

Muscat of Alexandria, George McWilliam . . . . . 5 00 

Second, Joseph H. White 4 00 

Wilmot's Hamburg, Nathaniel T. Kidder 5 00 

Second, George McWilliam ....... 4 00 

Third, E. W. Wood 3 00 

Any other variety, George McWilliam . . . . . . 5 00 

Second, George McWilliam 4 00 

Third, E. A. Hubbard 3 00 

Gratuities : — 

Edward B. Wilder, Pears 3 00 

Winn, Ricker, & Co., Peaches 2 00 

Caleb Bates, Figs 1 00 

Nathan D. Harrington, Seedling Peaches . . . . . 1 00 

C. H. Johnson, Seedling Peaches ....... 1 00 

Massachusetts Agricultural College, Collection of Apples, Pears, 

and Peaches .......... 10 00 

Massachusetts Agricultural College, Educational display of Grapes 

with foliage ......... Silver Medal 

Robert McLeod, Newport, R.I., Peaches .... Silver Medal 

S. S. Pierce & Co., Display of Preserved Fruits and Vegeta- 
bles Silver Medal 

George Johnson & Co., Display of Preserved and Fresh Fruits 

and Vegetables Silver Medal 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 



273 



EXHIBITION OF AUTUMN FRUITS. 

October 4. 

Apples. — Gravenstein, Reuben Handley . 

Second, Benjamin A. Moore 

Third, William T. Hall 
Fall Orange, or Holden, Reuben Handley 

Second, Asa Clement .... 
Mother, Asa Clement .... 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith 
Porter, Aaron S. Mcintosh . 

Second, E. J. Hewins 
Any other variety, Nathaniel T. Kidder, Rhode Island Greening 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith, Fameuse 
Peaks. — Angouleme, L. A. Milman 

Second, William S. Janvrin 

Third, John McClure 
Bosc, John L. Bird 

Second, William P. Walker 

Third, Mrs. Mary Langmaid 
Clairgeau, William T. Hall . 

Second, Mrs. Mary Langmaid 

Third, Willard P. Plimpton 
Cornice, William S. Janvrin . 

Second, Leverett M. Chase 

Third, William P. Walker . 
Louise Bonne of Jersey, Thomas M. Davis 

Second, Leverett M. Chase 

Third, Arthur Timmins 
Seckel, Arthur Timmins 

Second, E. A. Hubbard 

Third, William Doran & Son 
Sheldon, George W. Wilkinson 

Second, John L. Bird 

Third, George E. Freeman 
Superfin, Michael Finnegan . 

Second, Leverett M. Chase 

Third, Samuel G. Damon . 
Urbaniste, A. D. Miller 

Second, John L. Bird 

Third, John K. Berry 
Any other variety, Walter Russell, Howell 

Second, Warren Fenno, Marie Louise 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son, St. Michael Archangel 
Quinces. — Any variety, Benjamin G. Smith 

Second, Charles S. Smith . 

Third, Joseph S. Chase 



$3 00 
2 00 
1 00 



3 


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274 



MASSACHUSETTS HOKTI CULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Peaches. — Any variety, William H. Hunt, Crawford's Late 

Second, Nathan D. Harrington, Seedling 

Third, Charles E. Grant, Lemon 
Native Grapes. — Brighton, Benjamin G. Smith 

Second, T. H. Talbot 

Third, Samuel G. Damon 
Concord, Arthur J. Bigelow 

Second, C. F. Hayward 

Third, E. A. Hubbard 
Delaware, C. F. Hayward 

Second, Joseph S. Chase 

Third, Samuel G. Damon 
Iona, Samuel G. Damon 

Second, Henry W. Wilson 

Third, Benjamin G. Smith 
Isabella, Samuel G. Stone 
Lindley, Benjamin G. Smith 

Second, Joseph S. Chase 
Massasoit, Benjamin G. Smith 
Moore's Early, E. A. Hubbard 
Pocklington, Samuel Hartwell 

Second, George W. Jameson 

Third, Samuel G. Damon . 
Prentiss, Benjamin G. Smith . 

Second, Joseph S. Chase . 

Third, Samuel G. Damon . 
Wilder, Benjamin G. Smith . 

Second, Samuel G. Damon 
Any other variety, Benjamin G. Smith, Barry 

Second, C. F. Hayward, Niagara 

Third, Benjamin G. Smith, Jefferson 

Foreign Grapes. — Two bunches of any variety, Nathaniel T. Kid 

der, Black Hamburg ........ 



$3 00 

2 00 
1 00 

3 00 
2.00 

1 00 
3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

3 00 
3 00 

2 00 

3 00 
3 00 
3 00 
2 00 
1 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



4 00 



EXHIBITION OF WINTER FRUITS. 

November 8. 

Special Prizes, ^Benjamin V. French Fund. 

Baldwin Apples. — Best twelve, John L. Bird 
Hubbardston Apples. — Best twelve, Reuben Handley 



5 00 
5 00 



Society's Prizes. 

Apples. — Baldwin, Nathaniel T. Kidder 
Second, S. M. Vose .... 
Third, George B. Gill 



3 00 
2 00 
1 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 275 

Danvers Sweet, Warren Fenno . . . . . . $ 3 00 

Second, Benjamin P. Ware 2 00 

Hubbardston, Walter Russell 3 00 

Second, Reuben Handley ........ 2 00 

Third, Marshall W. Chadbourne 1 00 

Hunt Russet, William H. Hunt 3 00 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith . . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, Samuel Hartwell . 1 00 

Lady's Sweet, Asa Clement ........ 3 00 

Northern Spy, Nathaniel T. Kidder . . . . . . . 3 00 

Second, William T. Hall . . 2 00 

Third, Mrs. Alfred E. Giles 1 00 

Rhode Island Greening, Nathaniel T. Kidder . . . . 3 00 

Second, Joseph Lovell ........ 2 00 

Third, Willard P. Plimpton . 1 00 

Roxbury Russet, Cephas H. Brackett . . . . . . 3 00 

Second, J. Warren Clark 2 00 

Third, S. M. Vose 1 00 

Tolman's Sweet, Artemas Frost . . . . . . . 3 00 

Second, Willard P. Plimpton 2 00 

Third, Asa Clement . . . 1 00 

Tompkins King, John Parker . . . . . . . 3 00 

Second, Warren Fenno ........ 2 00 

Any other variety, Aaron S. Mcintosh, Yellow Bellflower . . 3 00 

Second, John R. Brewer, Murphy . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, Gloria Mundi 1 00 

Pears. — Angouleme, John L. Bird . . . . . . 4 00 

Second, William S. Janvrin 3 00 

Third, A. H. Lewis . . . 2 00 

Fourth, Arthur Timmins I 00 

Anjou, Arthur Timmins . . . • . . . . . 4 00 

Second, Warren Fenno 3 00 

Third, George W. Hall 2 00 

Fourth, Aaron S. Mcintosh 1 00 

Clairgeau, William T. Hall 3 00 

Second, Warren Fenno ..'...... 2 00 

Third, Arthur Timmins . . 1 00 

Cornice, William S. Janvrin 4 00 

Second, John J. Merrill 3 00 

Third, Leverett M. Chase 2 00 

Fourth, John L. Bird 1 00 

Dana's Hovey, Willard P. Plimpton 4 00 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith 3 00 

Third, E. W. Wood 2 00 

Fourth, Warren Fenno 1 00 

Glout Morceau, Edwin A. Hall . 3 00 



276 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Josephine of Malines, Warren Fenno . . . . . $3 00 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith . 2 00 

Third, John L. Bird 1 00 

Diel, Edwin A. Hall 3 00 

Second, William P. Walker 2 00 

Third, Thomas M. Davis 1 00 

Langelier, John L. Bird 3 00 

Second, Thomas M. Davis 2 00 

Third, A. H. Lewis ......... 1 00 

Lawrence, John McClure . . . . . . . . 3 00 

Second, Warren Fenno . . . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, William T. Hall 1 00 

Vicar, J. M. Sweet 3 00 

Second, Aaron S. Mcintosh 2 00 

Third, Leverett M. Chase 1 00 

Winter Nelis, Mrs. Fanny Browning . . . . . . 3 00 

Second, Thomas M. Davis 2 00 

Third, Edwin A. Hall 1 00 

Any other variety, Aaron S. Mcintosh, Urbaniste . . . 3 00 

Second, William P. Walker, Bosc ...... 2 00 

Third, John J. Merrill 1 00 

Foreign Grapes. — Two bunches of any variety, Fisher Brothers, 

Alicante ........... 5 00 

Second, E. A. Hubbard, Gros Colman 4 00 

Third, E. A. Hubbard, Muscat . . . . . . . 3 00 



REPORT 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES, 



FOR THE YEAR 1890. 



By CHARLES N. BRACKETT, Chairman. 



In every human life — one may almost say in every human un- 
dertaking — there must come times devoted to what, in commercial 
phrase, is called " taking account of stock." At such times, the 
life or the undertaking finds itself almost, as it would seem, 
involuntarily at a pause, and, like the mercantile world, it closes 
its doors for a longer or a shorter period to outside interests, and 
reviews its past failures and successes, settles their causes to its 
own satisfaction, and, casting aside what have proved to be 
impediments, prepares itself for a new and wiser start in its 
chosen direction. Such a time as this seems just at present to 
have come to us. The eve of a new year is proverbially the time 
for a critical survey of the past, and the making of good resolu- 
tions for the future. 

The attendance at our weekly exhibitions has been good during 
the year, with increasing interest on the part of members, and a 
better appreciation of the work of the Society by the public in 
general. The Annual and other great exhibitions of the year 
were largely attended and very successful, except when inter- 
rupted by storm}' weather. The interest shown by the public in 
these exhibitions has been of the most encouraging kind, giving 
evidence of the constantly increasing taste and love for Horticult- 
ure, and showing that the work of the Society in promoting the 
interests and objects for which it was established has pervaded 
the communitv in its influence. 



278 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

A new departure at the Annual Exhibition this year was the 
separation of the Plant and Flower Show from that of the Fruit 
and Vegetables. By this arrangement the Fruit and Vegetable 
departments at the Annual Show were left with both the halls of 
the Society to fill. Some fears were entertained that we should 
not be able to occupy so much space without the assistance of the 
Flower Department, but the result proved that such fears were 
unfounded. The display of vegetables completely filled the lower 
hall, and taken as a whole, was one of the best exhibitions which 
this department has ever made. We were indebted to the Bos- 
ton Public Institutions at Long Island and the Boston Asj'lum 
and Farm School for large and interesting collections at this 
exhibition. 

The show of forced vegetables, January 4, was not as large as 
it should have been, only about half the prizes on the Schedule 
being competed for. The specimens of varieties shown, how- 
ever, were fully up to the average. 

The season for out-door vegetables was opened, May 10, with 
Asparagus, Edmund Hersey taking first prize with some very fine 
specimens, and Leonard W. Weston the first prize at the follow- 
ing show. The ravages of the Asparagus Beetle are now much 
complained of, and threaten the destruction of this valuable crop, 
unless some remedy is soon found for this pest. Several among 
our contributors are largely engaged in the culture of asparagus, 
having acres devoted to its production, and the loss of this crop 
would be a serious one to them. A liberal application of air- 
slacked lime, sown broadcast just as the shoots are about to make 
their appearance, and repeated if necessary, has been recommended 
and tried with success by one of our contributors. The remedy 
is simple and cheap, if effectual. Rusts, blights, and mildews are 
also subtle enemies of our fruit and vegetable crops, and how to 
overcome or avoid them cannot be known until we have learned 
more about them. A wide field is opened up to our scientists, 
who are at present devoting considerable attention to this subject, 
and it is hoped they may find the causes of these dreaded foes and 
remedies to counteract them. 

The show of vegetables, August 20, was the largest and decid- 
edly the best of all the weekly exhibitions during the season. 
The prizes were all competed for, and all but one were awarded. 
At this exhibition, Joseph S. Fay exhibited fine specimens of his 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES. 279 

new Hybrid Melon, — Fay's Triumph, — weighing from eleven 
and one-half to fourteen pounds each. This melon is a cross 
between the Irondequoit and Christiana, and of fine flavor. Mr. 
Fay also showed extra fine specimens of Surprise, Christiana, 
Emerald Gem, and Hackensack melons, besides a general display 
of melons, consisting of twenty-one specimens, making the largest 
and best collection of green and salmon flesh melons ever shown 
in the Hall by a single exhibitor. Mr. Fay has been a large con- 
tributor at our weekly exhibitions all through the season, and his 
exhibits have attracted particular attention on account of their 
excellence. 

Among the novelties in the way of new vegetables introduced 
the past season may be mentioned Burpee's Dwarf Lima Bean, 
exhibited here for the first time August 30, by C. E. Grant. 
This new bean should not be confounded with Henderson's Bush 
Lima (noticed in our last report), which is a small bean, belonging 
to the Carolina or Sieva class. Burpee's Bush Lima is a perfect 
bush bean with pods and beans as large as those of the well- 
known Large Lima Pole bean. The plants grow from eighteen 
to twenty-two inches in height, with a strong and branching main 
stem and thick leathery foliage, indicating a strong constitution. 
Each plant will produce under ordinary field culture from twenty- 
five to fifty pods, each pod containing three or four beans ; gen- 
erally three. In fiel$ culture of the Pole Lima, the cost of poles 
and the labor of setting them adds considerably to the expense 
of the crop, while in gardens they are anything but ornamental. 
With the introduction of this new bean we now have both the 
Large and Small Lima in bush form, which can be grown with no 
more trouble or expense than common bush beans. We consider 
this bean a great acquisition, and have no doubt it will soon become 
a popular variety with market gardeners. 

At the Annual Inhibition, in September, the show of vegeta- 
bles was large and fine — a credit to any State or society. Market 
gardening, as carried on around Boston, is probably not excelled 
in any other locality in the country. In Arlington, Belmont, and 
other suburban towns, large areas are devoted to vegetable 
houses, where all through the winter and early spring may be 
seen immense quantities of finely grown vegetables under glass. 
There are also, among these market-gardeners, specialists, who 
devote their whole attention to the growing of either Celery, 



280 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Cauliflowers, Squashes, or some other single crop, which they grow 
to perfection, and derive large profits therefrom. These and kin- 
dred crops must be well grown to command good prices ; for unless 
of good quality the} 7 can hardly be sold at any price. These es- 
tablishments not only supply our own market with their produce, 
but also ship large quantities to New York and elsewhere. 

The Cauliflowers shown by W. H. Teele, Egg Plant by E. J. 
Coolidge, and Watermelons by C. E. Grant, at the Annual 
Exhibition, are deserving of special mention, as the specimens of 
each were remarkably fine and well grown. No competitors 
appeared for the regular prizes for Boston Market Celery at the 
Annual Exhibition. The first Special Prize for Celery was 
awarded to Artemas Frost for Golden Self-Blanching, I. E. 
Coburn taking the second with White Plume. 

November 8, a new Seedling Potato was exhibited by E. L. 
Coy, of New York, its originator, who has sent out many good 
varieties, such as Beauty of Hebron, Empire State, Puritan, and 
others, which have a wide and well-established reputation. This 
new seedling is of good form and size ; both skin and flesh are 
white, texture mealy, and flavor delicate. Specimens were fur- 
nished the committee for trial, and all who have reported agree 
as to its superior quality. A First Class Certificate of Merit was 
awarded to Mr. Coy. We have been informed since this potato 
was on exhibition here that it has been named the Vaughan, and 
will probably be for sale under that name the coming season. 

We have to record the great loss which this department has 
sustained during the past year in the death of Mr. George Hill, 
one of our largest and most valued contributors, who for thirteen 
vears was a member of this Committee. We can also recall the 
names of many other active and constant contributors who have 
passed away within a few years, — Hatch, Pierce, Fillebrown, 
Crosby, Hill, — all of whom served the Society faithfully and well 
for many years, as members of the Vegetable Committee, and con- 
tributed largely to the success of our exhibitions. But while we 
mourn the loss of these tried friends, we also regret that we do 
not see more of our young and enthusiastic cultivators coming 
forward to fill the gaps thus made in our ranks. The fact is 
obvious, that the horticulturists of today must, in the ordinary 
course of nature, soon give place to younger, men, and it is equally 
true that if we scan the ranks of Horticulture today, these coming 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES. 281 

men fail to materialize in adequate numbers, so that it seems 
necessary, if not even indispensable, that the rising generation 
should, in some manner, be led to take a stronger interest in the 
work which this Society is doing. The question seems to be, 
How can this be best accomplished? The indications are that 
the problem is not easy of solution. 

A few brief weeks ago the various committees were all hard 
at work making preparations for the Annual, and closing exhibi- 
tions of the year. Now these exhibitions have passed into history, 
with all that pertains to them : their successes, their failures, the 
hard labor required, and their undeniable marks of solid progress. 
The record of these exhibitions forms a chapter of more or less 
interest in the story of the year's work ; an eloquent commentary 
upon the men and women who helped make the record. And as 
the years succeed each other in their rapid flight, as the annals 
accumulate and become venerable from dust and old age, who 
can turn back volume after volume, without wishing that the 
beginning of his own life's story had been more earnest, and that 
the chapters toward the end of it had been richer in results 
achieved ? 

The annual appropriation for this department was $1,000. Of 
this amount the Committee have awarded $914 in prizes and 
gratuities, leaving an unexpended balance of §86. 

With the annexed list of awards, this report is respectfully 
submitted. 

C. N. Brackett, 

Chairman. 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES AWARDED FOR 
VEGETABLES. 



January 4. 

Radishes. — Four bunches, George F. Stone . 

Second, George F. Stone, White Tip 
Cucumbers. — Pair of any variety, Richard T. Lombard 
Cauliflowers. — Four specimens, George E. Sanderson 
Lettuce. — Four heads of Tennisball, second prize, George F. Stone 
Parsley. — Two quarts, George F. Stone 

Second, George E. Sanderson . . 
Mushrooms. — Twenty-four specimens, Cephas H. Brackett 
Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens, Winter Brothers, Essex 

Second, Cephas H. Brackett, Champion 

Third, Cephas H. Brackett, Essex .... 

Gratuity : — 
Cephas H. Brackett, Asparagus ...... 



$3 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



2 00 



February 1. 

Radishes. — Four bunches of any variety, George F. Stone . . 3 00 

Lettuce. — Four heads, the second prize to George F. Stone . . 2 00 

Mushrooms. — Twenty-four specimens, Cephas H. Brackett . . 3 00 

Second, Oak Grove Farm 2 00 

Rhubarb. — Twelve stalks, George E. Sanderson, Victoria . . 3 00 

Second, George E. Sanderson, Monarch . . . . . 2 00 

Tomatoes. — Twelve, Charles Winter 3 00 

Second, Cephas H. Brackett . . . . v . . . 2 00 

Third, Winter Brothers . 1 00 

Gratuities : — 

George E. Sanderson, Collection 2 00 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Cress ........ 1 00 

George F. Stone, Parsley . . 1 00 

February 15. 
Gratuity : — 

George F. Stone, Collection 2 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES, 



283 



SPRING EXHIBITION. 

March 26, 27, and 28. 

William J. Walker Fund. 
Radishes. — Four bunches of Turnip Rooted, George F. Stone 

Four bunches of Long Scarlet, Charles A. Learned 
Cucumbers. — Pair of White Spine, William Nicholson 
Dandelions. — Peck, Edwin J. Coolidge 
Lettuce. — Four heads, George F. Stone 

Second, John L. Gardner . 

Third, Charles A. Learned 
Parsley. — Two quarts, John L. Gardner 

Second, George F. Stone . 
Rhubarb. — Twelve stalks, George E. Sanderson 



$3 00 



3 


00 


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2 


00 


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00 



Gratuities : — 

Edward J. Coolidge, Collection 3 00 

Thomas Clark, Mushrooms 2 00 

Thomas Rowland, " 1 00 



April 19. 



Gratuity ; — 
Ernest E. Moore, Lettuce 



1 00 



MAY EXHIBITION. 



May 10. 



William J. Walker Fund. 
Four bunches, Edmund Hersey 



Asparagus 

Second, Varnum Frost .... 

Third, Leonard W. Weston 
Cucumbers. — Pair of White Spine, Varnum Frost 

Second, Charles A. Learned 
Spinach. — Peck, Warren Heustis & Son 
Dandelions. — Peck, Warren Heustis & Son . 
Lettuce. — Four heads, M. E. Moore 

Second, George F. Stone .... 
Rhubarb. — Twelve stalks, George E. Sanderson 

Second, Marshall W. Chadbourne 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son . 



Gratuities : — 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Potatoes and Radishes 
George F. Stone, Collection 



3 


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284 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



May 24. 

Gratuity : — 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Potatoes $1 00 

May 31. 

Gratuities : — 

Joseph S. Fay, Collection 2 00 

C. W. Prescott, Asparagus 1 00 



RHODODENDRON SHOW. 

June 7. 

Theodore Lyman Fund. 

Beets. — Twelve specimens, Warren S. Frost . 
Second, Joseph S. Fay ..... 
Cakrots. — Twelve short scarlet, Joseph S. Fay. 
Radishes. — Four bunches turnip rooted, Warren Heustis & 

Second, Marshall W. Chadbourne 
Asparagus. — Four bunches, Leonard W. Weston 

Second, C. W. Prescott 

Third, Charles E. Grant 
Cucumbers. — Pair, Varnum Frost . 

Second, Warren S. Frost . 
Lettuce. — Four heads, Varnum Frost 

Second, Warren S. Frost . 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son . 
Rhubarb. — Twelve stalks, Cephas H. Brackett (35 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith (24 pounds) . 

Third, Marshall W. Chadbourne 



Son 



pounds) 



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Gratuities : — 

Joseph S. Fay, Cauliflowers and Onions . 
Warren Heustis & Son, Onions and Lettuce 
Winter Brothers, three varieties of Tomatoes . 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, Tomatoes .... 



3 00 

2 00 

3 00 
1 00 



June 14. 

Gratuities : — 

Charles E. Grant, Alaska Peas .... 
John B. Moore & Son, White Spine Cucumbers 



June 21. 



Gratuities : — 

Charles E. Grant, Peas 
Samuel Hartwell, " 



1 00 
1 00 



1 00 
1 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES. 



285 



ROSE AND STRAWBERRY EXHIBITION. 
June 24 and 25. 

Beets. — Twelve Summer Turnip Rooted, Charles A. Learned . $3 00 

Second, Varnum Frost 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son . . v . 

Onions. — Twelve specimens, Joseph S. Fay ..... 

Second, Charles A. Learned ....... 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son 

Cucumbers. — Pair of White Spine, Varnum Frost 

Second, Warren S. Frost ........ 

Third, Artemas Frost 

Cabbages. — Three of any variety, Charles A. Learned, Henderson, 

Second, Charles A. Learned, Wakefield ..... 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son 

Lettuce. — Four heads of any variety, Charles A. 'Learned . 

Second, George F. Stone 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son 

Peas. — Half-peck of any variety, Cephas H. Brackett, American 
Wonder . . . . . . . . . 

Second, Joseph S. Fay, Maud S. . . . . 

Third, " " " Alaska 

Gratuities : — 

Winter Brothers, Tomatoes 
Samuel Hartwell, Clipper Peas 
Cephas H. Brackett, Hebron Potatoes 
Joseph S. Fay, Potatoes and Carrots 
Warren Heustis & Son, Radishes 
Charles A. Learned, Collection 

June 28. 
Gratuity : — 

Charles N. Brackett, American Wonder Peas 1 00 



2 


00 


1 


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3 


00 



July 5. 

Onions. — Twelve specimens, Joseph S. Fay 2 00 

Second, Charles A. Learned 1 00 

Cabbages. — Three of any variety, Charles A. Learned, Henderson, 3 00 

Second, Charles A. Learned, Wakefield 2 00 

Peas. — Half-peck of American Wonder, Calvin Terry . . . 3 00 

Second, Charles E. Grant 2 00 

Any other variety, John L. Gardner, Prodigy . . . . 3 00 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder, Advancer 2 00 

Gratuity : — 

Charles A. Learned, Egyptian Beets 1 00 



286 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



July 12. 

Potatoes. — Twelve specimens, Joseph S. Fay, Hebron 

Second, Calvin Terry, Rose ...... 

Third, Charles E. Grant, Rose ...... 

Squashes. — Four Long Warted, Warren Heustis & Son 
Beans. — Half-peck of String of any variety, Isaac E. Coburn 

Second, Joseph S. Fay ....... 

Third, George F. Stone 

Peas. — Half-peck of any variety, George S. Harwood, Duchess 

Second, Charles N. Brackett, Stratagem .... 

Third, Isaac E. Coburn, " .... 

Gratuities : — 

"Winter Brothers, Tomatoes ....... 

Charles F. Curtis, Collection of Beans, nine varieties 

Warren Heustis & Son, Collection ...... 

George F. Stone, " 



$3 00 



2 


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2 00 



July 19. 

Levi Whitcomb Prizes. 

Cabbages. — Three Drumhead, Joseph S. Fay 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son . 
Beans. — Half-peck of Cranberry, Isaac E. Coburn 
Peas. — Half-peck of any variety, Charles N. Brackett, Stratagem 

Second, Isaac E. Coburn, Stratagem . 

Third, George S. Harwood, " 
Sweet Corn. — Twelve ears, Joseph S. Fay 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder 

Third, Charles E. Grant . 
Tomatoes. — Open culture, twelve specimens, Nathaniel T. Kidder, 

Gratuities : 

Charles B. Lancaster, Potatoes 

Charles N. Brackett, " . . 



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July 26. 

Potatoes. — Twelve specimens, Joseph S. Fay, Charles Downing 

Second, Joseph S. Fay, Hebron ..... 

Third, Charles B. Lancaster, Hebron .... 

Sweet Corn. — Twelve ears, Joseph S. Fay, Corey 

Second, John L. Gardner, Burbank ..... 

Third, Joseph S. Fay, Crosby 

Tomatoes. — Open culture, twelve specimens, Varnum Frost 
Paragon ......... 

Second, Varnum Frost, Emery 



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PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES. 



287 



Gratuities : — 

Charles N. Brackett, Collection 

Charles E. Grant, Beans and Potatoes . • 

John L. Gardner, Nutting Beet ....... 

August 2. 

Potatoes. — Any variety, twelve specimens, Joseph S. Fay, Savoy, 

Second, John B. Moore & Son, Hebron .... 

Third, Joseph S. Fay, Charles Downing .... 
Squashes. — Three Marrow, Edward J. Coolidge . 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son ...... 

Peas. — Half-peck of any variety, Charles N. Brackett, Stratagem 

Second, Charles E. Grant, Profusion 

Third, Charles E. Grant, Yorkshire Hero 
Sweet Corn. — Twelve ears, Joseph S. Fay, Perry's Hybrid . 

Second, Joseph S. Fay, Crosby ...... 

Third, Nathaniel T. Kidder, Crosby 

Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens, Varnum Frost, Emery 

Second, Varnum Frost, Paragon ..... 

Third, Nathaniel T. Kidder, Edgar's Seedling . 



Gratuities : — 

Calvin Terry, Corn and Potatoes 

Charles B. Lancaster, Potatoes 

John B. Moore & Son, Cucumbers . 

John L. Gardner, Cabbages 

Nathaniel T. Kidder, Collection of Tomatoes 

Charles E. Grant, Collection 



August 9. 

Beans. — Two quarts of Goddard, Warren Heustis & Son 

Second, George F. Stone 

Third, Oliver R. Robbins 

Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens of Acme, Charles N. Brackett 

Second, George F. Stone . . ... 
Emery, C. N. Brackett 

Second, Varnum Frost ...... 

Third, Edward J. Coolidge 

Any other variety, Nathaniel T. Kidder, Perfection 

Second, Varnum Frost, Perfection ..... 

Third, George F. Stone, " 

Egg Plant. — Four Round Purple, Edward J. Coolidge . 

Gratuities : — 

Joseph H. Woodford, Beans 

Calvin Terry, Corn 



$2 00 


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288 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Charles N. Brackett, Corn and Peas $1 00 

George F. Stone, Parsley and Cucumbers . . . . . 1 00 
Charles E. Grant, Collection 2 00 

August 16. 

Greenflesh Melons. — Four specimens, Varnum Frost . * 3 00 
Salmon-flesh Melons. — Four specimens, Warren Heustis & Son, 3 00 
Sweet Corn. — Twelve ears, Charles N. Brackett, Excelsior . 3 00 

Second, Varnum Frost, Crosby 2 00 

Third, C. N. Brackett, " 1 00 

Egg Plant. — Four Round Purple, Edward J. Coolidge . . . 2 00 
Second, Joseph S. Fay 1 00 

Gratuities : — 

Charles N. Brackett, Tomatoes and Peppers 2 00 

W. F. Reynolds, Celery . 2 00 

Charles E. Grant, Collection 2 00 

August 30. 

Potatoes. — Twelve specimens of any variety, J. S. Fay, Hebron . 3 00 

Second, Joseph S. Fay, Rose 2 00 

Third, Charles E. Grant 1 00 

Onions. — Twelve specimens, Varnum Frost . . . . . 3 00 

Second, Joseph S. Fay 2 00 

Third, Artemas Frost 1 00 

Greenflesh Melons. — Four specimens, Varnum Frost . . 3 00 

Second, Joseph S. Fay 2 00 

Third, Samuel Hartwell 1 00 

Salmon-flesh Melons. — Any variety, four specimens, "Warren 

Heustis & Son, Emerald Gem 3 00 

Second, Joseph S. Fay, Christiana . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, " ". " Surprise 1 00 

Watermelons. — Pair, Charles E. Grant, Black Spanish . . 3 00 

Third, Charles E. Grant, Fordhook 1 00 

Beans. — Two quarts of Large Lima, Warren S. Frost . . . 3 00 

Second, Varnum Frost ' . 2 00 

• Third, Benjamin G. Smith 1 00 

Two quarts of Dwarf Lima, Nathaniel T. Kidder . . . 3 00 

Second, Joseph S. Fay . 2 00 

Third, Charles E. Grant 1 00 

Two quarts of Goddard, shelled, Isaac E. Coburn . . . 3 00 

Second, N. T. Kidder . . . . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, William Christie 1 00 

Sweet Corn. — Twelve ears of Potter's* Excelsior, Charles N. 

Brackett 3 00 

Second, William Christie 2 00 

Third, Charles E. Grant . . . ' 1 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES. 



289 



Any other variety, William H. Hunt, Burr's 
Second, Joseph S. Fay, Stowell's 
Third, Samuel Hartwell, Crosby 
Peppers. — Twelve specimens of Squash, 
Second, George W. Jameson 
Third, Richard T. Lombard 

Any other variety, Richard T. Lombard, 
Second, Joseph S. Fay 
Third, Charles F. Curtis . 



C. N 



Bull 



Brackett 



Nose 



Gratuities : — 

Charles N. Brackett, Tomatoes, four varieties 

William H. Teel, Cauliflowers . 

Samuel Hartwell, Cabbages 

Joseph S. Fay, Egg Plant .... 

Charles E. Grant, Collection 

George F. Stone, " . . 



September 6. 

Cauliflowers. — Four, William H. Teel 

Second, A. M. Knowlton ...... 

Celery. — Four roots, L. W. Platts, White Plume . 
Beans. — Two quarts of Large Lima, Varnum Frost 

Second, Warren S. Frost ..... 
Peppers. — Twelve Squash, Charles N. Brackett . 

Second, George W. Jameson .... 

Third, George A. Lovell ..... 
Any other variety, George A. Lovell, Bull Nose . 

Second, C. N. Brackett, Ruby King . 

Gratuities : — 

Charles E. Grant, Collection 

Charles N. Brackett, " 

Isaac E. Coburn, " . . . . . 



$3 00 

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ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 

September 17 and 18. 

Special Prizes. 

Cauliflowers. — Best four specimens, William H. Teel . . 5 00 

Celery. — Best four specimens, Artemas Frost . . . . 8 00 

Second, Isaac E. Coburn . . . . . . . . 6 00 

Regular Prizes. 

Beets. — Twelve Turnip Rooted, Varnum Frost . . . . 3 00 

Second, John L. Gardner . . . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, George F. Stone 1 00 



290 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Carrots. — Twelve Long Orange, Joseph S. Fay . . . $3 00 

Twelve Intermediate, F. J. Kinney 3 00 

Second, Samuel Walker 2 00 

Third, J. S. Fay 1 00 

Parsnips. — Twelve Long, Samuel Walker 3 00 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son ....... 2 00 

Third, Charles A. Learned 1 00 

Potatoes. — Four varieties, twelve specimens each, Charles B. 

Lancaster ........... 5 00 

Second, F. J. Kinney 4 00 

Third, William Christie 3 00 

Clark, Twelve specimens, F.J. Kinney . . . . . . 3 00 

Second, William Christie 2 00 

Third, James J. H. Gregory 1 00 

Hebron, William G. Prescott 3 00 

Second, S. A. Merrill 2 00 

Third, Charles N. Brackett . 1 00 

Rose, S. A. Merrill 3 00 

Second, F. J. Kinney 2 00 

Third, Calvin Terry 1 00 

Savoy, F. J. Kinney . ... + .... 3 00 

Second, Isaac E. Coburn . . . . . . . . 2 00 

Any other variety, Albert Bresee, Leader 3 00 

Second, F. J. Kinney, Essex 2 00 

Third, F. J. Kinney, Burbank 1 00 

Salsify. — Twelve specimens, John L. Gardner . . . . 3 00 

Second, F. J. Kinney . . . . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son ....... 1 00 

Turnips. — Twelve Flat, F. J. Kinney . . . . . .2 00 

Second, George F. Stone 1 00 

Swedish, Joseph S. Fay 2 00 

Second, William Christie 1 00 

Onions. — Twelve Danvers, George F. Stone 3 00 

Second, Charles A. Learned 2 00 

Third, Varnum Frost 1 00 

Portugal, Joseph S. Fay . 3 00 

Red, " " " 3 00 

Second, James J. H. Gregory 2 00 

Third, John L. Gardner . . . . . . . . 1 00 

Greenflesh Melons. — Four, Samuel Hartwell . . . . 3 00 

Second, Charles F. Curtis . . . . . . • • 2 00 

Third, Charles E. Grant 1 00 

Watermelons. — Pair, Charles E. Grant, Black Spanish . . 3 00 

Second, Charles E. Grant, Fordhook 2 00 

Third, Charles E. Grant, Gold and Green . . . . . 1 00 

Squashes. — Three Hubbard, Joseph S. Fay 3 00 

Second, Charles A. Learned . . ; . . . . 2 00 

Third, S. P. Buxton 1 00 






PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES. 



291 



Hybrid Turban, S. P. Buxton 
Second, Charles A. Learned 
Marblehead, C. A. Learned 

Second, F. J. Kinney . 
Marrow, Yarnum Frost . 
Second, F. J. Kinney . 
Third, Warren S. Frost 
Turban, P. G. Hanson . 
Second, F. J. Kinney . 
Cabbage. — Drumhead, Joseph S. Fay, Marblehead 
Second, Oliver R. Robbins, Brunswick 
Third, J. S. Fay, All Seasons 
Red, Samuel Hartwell . 
Second, S. P. Buxton . 
Third, William Christie 
Savoy, Joseph S. Fay . 
Second, Samuel Hartwell . 
Third, William Christie 
Cauliflowers. — Four specimens, William H. Teel 
Celert. — Four roots, Artemas Frost, Golden 
Second, F. J. Kinney .... 

Third, Isaac E. Coburn, White Plume 
Endive. — Four specimens, F. J. Kinney 
Horseradish. — Six roots, F. J. Kinney 

Second, Charles A. Learned 
Beans. — Large Lima, two quarts, Varnum Frost 
Second, Warren S. Frost .... 
Third, Mrs. E. Iff. Gill .... 
Corn. — Sweet, twelve ears, S. A. Merrill, Burr's 
Second, P. G. Hanson, Stowell's 
Third, Charles N. Brackett, Ruby King . 
Yellow or Field, twenty-five ears, William Christie 
Egg Plant. — Four Round Purple, Edward J. Coolidge 
Second, Warren Heustis & Son 
Third, Joseph S. Fay .... 

Tomatoes. — Three varieties, twelve specimens each, 
Brackett 
Second, Yarnum Frost 
Third, Isaac E. Coburn 
Acme, William Christie 
Second, C. N. Brackett 
Third, Charles E. Grant 
Emery, Charles N. Brackett 
Second, Varnum Frost 
Third, Isaac E. Coburn 
Paragon, C. N. Brackett 
Second, Yarnum Frost 
Third, George Sanderson 



Charles N 



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MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Cardinal, Charles N. Brackett 

Second, Varnum Frost .... 

Third, Charles E. Grant .... 
Any other variety, Isaac E. Coburn, Ignotum 

Second, Charles N. Brackett, " 

Third, George E. Sanderson, Red Cross 
Peppers. — Twelve Squash, Charles N. Brackett 

Second, George W. Jameson 

Third, William Christie .... 
Any other variety, Richard T. Lombard, Bull Nose 

Second, Charles N. Brackett, Ruby King . 



$3 00 

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8 00 

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Gratuities : — 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Sea Kale 

William C. Strong, Sweet Potatoes . 

S. A. Merrill, Squashes .... 

Charles A. Learned, Bay State Squashes . 

Edward J. Coolidge, Egg Plant 

James J. H. Gregory, Collection of Potatoes 

Boston Public Institutions, Long Island, Collection 

Boston Asylum and Farm School, 

G. W. Goddard, 

George Johnson & Co., 

Charles A. Learned, 

John L. Gardner, 

George- F. Stone, 

Charles E. Grant, 

William Christie, 



2 00 

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EXHIBITION OF AUTUMN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 



October 4. 

Salsify. — Twelve specimens, Walter Russell . . . . 3 00 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son . . .... 2 00 

Third, George W. Jameson . - . . . . . . 1 00 

Squashes. — Three Hubbard, Charles A. Learned . . . . 3 00 

Second, S. P. Buxton 2 00 

Marrow, Varnum Frost ......... 3 00 

Second, S. P. Buxton 2 00 

Cabbages. — Three Drumhead, S. P. Buxton 3 00 

Second, Oliver R. Robbins 2 00 

Third, George F. Stone 1 00 

Red, S. P. Buxton . . 3 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell 2 00 

Third, Charles N. Brackett 1 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES. 



293 



Savoy, S. P. Buxton 

Second, Samuel Hartwe\l ..... 

Third, Charles B. Lancaster .... 
Cauliflowers. — Four specimens, William H. Teel 
Celert. — Four roots, Artemas Frost, Goldeh 

Second, Isaac E. Coburn, "White Plume 

Third, Charles A. Learned, Arlington 

Gratuities : — 



Mrs. E. M. Gill, Tomatoes 
Calvin Terry, Peppers 
C. A. Learned, Collection 
George W. Jameson, Collection 
Charles E. Grant, " 

Charles N. Brackett, " 



$3 00 
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EXHIBITION OF WINTER FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

November 8. 

Cucumbers. — Pair, the third prize to Varnum Frost 
Cabbages. — Three Red, S. P. Buxton . 

Second, H. A. Bagley 

Third, Charles B. Lancaster 
Savoy, William Christie 

Second, H. A. Bagley 

Third, S. P. Buxton . 
Brussels Sprouts. — Half-peck, Joseph H. White 

Second, William Christie .... 

Cauliflowers. — Four specimens, William H. Teel 
Celery. — Four roots, Artemas Frost 

Second, Walter Russell . 
Lettuce. — Four heads, the third prize to George F. Stone 
Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens, Winter Brothers 

Gratuities : — 

Calvin Terry, Turnips 

Edward L. Coy, New York, New Seedling Potato Vaughan 
William S. Janvrin, Tomatoes ..... 

Walter Russell, Collection ..".... 



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FIRST CLASS CERTIFICATES OF MERIT. 

March 26. Benjamin K. Bliss, for new Squash Pride of the Amazon. 

August 2. Joseph Tailby, for Hybrid Cucumber. 

August 16. Charles N. Brackett, for Ignotum Tomatoes. 

August 30. Charles E. Grant, for Burpee's Bush Lima Beans. 

November 8. Edward L. Coy, New York, for New Seedling Potato, Vaughan. 



REPORT 



OP THE 



COMMITTEE ON GARDENS, 



FOR THE YEAR 1890. 



By JOHN G. BARKER, Chairman. 



We again bring to the Society the report of our doings for the 
past year. The applications for the various premiums have been 
much less in number than we could have hoped. For years there 
have been none for the H. H. Hunnewell Triennial Premiums. 
Whether there is a lack of interest on the part of those who own 
places of the size prescribed, or whether three consecutive vears is 
too long a term to require a place to be kept in order, for the amount 
offered, is more than we can tell, but this much we can safely 
venture to suggest, that we should encourage as far as possible 
not only the judicious laying out of small places, but a more 
general desire to learn how to plant and maintain them in the 
most economical manner. Our suburbs are fast filling up with 
such places. Larger estates, with an abundance of glass-houses, 
and everything on an extensive scale which wealth only can ob- 
tain, are the exception and not the rule. When we look back 
and think of the many interesting and well-kept places that once 
existed near Boston, but are now no more, we deeply regret the 
change. 

In too many instances a lack of interest is the reason why these 
grand old places are entirely obliterated ; unlike the custom in 
Old England, these estates are not handed down from one gen- 
eration to another. But not unfrequently the march of progress 
brings the railroad, and the well-kept garden must yield to the 
public needs and the demands of the real-estate man ; and where 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON GARDENS. 295 

once the fruit and kitchen gardens were seen, the trees laden 
with luscious fruits, the vegetables in greatest abundance, the 
flower-garden and pleasure-grounds the admiration of the passer- 
by and the attraction of the many — now the new street is found, 
and modern flats or cottage residences occupy the place of the 
once well-kept gardens. Then the indefatigable, persistent, tree- 
agent comes along and with his chromos bewitches the occupant or 
owner of the place, who is induced to make a liberal investment, 
being led to anticipate most flattering results, but who is too often 
doomed to bitter disappointment. His trees and shrubs are de- 
livered half dried up ; some scarcely live, more die altogether. 
Although disappointed it may be that he tries again, but, succeed- 
ing no better, gives it up, and future years find these small places 
overgrown with weeds, and utterly neglected. 

This is not an imaginary idea expressed for the sake of making 
a report to you ; it is unfortunately true, and we deem it a subject 
worthy of our best thought, and we ask if we have not some work 
to do to produce a change for the better in this direction. Surely 
the voice of the Society should be made louder and be heard 
farther than it is on this and many other kindred subjects. 
Unless we are aroused from the too evident conservatism which 
seems to be fast taking possession of us in the work of the 
Society, instead of a State Society we shall soon be merely a city 
and suburban society — and the suburb a small one at that. 

Progress has been made in some directions during the past year, 
which is very gratifying indeed ; but when we consider that out of a 
total appropriation of $6,000, the Garden Committee was allotted 
for Flower Gardens, Greenhouses, Strawberry Gardens, and 
Vineyards, the sum of $300 only — and part of that from the John 
A. Lowell Fund, which the Society is bound to offer — is it to be 
wondered at that there is no more competition for the meagre 
prizes we are enabled to offer? A well-kept Flower Garden, a 
house of Orchids, a Market or Amateur Strawberry Garden, or a 
Vineyard of one acre, requires time and money to establish and 
maintain. Let us look at some of the prizes offered, in com- 
parison with those in other departments. These are for 1891 : 
For the best arranged and best kept Flower Garden, — hardy 
perennial and biennial plants admissible, — $50 ; best Six Green- 
house and Stove plants, $30. For the best arranged and best 
kept Stove or Greenhouse, during the month of March or April, 



296 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

$60. At the Spring Exhibition in March : Six Azaleas, $20 ; one 
Stove or Greenhouse plant in bloom, $8. At the Rose Show, two 
Stove and Greenhouse Flowering plants, $15. For the best 
Market Strawberry Garden, $50. For the best Amateur Straw- 
berry Garden, $30. At the Strawberry Show : For the best four 
quarts of any variety, from the Lyman Fund, $20. For the best 
Vineyard of one acre, $50. At the Annual Exhibition : For the 
best six bunches of native Grapes in all cases, $3. Now, how 
does this look? Ten Greenhouse and Stove plants would equal a 
whole Flower Garden. So far as regards the amount of the prize 
offered, eighteen Azaleas would equal the best arranged and best 
kept Stove and Greenhouse with plants. Ten of the best quarts 
of Strawberries would equal an entire Market Garden, and six 
quarts would equal the Amateur. One hundred bunches of Grapes 
would equal the Vineyard of an acre. These are facts. We beg 
your careful consideration of these comparisons of prizes, and we 
ask for your suggestions after giving it. If we, as a Society, are 
doing all we can, and the sum allotted to this Committee is suffi- 
cient, then there is nothing to be said, and we have only to keep 
along in the well-worn rut ; if not yet doing our best, let us get 
out of this rut, — and the sooner the better, — and let us wake up 
thoroughly to the real merits of the case, and in future strive to 
work justly and to the full measure of our ability and opportunities 
for usefulness. 

The President in his annual address very properly alluded to 
the meeting of the Societ}^ of American Florists held in Boston 
last season. This event occupied a great deal of the time 
of the active members of the Society, and at a season of the 
year when this Committee usually make their visits to the vine- 
yards. This and the meeting of the Association of American 
Cemetery Superintendents kept us all bus\', especially your 
Chairman, with the last-named society. It may not be out of 
place to say that this Association is only four years old, and if 
it is small in number — only a trifle over one hundred active 
members — it represents the whole country, and delegates were 
present from most of the leading cemeteries in the United States ; 
and among the eight honorary members, is one at Aarhuus, Den- 
mark. The members have already realized the great benefit of 
united effort, and the meetings that have been held were of in- 
estimable value to all, but especially to those who are located at a 



EEPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON GARDENS. 297 

distance from the large cities. Not one of the members from 
other States had ever witnessed such an exhibition as that at 
Music Hall, and many of them were so delighted that they said 
that alone paid them for coming to Boston, while the visits to 
Mount Auburn, Newton, and Forest Hills cemeteries, as well as 
to the Arnold Arboretum and Franklin Park, were not only in- 
teresting but very profitable, especially that to the Arboretum ; 
and as the Horticultural Society is the originator of the Suburban 
Cemetery, you will doubtless be gratified to learn the progress of 
this youthful organization. Its first meeting was held at Cincin- 
nati ; the second at Brooklyn ; the third at Detroit ; the fourth at 
Boston ; and the fifth will be at Chicago. Thus you see the places 
of meeting have been in cities where we could not only meet and 
listen to a superintendent of large experience, but could see his 
work, and that is what determines his rank in the profession. As 
the plans of the Society for the future are developed and extended, 
it is the hope and expectation of its members that this organiza- 
tion will have a standing equal in public estimation with that of 
Horticultural and other Societies, for usefulness and intelligence 
of its membership in their calling, which they believe is second in 
importance to none. 

For the premiums offered for the best kept Flower Garden, we 
had no application. 

Orchid House of E. W. Gilmore. 

For the best House of Orchids in bloom in the month of March, 
Thomas Greaves, gardener to E. W. Gilmore, North Easton, 
entered the house under his care. The visit was made March 22. 
The cool-house orchids, which were the special feature, were in 
admirable condition. The house is a small lean-to, and modest 
in every way. The following varieties were in bloom at the, time 
of our visit. 

Angrcecum sesquipeclale. An extraordinar} T plant, and one of the 
orchids in which Charles Darwin was especially interested, on 
account of the exceptional length of the spur. The flowers are 
very fragrant, and will last nearly a month. 

Cattleya citrina. A fragrant and beautiful orchid, having the 
curious habit of growing its head downwards. The flowers are of 
a soft lemon yellow, the margin of the lip wavy and white. They 
are delightfully fragrant, and last a long time. 



298 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

C. Trianoe, in variety. 

Cypripedium bellatulum. 

C. Boxallii. 

C. callosum. 

C. Harrisianum. 

C. Hookerce. 

C. Lowii. 

G. villosum. This and the six preceding are choice and select 
species. 

Dendrobium chrysotoxum. 

D. Findleyanum. 

D. Freemanii. There were seventy-two blooms on this plant. 

D. heterocarpum. 

D. Jamesianum. 

D. nobile, and varieties, including a lovely white one. 

D. Pierardii. 

D. primulinum. 

D. Wardianum. A very beautiful species, of which there were 
fifteen fine plants, with from twenty-five to seventy-five blooms 
on each. 

Lycaste SMnneri is one of the most desirable of the orchids, 
and should be in every collection. 

Masdevallia Reichenbachiana. 

M. tovarensis. The only pure white-flowered species. 

Odontoglossum Alexandres. About fifty plants were in bloom. 

0. Cervantesii, in number. 

0. gloriosum. 

0. luteo-purpureum. 

0. (Erstedii. A small and very pretty species. 

0. Pescatorei. Thirty plants in bloom. 

0. Bossii. In number ; one of the best of the smaller kinds, 
and growing and flowering very freely. 

0. tripudians. 

0. triumphans. A splendid lot; these are large flowered, easily 
managed, and deservedly the most popular of the genus. 

0. Wilckeanum. Rare. 

Ottcidlum papilio. A fine plant with ten blooms ; this is the 
beautiful Butterfly Orchid, and is a very interesting species. 

0. sarcodes. A very handsome variety. 

Phalcenopsis S chiller iana, & very desirable variety ; the foliage 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON GARDENS. 299 

and flowers are both extremely handsome, and there was a fine 
show of bloom. 

P. Stuartiana, also distinct and very handsome. 

There was a total of two hundred and five plants in bloom, and 
many varieties that were not in bloom. All the plants were well 
grown and showed by their condition, which was excellent in 
every respect, that much skill and care had been bestowed upon 
them. The houses devoted to their cultivation were moderate 
sized and what might be termed inexpensive, demonstrating fully 
the incorrectness of the idea which was once entertained that ex- 
pensive houses are requisite to the successful cultivation of this 
beautiful and highly ornamental class of plants. Time will not 
permit us to go into any further details, which might perhaps be 
interesting to some, on the cultivation of cool-house orchids ; but 
all who would like to study the subject can purchase oue or more 
of the following books, which are full of good practical informa- 
tion, and cannot fail to interest such readers : u Cool Orchids, and 
How to Grow Them," by F. W. Burbidge," and " Orchids ; their 
Structure, Histoiy, and Culture," by Lewis Castle. These are 
both English works and can be had for about one dollar each. A 
still later work, "Orchids; their Culture and Management," by 
W. Watson, of the Royal Gardens, Kew, is a more extensive and 
a very valuable work, costing about five dollars. 

Oakley Park, Watertown, the Residence of Robert M. 

Pratt. 

The members of the Society will undoubtedly remember the fine 
exhibits of Orchids which were made a few years ago by David 
Allan, the gardener at this place. It is not necessaiy to tell you 
that what Mr. Allan does is well done ; proof of that is shown by 
his works, and his skill as a cultivator we all acknowledge. On 
the 20th of March your Committee were invited to visit Mr. Allan 
and inspect his Dendrobiums, which were all arranged in a small 
span-roofed house. Upon opening the door the sight presented 
was truly magnificent, and it is not saying too much when we in- 
form you that the Committee were enthusiastic over the rich treat 
they were invited to enjoy. To give an adequate idea of it is 
beyond our power. If by any description that we might be able to 
give of that array of beauty we could rouse your imagination to 
an appreciation of the scene, we would gladly do it. There were 



300 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

about three hundred plants, from the smallest in a thumb pot to 
large basket specimens, some with hundreds of flowers on them. 
The Dendrobiums are a lovely genus of orchids, easily grown, and 
profuse bloomers, the well-known D. nobile being one of the best 
winter flowering varieties and grown in large quantities. We are 
reminded here of an answer to a question propounded to Louis 
Menand, the well-known and greatly respected Albany florist. 
When asked which were the best three orchids to cultivate, he 
gave as his choice D. nobile for all three. The unusual excellence 
of this collection has induced us, as far as possible, to give de- 
scriptions of the plants then in bloom, that you may form some 
slight idea of their merits. 

D. Ainsworthii, A hybrid between D. nobile and D. aureum 
(hete7'ocarpum) . A beautiful kind ; the flowers large, sepals and 
petals French white, tipped with rose purple ; lip of a deep 
amethyst red, with a white margin. 

D. Bensonice. The flowers are lovely ; the sepals and petals are 
milk white, the lip is white with an orange centre and ornamented 
near the base with two large velvety black blotches. 

D. Cambridgeanum, with sepals and lip of a beautiful bright 
yellow, centre dark brown, is one of the finest of all yellow 
orchids. 

D. crassinode has sepals and petals richly tipped with deep pur- 
ple rose ; the lip white, with an orange-colored blotch at the base. 

D. Dominianum. A cross between D. Linawianum and D. 
nobile. Flowers of a bright rosy purple, but white towards the 
base of the sepals and petals. 

D . fimbriatum has rich orange-colored flowers, the margin of 
the rounded lip being beautifully bordered with a golden moss- 
like fringe. 

D. Findleyanum is pinkish lilac in the sepals and petals, the 
lip a rich orange yellow at the base, becoming a lighter and 
brighter yellow at the margin. 

D. Freemanii is an extremely beautiful orchid ; the flowers are 
similar to those of D. nobile, but the color is far deeper ; the dark 
purple blotch on the shell-like lip is margined with white. 

D. Leechianitm. A hybrid between D. aureum and D. nobile. 
This is very near D. Ainsworthii, but larger and deeper colored. 

D. TAnawianum. — Flowers nearly white in the centre, the outer 
portion of the sepals and petals being a pale rosy lilac or cerise ; 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON GARDENS. 301 

the lip is small, white, with two purple blotches in front, and is 
wholly purple in the throat. 

D. nobile and varieties. — Among the latter D. nobile nobillus 
was very noticeable. It is a gorgeous flower, the sepals aud petals 
colored a very rich glowing amethyst, paler towards the base ; 
lip deep maroon, with a zone of milk white in front. 

D. senile is a curious orchid ; the flowers, of a clear yellow color, 
are about one inch across, and very showy. 

D. Wardianum is remarkable for the size of the flowers ; the 
sepals are a rich amethyst with a margin of white ; the petals also 
white, tipped with amethyst, as is the lip ; the colors are very 
deep and rich. 

The following varieties of Odontoglossum were noted : 

0. Alexandras. > — Sepals and petals rich deep lilac, rose, or 
mauve ; petals white suffused with mauve ; lip prettily frilled, 
white, stained with yellow at the, base. 

0. Andersonianum. — The blossoms resemble those of 0. cir- 
rhosum in form and size, but the spots and markings, instead of 
being a purplish blue, are of a reddish-brown color. It is a very 
distinct and valuable variet}'. 

0. cirrhosum is one of the most beautiful species in the white- 
spotted purple group. 

0. Pescatorei. — Flowers large and pure white, with a blotch of 
purplish crimson on the base of the lip. 

0. Rossii. — Sepals white, barred with brown; petals pure 
white, with a few spots at their bases only ; lip pure white, with a 
lemon-yellow bi-lobed crest ; column white. 

0. triumphans is a large flowered, easily managed species and 
one of the most popular of the genus. Its sepals and petals are 
bright yellow, blotched with deep brownish crimson ; lip oblong, 
with a narrow tail-like tip ; the edges toothed, the front portion 
being cinnamon brown, and the basal half pure white, with a yellow 
centre ; the crest, which is usually white, has two long teeth. 

Masdevallias are valuable, as some are always in flower. 

M. Barloeana is a pretty species, scarlet ; very free. 

M. Davisii is of rich orange yellow, distinct and handsome. 

M. ignea is very bright fiery red, shaded with crimson or violet 
rose, and is said to be unsurpassed for brilliancy in the vegetable 
kingdom. 

M. Veitchiana Uas the outer surface of the petals tawny yellow, 



302 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the inner surface rich orange scarlet, and is said to be probably 
the finest species yet introduced. 

CaUleya citrina has been already mentioned. 

In other houses we noticed in bloom 

Cattleya Trianon, var. Mendelii. 

Cypripedium Harrisianum. 

C. insigne and its varieties. 

C. Lawrenceanum, 

C. oenanthum. 

C. vexillarium superbum. 

C. v Mo sum. 

Our attention was directed to a fine lot of Staphylea colchica, 
one of the very best plants for forcing. 

A few Cyclamens were still in bloom ; the variety in the flowers 
was particularly striking, the color varying from a deep magenta 
to a pure white. The Cyclamen also is a specialty with Mr. Allan. 

Adiantum Farleyense is another specialty. The great number 
of plants, and the luxuriant fronds on each, were especially notice- 
able. This is known as one of the most magnificent Adiantums. 

A large quantity of Lilium candidum promised well. Many 
other things might be noted, but attention has been called to a 
sufficient number already to give assurance that the excellence of 
the plants grown at Oakley Park is still maintained. All the 
plants showed care and skill in cultivation. After leaving the 
houses we were taken to the cold-frames where the violets were 
grown, and the same skill in cultivation was evident there ; they 
were not grown very close together, but the flowers were un- 
usually fine and produced in great abundance. 

Although this was an impromptu visit, it was one of the most 
satisfactory that your Committee have been permitted to enjoy. 

Forcing-Houses of Hittinger Brothers, Belmont. 

A hasty glance was given to the forcing-houses for early vege- 
tables which are conducted by Hittinger Brothers, who informed 
us that they had already (March 20) taken two crops of lettuce 
from the large house, which is 635 feet long by 25 to 30 feet wide, 
and is divided by a glass partition, and were now taking out 
the third crop. In the other houses tomatoes were as large as 
hens' eggs ; cucumbers were set, while radishes, parsley, and water- 
cress, — all grown in the greatest abundance, y- were ready for 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON GARDENS. 303 

use. Every department was in excellent condition, and we regret 
that the darkness of the evening coming on prevented our making 
a more thorough examination of the excellent arrangements for 
growing winter vegetables so successfully used by these gentle- 
men ; but we hope in the near future to be able to give more in 
detail such facts fis will be of interest to the Society. 

Market Strawberry Garden of Samuel Barnard. 
In our previous reports we have called attention to the straw- 
berry gardens of Warren Heustis & Son and Samuel Barnard, both 
at Belmont. This season the Committee were again invited to 
examine a bed of the Jewell strawberry at Mr. Barnard's, and it 
is with an unusual degree" of satisfaction that we can report that 
this bed was a very superior one in every way, and that Mr. 
Barnard continues rightfully to enjoy his well-earned reputation as 
a leading cultivator of the strawberry. The Jewell has been 
awarded a Silver Medal by the Society, and it is a satisfaction to 
be able to note that it still proves worthy of the award. It has 
always been spoken of in the highest terms, and is considered one 
of the most productive large strawberries ever introduced. It 
is a fine grower, and has never shown any signs of rust or blight. 
The berries are large, bright red, changing to crimson when very 
ripe, firm and of good quality. It is said to be a seedling of the 
Jersey Queen. 

Amateur Strawberry Garden of Benjamin M. Smith, Beverly. 

This was visited June 21. The one variety demanding our 
special attention was the new seedling Beverly. For information 
in regard to it we refer you to the report of the Fruit Committee 
of this year, and for the mode of cultivation and management of 
Mr. Smith's garden, to his statement, which is appended. This 
is the first application that we have had to visit an amateur 
strawberry garden, and we sincerely hope that others will follow. 

Letter of Benjamin M. Smith. 

Beverly, Nov. 18, 1890. 
Mr. John G. Barker, Chairman Committee on Gardens: — 

Dear Sir, — Your letter of the 11th instant, requesting me to 
write you my experience in growing strawberries, and also about 
the new seedling, Beverly, I have received. My first experience was 



304 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

at Meredith, N.H., in 1863. Since then, at Newbury, Haverhill, 
Salem, and Beverly, I have grown the Agriculturist, Charles 
Downing, Bidwell, Atlantic, Mrs. Garfield, Prince of Berries, 
Daniel Boone, Miner's Prolific, Belmont, May King, Crescent, 
Jessie, Jewell, and last the Beverly. I have grown them in area 
from a small bed to an, acre. For garden culture I prefer to 
grow them in hills, with double rows, one foot between the hills 
each way, two and one-half feet between the rows, and to keep 
all runners cut off. The garden I entered for a prize is in size 
about forty by ninety feet ; about two-thirds of it was set out in 
August, 1888, and the spring of 1889, and the other third in 
August, 1889, after harvesting corn and beans. The ground had 
been well fertilized in the spring with stable manure and street 
scrapings from the streets of Salem. After harvesting the corn 
and beans, I spaded in ground bone and unleached ashes, — about 
one-third bone to two-thirds ashes, — and used on the whole gar- 
den, I should think, fifty pounds of bone and four bushels of 
ashes. I set out runner plants with what earth could be taken up 
readily with the trowel, and kept them watered until new roots 
started. They were hoed as often as once in two weeks ; once a 
week would be better. All the runners were cut off. About 
December 1, I covered them with leaves and threw on a little 
stable manure to keep the leaves in place. I got the best results 
from plants set in August, as above, — as good as from plants set 
in the spring. If one has plenty of land he should not grow 
strawberries more than two years on the same piece of ground. 

The history of the new seedling, Beverly, is as follows : In July, 
1887,- 1 sowed seeds from the Miner's Prolific. In June, 1888, I 
got good specimens from them. Among those that bore fruit one 
seemed very promising. In the summer of 1888 I set out what 
plants it made, which formed a row about twenty-two feet long. 
I cut off no runners, as I wished for plants as well as fruit. On 
one side of this row, twenty-two feet long, I set a row of Belmonts, 
and on the other side a row of Jewells, each fifty feet long. 
Treated as well as the seedlings I should say that both rows did 
not yield any more fruit than the space of twenty-two feet, where 
I put out the new seedling, though I do not say it would ever do 
that again. From that twenty-two feet row I got runners enough 
to set out one-third of my garden, in August, 1889, as stated. 
Last June you and your Committee saw how they were bearing, 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON GARDENS. 305 

• 
the quality of the berries, and the vigor of the plants. Some one 
of the Committee asked me what would become of all those green 
berries that were set on the plants, and m}' reply was that most 
of them would mature, which they did. 

I will now briefly recapitulate the case of the seedling Beverly. 
In the spring of 1888 there was only one plant. In the summer 
of 1890 I picked eight bushels and twenty -four quarts of berries 
from the Beverly strawberry plants. The yield from the whole 
garden was fifteen bushels and sixteen quarts. 

The Beverly strawberry plant is the most vigorous, and the 
most free from rust of any plant I ever saw. 

I invite those who are interested to visit my garden in the 
season of 1891, and see for themselves what it is. 

Respectfully yours, 

Benjamin M. Smith. 

• 

The Committee have made the following awards for the year 

1890: — 

To Thomas Greaves, for the best house of Orchids in 

bloom during the month of March, the premium of . $60 00 

To Benjamin M. Smith, for the best Amateur Straw- 
berry Garden, the premium of .... 30 00 

To David Allan, for a very fine house of Dendrobiums, 

a gratuity of . . . . . . . . 30 00 

To Samuel Barnard, for a superior bed of Jewell 

Strawberries, a gratuity of . . . . 15 00 

We again call your attention to the changes in the amount to 
be offered in prizes in 1891 by the Committee on Gardens. 
If any one cannot compete for these, but has any other object of 
interest to the Society or the public, it will be a pleasure to give 
it our best consideration, and a request to the Chairman that the 
Committee should examine an\^ such object, will be gladly received 
and cheerfully attended to. 

This report was read at a meeting held Jan. 27, 1891, and ap- 
proved by a majority of the Committee. 

John G. Barker, Chairman. 
Joseph H. Woodford, 
C. N. Brackett, 
Henry W. Wilson, 
C. W. Ross. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE OF ARRANGEMENTS, 



FOB THE YEAR 1890. 



By PATRICK NORTON, Chairman. 



As the year draws to a close it becomes the duty of your Com- 
mittee to make a report of their doings during the past season. 

Nearly all of the exhibitions have been very gratifying and 
satisfactoiy, and have met the hearty approval of the public. 

Meetings of the Committee have been held during the year, 
whenever it was necessary to make arrangements for the various 
large exhibitions ; and with the cooperation of the other Com- 
mittees, the various plans and methods adopted have been carried 
out with credit to the Society and to the pleasure of visitors. 

The Spring Exhibition was of unusual excellence, and so also 
was the Rose and Strawberry Show. The arrangement of the 
tables has been such as to display the exhibits to their best ad- 
vantage, and in much better form than has usually been prac- 
tised. 

The Grand Exhibition in Music Hall, in August, entailed a 
large amount of expense ; and the study in planning the arrange- 
ment of the enormous quantity of plants and flowers offered, and 
the labor of placing them so as to produce the best effect, were 
very considerable ; but the plans were so fully completed, and so 
carefully carried out, that every one was accommodated in a satis- 
factory manner. One of the great features of this Exhibition was 
the contribution, by outside parties, of silver plate to the amount 
of $820, offered as Special Prizes to be awarded at this time. 
This was entirely the work of the Committee of Arraugements, 
and was a most important feature of this successful exhibition. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF ARRANGEMENTS. 



307 



The advertising, and the courtesy of the press in calling the 
attention of the public to our exhibitions throughout the year, has 
never been excelled ; and the economy of all this, as far as the 
Society is concerned, is to be credited to this Committee. 

Your Committee feel that great progress has been secured 
during the year in the various interests pertaining to our Society, 
and we confident!} 7 hope that it will continue in the future. 

The expenses attending the exhibitions during the year have 
been as follows : — 



Spring Exhibition ..... 
Rose and Strawberry Exhibition 
Annual Exhibition of Plants and Flowers . 
Annual Exhibition of Fruits and Vegetables 
Chrysanthemum Show .... 



The receipts were as follows : — 

Spring Exhibition ..... 
Rose and Strawberry Exhibition 
Annual Exhibition of Plants and Flowers . 
Annual Exhibition of Fruits and Vegetables 
Chrysanthemum Show .... 



$249 44 

133 36 

2,460 51 

289 04 

293 81 

$3,426 16 

$500 25 

198 00 

2,108 28 

172 25 

1,667 00 

$4,645 78 



showing a balance of $1,219.62 in favor of the Society, which has 
been passed into the treasury. 

Out of the appropriation of $300, which was placed at the dis- 
posal of this Committee at the beginning of the year, there has 
been expended $296.50. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Patrick Norton, \ 

Jos. H. Woodford,/ Committee 

C. N. Brackett, ( °f 

E. W. Wood, j Arrangements. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE ON WINDOW GARDENING, 



FOR THE YEAR 1890. 



By HENRIETTA L. T. WOLCOTT, Chairman. 



At the close of the season of out-of-doors work, the Committee 
on Window Gardening beg leave to report for the year the exhi- 
bitions and their results. 

Owing to a misunderstanding among the exhibitors of the year 
1889, as to notification, but few windows were offered for exami- 
nation in March, 1890. In those that were entered a most satis- 
factory condition, as to growth under unfavorable surroundings, 
was observed, notwithstanding the gas and furnace heat, which 
usually proves fatal to free blooming. In cool apartments, Nar- 
cissus — the variety lately introduced by the Chinese — and Ama- 
ryllis seem as serviceable as Scarlet Zonale Pelargoniums and our 
faithful friend, the Begonia. 

During the winter months the Committee had considered the 
plan of granting prizes in money, and the objections thereto. 
Gratuities, even in small sums, and the prizes for excellence drew 
perceptibly on the limited resources of the Committee. Yet the 
example set by the Society, under whose authority we act, could 
not be entirely ignored. 

The encouragement of the love of flowers in the community 
was the acknowledged purpose of the founders of this Society. 
They made no special note of the business element which so largely 
obtains at present, and this love of flowers seemed in danger of 
being overcome by the love of candy, the small gratuities often 
serving to purchase the desired treat. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON WINDOW GARDENING. 309 

Considering this plan then as at least open to criticism, the Com- 
mittee substituted plants as gifts and prizes. Then came the ques- 
tion, " How can plants of suitable age be secured for the later 
months ? " To keep cuttings or small plants three or four months 
must add to the expense. 

Through the most cordial cooperation of George A. Parker, — 
a member of the Society, and himself a lover of both plants and 
children, — space in his greenhouses was offered for the growing 
and caring for all the plants we needed. 

Cuttings and seeds were purchased at wholesale prices, and the 
results proved that the work was not commenced any too early to 
meet the demands made upon us. Seven classes in Boston schools 
were taking courses of lessons in Botan} T , and at that season pre- 
paring for an exhibition of their progress. The germination of 
seeds, and the propagation of plant-life by slips, had been care- 
fully noted day by da\', and a record had been kept for future 
reference. Your Committee were invited to be present. After 
carefully observing their work, it seemed wise to furnish to those 
who wanted to continue their investigations seedlings which were 
then in fine condition. Most gratefully were they received and 
distributed by teachers and pupils. About one thousand seedlings 
of Asters, Coreopsis, Dianthus, Hard}' Carnations, Lobelia, Sweet 
Williams, Nicotiana affinis, Candytuft, and Sweet Alyssum, were 
the principal annuals, while Abutilon and Heliotrope we're among 
the hardier perennial plants. These were heard from during the 
summer. Each collection was carefully labelled with the botani- 
cal and common name. This was considered necessary to discour- 
age the habit, among raisers of plants, of propagating error while 
they propagate plants. Like all untruths, false names mislead, 
perhaps not the dealer, but the seeker after knowledge. For in- 
stance, the pretty white flower sold as Stevia is not that at all. 
Its botanical name is Piqueria, from that of a Spanish botanist, 
and it is very much more desirable for decorative purposes than 
the Stevia, which has a stiff stem bearing a close cyme of blos- 
soms at the head of the upright stalk. The true names can be 
mastered by persons of the average intelligence, as well as the 
incorrect ones. 

Previous to the Easter celebrations your Committee had been 
asked to aid in arranging and presenting the flowers provided for 
a mission school near Roxbury, and to present flowers and explain 



310 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the plan of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. Eight 
schools were visited that day. When it is remembered that be- 
fore the Window Gardening Committee was formed but one school 
in Boston had ever given pot plants, the contrast which was ob- 
served in 1890 was encouraging. About 13,000 pot plants were 
distributed in the various schools in the State. 

In one or two instances the florist was authorized to put a 
water-proof cover over the earthen pot, thus preventing many 
untoward accidents resulting from carrying dirty pots. 

The first exhibition of this year was held in June, at the Church 
of the Good Shepherd, whose faithful pastor has interested him- 
self in the work of this Committee since its formation Forty- 
five plants were there, each and every one of which had been the 
especial care of a child. They were well-grown and free from torn 
or dead leaves or stems. The pots were clean, and the labels dis- 
tinctly marked. One family of six children brought an astonish- 
ing collection. A visit to their home later in the season revealed 
the fact that the- mother, while encouraging the children to water 
and shelter the plants in the small enclosure called garden, — on 
which the sun's rays fell with terrible effect in August and Septem- 
ber, — had little leisure to help them. A sick husband, an infant in 
arms, and the whole care of a family of nine, gave her enough to do. 
The welcome addition of six other plants gave to the household 
much joy. 

In August, the second exhibition was held in the rooms of the 
North Bennet Street Industrial School, which were kindly offered 
to the children of the public schools in the neighborhood. Fifty 
well-grown plants — Geraniums, Fuchsias, Tradescantias, and 
Abutilons — were presented by the children, who came again later 
in the day for them. One plant of Acacia Farnesiana, raised by an 
invalid girl, was well-grown and handsome. Had it been in flower, 
it would have had double the prize. 

Owing to either the poverty or indifference of parents, some of 
the plants requiring to be shifted from the two and one-half inch 
pots in which the florist sold them, had been buried in ten -inch 
pots, " because it was all there was in the house." The Commit- 
tee sent for a few four-inch pots, and shifted them, thus giving a 
lesson in thoroughness to the children, who watched the process 
with great interest. 

In the past three } 7 ears jour Committee had experienced diffi- 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON WINDOW GARDENING. 311 

culties in securing opportunities for exhibitions in the hall of this 
Society, without encroaching on the customary claims of the 
other Committees. We desired to secure results, not troubles, 
and therefore held our exhibitions in such church parlors or 
halls as were offered ; and as children could not be expected to 
take long walks twice in one day, — and the only holiday they had, 
— that plan was considered excellent. Endeavoring this year not 
to interfere with the use of the halls for the Florists, or the Fall 
Exhibitions, we decided to attempt an out-of-doors exhibition at 
Franklin Park. This plan received the approbation of all in- 
terested. The application for permission to assemble in the 
grounds, so well adapted for the purpose, was granted, " said ex- 
hibition to be held immediately following the opening of the 
public schools." With the appointed day came the usual fall 
rain, and so tempestuous was it that it might well have been 
deemed a second deluge. The Committee were on hand to re- 
ceive and arrange the five hundred plants, each in four-inch pots, 
in excellent condition for winter growth and flowering. Alas, 
for the plans of men, which " gang aft agley " ! The cars ceased 
running up the hill to the entrance of the Park. The man whose 
services had been granted by the Commissioners to assist in 
unloading, failed to put in an appearance. The work was delayed 
until help could be secured, thus adding materially to the ex- 
penses in an entirely unforeseen manner. 

After considering that should the clouds roll by, as they did 
later in the day, the condition of the grass would utterly pre- 
clude games or strolling about the walks, the Committee arranged 
for a postponement, sent the children, who were waiting at the 
car-station, to their homes, gave a fine plant, brought by a school 
girl from the extreme North end of Boston, into the charge of the 
matron, and left the wet grounds in season to advertise in the 
evening papers that due notice of the postponement would be 
given in the Sunday-schools on the morrow. 

The next Saturday came, but a dreary week of rain and steamy 
atmosphere had made it no pleasanter for a floral show. The 
plants, which had been grown in open air and sunlight for six or 
seven weeks, felt the change to a cool, dark cellar, closely stowed 
in the boxes. Their appearance cannot be adequately described 
by any words in the English language — only the imagination can 
picture their wretched condition. The successful exhibitors of 



312 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

July and August had notified us that they could not exhibit 
their plants if they were to carry home another, and their 
parents thought it too stormy for the little ones to come. In 
spite of the discouraging weather, all the plants were distributed 
to glad recipients. Clergymen, teachers of mission schools, and 
philanthropic workers among the occupants of cheerless tene- 
ments, came and approved. 

In March, by a vote of the Society, action on a paper on 
" Horticultural Education for Children," read by Henry L. Clapp, 
Principal of the George Putnam School, Roxbury, was referred 
to this Committee. 

General cooperation throughout the State among pupils of the 
public schools was desired to secure the object in view. Cir- 
culars were distributed generally, offering prizes for the best 
collections of dried plants, ferns, or grasses, and giving all 
details as to paper suitable for the work ; and the proposition 
was made that all such collections, when correctly named, if not 
classified, should be the nucleus of a town herbarium. Records 
of the flowers, grasses, ferns, birds, and insects, found in each 
town, would be of lasting benefit. 

In response to this, two collections were offered, and the prize 
of two dollars was awarded to Gilman H. Hitchings for ferns, and 
the same to Phillips Barry for flowers. Please notice the fact that 
these collections were correctly labelled according to Gray, and 
that the lads were under thirteen vears of age. Young Barrv also 
received the first prize for a collection of native flowers, in forty- 
nine vases. The correct naming of the Asters and Solidigos 
would have severely taxed the botanical ability of the majority of 
the members of this Societ3 T . He also showed four plants rarel} 7 
grown here. On the label of a pot of Sedum honidulum, I 
think, was this notice : " The bit of plant, from which these pots 
have been grown, came from Europe in a botanical press. I 
soaked it out and planted it." This thoughtfulness in so young 
. a lad is rarer than his plants, but much can be accomplished by 
training the faculties to observe details. 

Cordially desiring to find inexpensive plants easily grown in 
windows, the Chairman attended, at some sacrifice, the sessions 
of the Convention of American Florists held in the halls of this 
Society. But it was very evident that the writer of the paper adver- 
tised, and his fellow-members, had little conception of the needs 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON WINDOW GARDENING. 313 

of this Committee. Palms, Aspidistra, Ficus elastica, and Ferns 
are easily managed by a gardener's assistant in the conservatory or 
large window in some favored sunny locality. They are expensive, 
too large, and do not bear bright-colored blossoms. Color always 
carries a fascination to a child. Gifts of two of the members of 
this Society, comprising a valuable Begonia Bex, Poinsettia, and 
Solanum capsicastrum, which, on account of their size, were rele- 
gated to older raisers, will take their places in the windows 
offered for exhibition later in the season ; which windows must 
not be subjected to a sudden fall of temperature when the maid- 
of-all-work opens a window, or the neat housekeeper must secure 
ventilation and thoroughly air the apartment. 

The more hardy plants — Ivy, Cactus, Sedum, and Allium, 
with Narcissus, and occasionally a pot of Scilla or Oxalis, well 
grown — will eventually lead to the care of more delicate plants. 
This is what } T our Committee hope to accomplish. 

Neither cast down nor discouraged, we ask for a continuance 
of your cooperation. A real enthusiasm for flowers should be 
divorced, for a time at least, from the consideration of the money 
value which underlies many of the exhibitions weekly offered in 
our halls. 

If the Society deems the encouragement of children in the culture 
of flowers to be only charitable work, we would ask whether much 
of all work in the line of distribution of prizes is not open to the 
same criticism. But we feel sure the Society builded better than 
it thought when it assumed the formation of a Committee to en- 
courage Window Gardening. Put on to the Committee some of 
the younger members — if there be such — who can out of their 
experience help on the good cause. The absence of active young 
members opens the question : Why is it? Possibly the idea is 
prevalent in the community that membership requires a business 
education as a florist. 

Allow the Committee the services of the paid attendants of the 
Society the few times during the season when they are so 
needed. If we can vote the use of our halls for days at a time 
to strangers for their own advantage, do in justice see to it that 
the funds appropriated for this Committee are not encroached 
upon by such needs. At every meeting we hold in the State 
the Horticultural Society receives heartily expressed recognition 
from the Chairman and the Secretary of this Committee. We 



314 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ask that the Society, through its Committee, aid schools to get 
this plan started, feeling sure that like the ones at Greenfield, 
and Harvard street, Boston, they will soon become self-sustain- 



ing- 



Respectfully submitted, 

Henrietta L. T. Wolcott, 

Chairman, for the Committee. 



REPORT 



TO THE 



STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 



FOB, THE YEAR 1890. 



By GEORGE CRUICKSHANKS, of Fitchbueg. 



The work of the Massachusetts Horticultural" Society for the 
year 1890 is completed, but not so the influence that it is having 
on the Horticulture of this country. The sum of six thousand dol- 
lars was appropriated to be awarded in premiums and gratuities 
during the season. 

The year began with a course of Essays and Discussions on sub- 
jects connected with the work of the Society, as follows : — 

January 11. The Horticulture of California, by Benjamin P. 
Ware, Clifton. 

January 18. Huckleberries and Blueberries, — Gaylussacia and 
Vaccinium sp., by Dr. E. Lewis Sturtevant, Framingham. 

January 25. Fruits and Flowers of Northern Japan, by Wil- 
liam P. Brooks, Professor of Agriculture, Massachusetts Agricult- 
ural College, Amherst. 

February 1. Galls found near Boston, by Miss Cora H. Clarke, 
Jamaica Plain. 

February 8. Chrysanthemums, by W. A. Manda, Short Hills, N.J. 

February 15. Cemeteries and Parks, by John G. Barker, 
Superintendent of Forest Hills Cemetery, Jamaica Plain. 

February 22. The Growth and Nutrition of Plants, b}^ Profes- 
sor G. H. Whitcher, Director of the New Hampshire Experiment 
Station, Hanover, N.H. 

March 1. Some Aspects of the Present Forestry Agitation, by 
Joseph T. Rothrock, Professor of Botany at the University of 
Pennsylvania, West Chester, Pa. 

March 8. Heating Cold Frames by Hot Water or Steam ; and 



316 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Growing Black Hamburg Grapes under Glass that is otherwise 
used in Winter, by William D. Philbrick, Editor of the Massachu- 
setts Ploughman, Boston. 

March 15. Horticultural Education of Children, by Heniy L. 
Clapp, Principal of the George Putnam School, Roxbury. 
March 22. . Dahlias, by William E. Endicott, Canton. 
March 29. The Tour of the Grangers in California, by O. B. 
Had wen, Worcester. 

These essays and discussions are fully reported, and published 
in the Transactions of the Society. 

The Annual Spring Exhibition opened in the two halls of the 
Society, on the 26th of March, continuing three days, and rarely 
in the history of the Society has a more beautiful display of 
flowers been seen at that season of the year. The large upper 
hall presented a fine appearance ; the great variet} 7 of plants and 
flowers, with all their varied colors, being so arranged as to show 
all to the best advantage. The lower hall was devoted to the dis- 
play of Vegetables, Fruits, and Greenhouse and Decorative Plants ; 
also a rare collection of plants from the Cambridge Botanic Gar- 
den, and the show of spring flowering bulbs — H} 7 acinths, Tulips, 
Narcissus and Liliums — with the great variety of colors and the 
sweet odors of that class. There were also the Cytisus, with its 
bright yellow flowers ; the Azaleas, the Cinerarias, the Cyclamens, 
and the Orchids. All the vegetables were of fine quality. 

With the month of June we always associate the fragrant Rose 
and the aroma of the Strawberry. The display of June 24 and 
25, under the title of the Rose and Strawberry Exhibition, was 
one that could not only vie with all its predecessors, but in some 
important respects outvied them all, comprising an uncommonly 
large and brilliaut display of beautiful flowers and delicious fruits. 
In these particulars this exhibition was, perhaps, in a fuller sense 
than some in the past, a strictly Rose and Strawberry Show. The 
upper hall was devoted to the floral, and the lower to the fruit dis- 
play, and each claimed its due proportion of the attention of visi- 
tors and admirers. The space allotted to the Rose was full, and 
the exhibition was complete. The Rose is ever making advances 
on its own record, both in excellence and variety. 

The Annual Exhibition of Plants and Flowers was held in 
Music Hall, beginning August 19, and continuing four days. 
This far surpassed any that the Society has ever given. One 



REPORT TO STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 317 

could well fancy himself in some tropical forest as he strolled 
among Palms over twenty feet high, with large Cycads on either 
hand, and the great platform covered with Tree Ferns, Arecas, 
gayly variegated Crotons, richly colored Dracaenas, the beautiful 
Anthuriums, the Agapanthus, Allamanda, and Ixoras. On the 
floor, besides the larger Palms, Cycads, Crotons, Dracaenas, etc., 
were large collections of other plants, including the fantastic 
Orchids, the majestic Amazonian Lily, and many large exotic 
shrubs, both of blooming and of ornamental foliage varieties. 

The bronze statue of Beethoven never before looked down on 
such a magnificent display of floral beauty in Music Hall. The 
show of cut flowers was large, including Petunias, Tuberous Be- 
gonias, Sweet Peas, Drummond Phlox, Zinnias, Dahlias, Gladioli, 
Gloxinias, and a large collection of hardy herbaceous plants. One 
of the most attractive features was found in the great tanks and 
tubs containing the Nyuiphaea and other aquatic plants, among 
which were the Egyptian Lotus and the Victoria Regia. Another 
interesting display was that of the floral decoration of mantels and 
tables for a fashionable dinner party. Much interest was taken in 
this department of the exhibition. 

It is safe to say that never before has so choice and valuable a 

collection of Stove and Greenhouse Plants been brought together 

in this country. A representative of one of the leading Botanic 

Gardens in England was present and expressed strong doubt as 

to whether Great Britain could show so many rich and beautiful 

products of the gardener's skill at a single exhibition. Never was 

there such a profusion of these plants shown ; they overflowed into 

the corridors, and even out upon the sidewalks leading to the hall. 

No previous Annual Exhibition of Fruits and Vegetables made 

by this Society has presented the precise counterpart of that which 

opened September 17. It filled the two spacious halls with the 

largest and most varied display of fruits and vegetables ever made 

at an exhibition of this Society. The upper hall was devoted to 

the fruits, and the lower hall to vegetables. The Apples, Pears, 

and Peaches were of large size and fine quality, notwithstanding 

the short crop in many sections of this State. The show of 

Grapes, Native and Foreign, was large. Several bunches of the 

foreign grapes weighed between eight and nine pounds each. A 

, very interesting and instructive exhibit was made by the Mas- / 

sachusetts Agricultural College, under the charge of Professor ' 



318 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

S. T. Ma}-uard. There were sixty varieties of hardy grapes, 
arranged and numbered in the order of their ripening ; and side 
by side were placed vines, fruit, and foliage of several sorts, one 
free from all diseases, the other so badly affected with mildew as 
to be worthless. This was to illustrate the value of spraying the 
vines with the Bordeaux Mixture as a preventive of mildew and 
other diseases of the grape. The Arnold Arboretum also made a 
fine displa}' of seventy-one varieties of fruit-bearing shrubs, all in 
fruit or flower. Near the entrance to the upper hall was a novelty 
at these exhibitions, — a large collection of preserved fruits, meats, 
and vegetables in glass jars and cans, — one hundred and forty- 
three kinds of English meats, fort3 T -five of German goods, and a 
large lot of French goods in glass. 

The Chrysanthemum Show opened November 11, and continued 
four days, the Queen of Autumn flowers being shown in great pro- 
fusion. It was admitted by all to have been unsurpassed by an}- 
exhibition of Chrysanthemums ever seen in Horticultural Hall. 
The lower hall was devoted to the cut flowers, which were fittingly 
crowned by the collection in vases on the platform. The upper 
hall was devoted to pot plants, which, for large size, variety of 
color, and perfect form of plants and flower, has not been equalled 
by this Society. The Committee in charge are entitled to much 
credit for the admirable arrangement of the tables for the display 
of cut flowers and the grouping of the plants in pots. New 
colors are added from year to year ; besides the pure white and the 
clear yellow there were the deep violet-pink, a peculiar lemon color 
with violet tips, the dark crimson, and the beautiful Mrs. Alpheus 
Hardy, — white, with its feathery covering. A large number of 
choice seedlings were shown for the first time. 

When we recall the larger exhibitions of 1890, beginning with 
the Spring Show in March, with its wealth of bloom, followed by the 
Rose and Strawberry Show in June, with its grand display of fruits 
and flowers ; the magnificent Exhibition of Plants and Flowers in 
Music Hall, in August ; the large Fruit and Vegetable Show in 
September ; and closing with the Grand Exhibition of the National 
Flower of China and Japan, — it is safe to say that the exhibitions 
of 1890 have never been equalled in any previous year in the 
history of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

George Cruickshanks, 

Delegate. 



REPORT 



ON THE 



STATE EXPEBIMENT STATION, 

AT AMHERST. 



Under the able management of Professor Goessmann the vari- 
ous work more especially related to agriculture is continued as 
heretofore. The analyses of the numerous commercial fertilizers ; 
the application of the same to the different kinds of crops ; the 
different methods of cultivation ; the careful testing of various 
rations for the production of milk, or for fattening purposes ; — 
these are some of the objects which are receiving attention. 
During the past year land has been prepared and fruit trees of 
various kinds have been set, with reference to future experiments. 
This department of the Station has already exerted a most bene- 
ficial influence upon the Agriculture of the State, and there is every 
reason to expect continued good results. 

The work entered upon by Professor Humphrey will be of 
special interest to horticulturists. Confining himself to the inves- 
tigation of the fungous diseases of plants, we may hope that such 
thorough investigations will be made as shall reveal the nature of 
the diseases and suggest practical remedies. It is reasonable to 
expect an advance of knowledge in the vegetable kingdom equiva- 
lent to that which has recently startled the world by the discov- 
eries of Professor Koch in the animal kingdom. By a very liberal 
grant from the State, an admirable plant-house, together with 
offices and laboratory, has been erected during the past year. 
This will give to Professor Humphrey greatly increased facilities 
for carrying forward his investigations at all seasons of the year. 
For some time past he has had, and he still has, in hand the disease 
known as " black-knot," most prominent upon the plum. The im- 
portance of this investigation is so fully realized by horticulturists 
that we shall be liable to be impatient for results. But this is 



320 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

work which requires long and most minute observation, and we 
can well afford to be patient, if we can be assured of diligent use 
of the facilities now furnished. We have reason to believe that 
an era of progress has fairly set in. The general government 
has provided ample funds for the employment of experts in the 
various States, and though some of the work may not be of the 
highest order, yet it cannot be doubted that, in the aggregate, a 
great amount, of valuable original research will be made which will 
be of inestimable importance to the nation. Let the good work go 
forward, and let us give it the support of our sympathy. 

William C. Strong, 
Member of the Board of Control. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE ON THE LIBRARY, 



FOR THE YEAR 1890. 



Nothing in the history of the Library during the present year 
calls for much remark. As usual all the money available has been 
expended. The number of books added from the income of the 
Stickne}' Fund has probably been somewhat less than usual, be- 
cause the Committee had an opportunity, earTy in the year, to 
purchase a copy of Gallesio's "Pomona Italiana " at a price ad- 
vantageous to the Society. This is a truly magnificent work, and 
one which we are very glad, after some years of waiting, to have 
obtained. It is not necessary to name others of our purchases, 
as the}' will all appear in the list appended to this report ; but in 
variety they will be found about as usual, covering the whole field 
from Forestry to Floriculture. 

During the year the books have been rearranged upon a system- 
atic plan, a change long desired but not possible until the recent 
addition to our shelf-room. A glance at our well-filled cases 
will show that the relief did not come too soon ; another glance 
will show that even now many shelves have a back row of books. 

The botanical and horticultural periodicals have been continued 
as in former years. These are paid for out of the Society's appro- 
priation, as is the binding, of which a considerable quantity is still 
in arrears. This is unavoidable, for the work of arranging for 
the binder such books as Blanco's " Flora of the Philippines," and 
the "Pomona Italiana " just mentioned, takes a long time andmuch 
study. A very noticeable feature in the matter presented to the 
Librar3 7 is the great number of reports of Experiment Stations from 
almost every State of the Union and from Canada ; some of these 
are very interesting and instructive. 



322 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The Catalogue of Plates has made its usual progress, and has 
been found useful by many searchers. A high testimonial to its 
value is the fact that the authorities of the Botanic Garden of 
Harvard University have desired to copy it in part for their own 
use. 

In the great press of other work, little has been done on the 
index of subjects and the much-needed catalogue of books, but 
we hope soon to make a fresh beginning upon it. 

We are glad to know that the use of the Library is on the in- 
crease, and we welcome all interested persons to the use of it in the 
room, whether members or not, for it would be disgracefully illib- 
eral to restrict the use of such treasures as are here collected 
more than their safety requires. 

For the Committee, 

W. E. Endicott, 

Chairman. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 323 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS. 

The measurements of the books in the following lists are in 

inches and tenths of an inch, giving first the height, next the 

thickness, and lastly the width. When a pamphlet is less than 

one-tenth of an inch in thickness the place of that dimension is 

supplied by a dash. 

Books Purchased. 

Meager, Leonard. The Compleat English Gardner : or, A Sure Guide to 
Young Planters and Gardners. Tenth edition. Half calf, 
7.9X.7X6.3, pp. 8, 150; 24 plates. London: 1704. 
Miller, Philip. The Gardeners and Florists Dictionary : or, A Complete 
System of Horticulture. 2 vols. Full calf, 7. 9X 1.5X5., pp. xvi 
(dedication and preface) ; the rest not paged. London : 1724. 
Hitt, [Thomas.] The Modern Gardener ; or, Universal Kalendar. Selected 
from the Diary Manuscripts of the late Mr. Hitt. Kevised, cor- 
rected, etc., by James Meader. Full calf, 7.2X1.3X4.2, pp. 532; 
13 plates. London: 1771. 
Stevenson, . The Gentleman Gard'ner's Director. Being Instruc- 
tions for Planting and Sowing Trees and Seeds, etc. With 
Directions for the Management of Bees. The Second edition. 
Full calf, 6.6X .7X4., pp. ix, 273, iii. London : 1744. 
Lawrence, John, A.M. The Clergyman's Recreation: Shewing the 
Pleasure and Profit of the Art of Gardening. In two parts. Fifth 
edition. (Also) The Fruit Garden Kalendar ; or, a summary of the 
Art of Managing the Fruit Garden. Second edition. To which is 
added an Appendix of the Usefulness of the Barometer; etc. Full 
calf, 8.2X1.1X5., pp. 10, 84, 18, 115, 2, 2, vi, v, 149; 6 plates, 
2 cuts. London: 1717 and 1718. * 

Quintinye, Jean de la. The Compleat Gard'ner : or, Directions for 
Cultivating and right ordering of Fruit- Gardens and Kitchen 
Gardens. Abridged, etc., by George London and Henry Wise. 
Second edition. Full calf, 7.9X1.1X4.7, pp. xxxv, 4, 309, 7; 
frontispiece and 10 plates. London : 1699. 
Thompson, Robert. The Gardener's Assistant: Practical and Scientific. 
New edition, revised and extended by Thomas Moore, F.L.S., 
assisted by eminent practical gardeners. Green cloth, 
10.5X3.3X6.8, pp. iv, 23, Hi, 956; 32 plates, colored and plain, 402 
cuts. London : 1888. 
Henderson, Peter. Garden and Farm Topics. Dark blue cloth, 

7.6X .8X5., pp. 244 ; cuts. New York : 1884. 
Hibberd, Shirley. The Garden Oracle and Floricultural Year Book. 
1890. 32d year. Boards, green, 7. X. 5X4. 8, pp. 172; 2 colored 
plates. London : 1890. 



324 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Meader, James. The Planter's Guide : or Pleasure Gardener's Com- 
panion. Etc., etc. Half brown morocco, 5. 6X.6X 11., pp. 7, 39, 8 ; 
2 plates. London: 1779. 

Royal Horticultural Society of London. Journal. 'New series. Vol. IV. 
(Parts 13-16.) Edited by the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, M.A., F.L.S., 
F.R.H.S., and W. T. Thiselton Dyer, B.A., B.Sc, F.L.S. Pour 
pamphlets, tea, 8.5X.1-.2X5.4, pp. ii, xl, 274; plates v-ix, 
colored and plain; cuts. London: 1873, '74, '74, '77. 

The Philadelphia Florist and Horticultural Journal. Vols. 1-4, bound 
in 2. Black cloth, 9.1X1.9X6.3. Vol. 1, pp. 376; 6 colored plates : 
— Vol. 2, pp. 392; 11 colored plates:— Vol. 3, pp. iv, 380 ; 10 
colored plates: — Vol. 4, pp. 288; 1 plain and 8 colored plates. 
Philadelphia : n. d. [1852-1855?] 

Robinson, W. The English Flower Garden. Style, Position, and 
Arrangement; followed by a description of all the best plants for it; 
their culture and arrangement. Forming Vol. I. of the " Garden 
Cyclopaedia." Second edition. Blue-green cloth, 9.3X1.6X6.1, 
pp. x, 832; many cuts. London: 1889. 

D'Ombrain, Rev. H. Honywood, Editor. The Rosarian's Year-Book for 
1890. Boards, blue-gray, 7. IX. 4X5. 3, pp. vi, 67; portrait. 
London : 1890. 

Harkness, John, F.R.H.S. Practical Rose Growing; A Guide for 
Amateurs in the Cultivation of the Rose for Exhibition and 
Decorative Purposes. Gray paper, 7.3X.3X5.4, pp. v, 63; 3 cuts. 
Bradford, Eng. : 1889. 

Lyons, J' C. A Practical Treatise on the Management of Orchidaceous 
Plants, with a monthly calendar of work to be done, and an Alpha- 
betical Descriptive Catalogue of upwards of one thousand species ; 
with directions for their growth and flowering. Second edition 
greatly enlarged. Dull green cloth, 8. IX. 7X5., pp. xvi, 17-234; 
cuts. Dublin : 1845. 

Warner, Robert, F.L.S., F.R.H.S., Benjamin Samuel Williams, F.L.S. , 
F.R.H.S., Henry Williams, F.R.H.S., and William Hugh Gower. 
The Orchid Album, comprising colored figures and descriptions of 
new, rare, and beautiful Orchidaceous Plants. Vol. 9, parts 99- 
104. Colored plates 393-416, and descriptive text. London : 
[1890]. 

Sander, F. Reichenbachia. — Orchids illustrated and described. Vol. 2, 
parts 7-12. Half green morocco, 21.6X2. X 19.6, pp. 57-106; 
colored plates, 73-96. Second series. Vol. 1, parts 1 and 2. pp. iv, 
18; 8 colored plates. St. Albans, London, Berlin, Paris, and 
Summit, N.J. [1890.] 

Linden, J., Lucien Linden, and Emile Rodigas. Lindenia. — Iconographie 
des Orchidees. Vol. 5, 1889, parts 3-12. Half green morocco, 
14.1X1.2X11.3, pp. 21-102; colored plates, 201-240. Vol. 6, 1890, 
parts 1-3, pp. 28; colored plates, 241-252. Gand : 1889, 1890. 

Fitzgerald, R. D., F.L.S. Australian Orchids. Vol. 2, parts 2 and 3. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 325 

Half mottled orange-colored cloth, 19. 4X. 2X13. 5, 11 and 10 colored 
plates, and descriptive text. Sydney, N.S. W. : 1885 and 1888. 

Castle, Lewis, Editor. The Chrysanthemum Annual. 1890. Pamphlet, 
blue-green, 6.9 X. IX 4. 5, pp. 22; 1 portrait. London: 1890. 

Simkins, James. The Pansy: and How to Grow and Show it; with the 
best methods of Hybridization with a view to improvement, etc., etc. 
Blue cloth, 7.3X.5X5., pp. 8, 112; 4 colored plates, 13 cuts. Bir- 
mingham & London : 1889. 

Grallesio, Giorgio. Pomona Italiana, ossia trattato degli alberi fruttiferi. 
3 volumes (in 41 fasciculi). Half maroon morocco, 19.5X2.5X14., 
1 plain and 159 colored plates. Pisa : 1817-1834. 

(Also) Gli Agrumi dei Giardini Botanico-Agrarii di Firenze dis- 
tribuiti methodicamente in un Quadro Sinottico, etc. pp. 12 ; 1 plate. 
Firenze: 1839. [Bound at the end of Vol. 3 of the Pomona Italiana.] 

Mauild, B., F.L.S. Orchard and Garden Fruits: their Description, 
History, and Management. Green cloth, 9. X. 5X7. 3; 24 colored 
plates, with descriptive text. London : n. d. 

French. Gardiner : instructing how to cultivate all sorts of Fruit-trees, and 
Herbs for the Garden. Together with directions to Dry, and Con- 
serve them in their Natural. Written originally in French and now 
Translated into English. By John Evelyn, Esquire. Third edition. 
Whereunto is annexed, the English Vineyard Vindicated by J. Rose, 
etc. : with a Tract of the making and ordering of Wines in France. 
Dark maroon cloth, 5.7X.9X3.8, pp. [6], 294, 48, [16] ; 3 plates. 
London : 1675. 

Bonavia, E., M.D. The Cultivated Oranges and Lemons, etc., of India 
and Ceylon. 2 vols. Blue-green cloth. Vol. 1, 8. 9X 1.6X5.5, 
pp. xix, 384; Vol. 2, 7.7x2.4X9.9, 259 plates. London: 1890. 

Diel, August Friedrich Adrian. Versuch einer systematischen Beschreibung 
in Deutschland vorhandener Kernobstsorten. 21 volumes. Boards, 
marbled blue, 6.4X.5-.8X4., 1 colored plate in No. 8. Frankfurt 
a. M. : 1799-1819. 

. Systematisches Verzeichniss der vorziiglichsten in 

Deutschland vorhandenen Obstsorten, mit Bemerkungen iiber 
Auswahl Giite und Reifzeit fur Liebhaber bei Obstanpfianzungen. 
Boards, marbled blue, 6.4X6X4., pp. xvi, 159. Frankfurt a. M. : 
1818. 

. Systematische Beschreibung der vorziiglichsten in 



Deutschland vorhandenen Kernobstsorten. 6 volumes. Boards, 
marbled blue, 6.4X.6-.8X4., . 1 colored plate in each. Stuttgart 
und Tubingen, 1821-1832. 

Meyer, H., Editor. Generalregister zu Dr. Aug. Friedr. Adr. Diel's Sys- 
tematischer Beschreibung der vorziiglichsten in Deutschland vor- 
handenen Kernobstsorten. Dull blue paper, 9.7X.3X4.3, pp. 130. 
Braunschweig: 1834. 

Trowbridge, J. M. The Cider Makers' Hand Book. A Complete Guide 
for Making and Keeping Pure Cider. Maroon cloth, 7. 5 X. 6X5., 
pp. 119; 16 cuts. New York: 1890. 



326 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

B[velyn], J[ohn], S.R.S. (Author of the Kalendarium.) Acetaria. — A 
Discourse of Sallets. Boards, marbled brown, 6.5 X. 6X4., pp. [38], 
192, [49]. London: 1699. 
Rustic Furniture, proper for Garden Seats, Summer Houses, Hermitages, 

Cottages, etc. Half calf, 9.2X.5X5.9. 25 plates. London, n. d. 
[1825?] , 

Decorations for Parks and Gardens. Designs for Gates, Garden Seats, 

etc., etc. Half sheep, 9. 4X. 7X6.1, 55 plates. London, n. d. 
[1770?] 
Jag©!*, H. Gartenkunst und Garten sonst und jetzt. Handbuch fur 

Gartner, Architekten und Liebhaber. Light brown cloth, 10.5 X 1.3 X 

7.2, pp. 8, iv, 529; 245 cuts. Berlin: 1888. 
Newhall, Charles S. The Trees of North-Eastern America. With an 

Introductory Note by Nath. L. Britton, E.M., Ph.D. Olive-green 

cloth, 9.5X1.X6.2, pp. xiv, 250; cuts 116 and a-v. New York and 

London: 1890. 
Boulger, G. S., F.L.S., F.G.S. Familiar Trees. Second series. Gray 

cloth, 7.2X1.1X5.2, pp. xvi, 168; 40 colored plates by W. H. J. 

Boot. London, Paris, New York, and Melbourne : n. d. 
Brown, J. E., F.L.S., etc. The Forest Flora of South Australia. Part 8. 

Half red cloth, 21. 8X — X17., 5 colored plates, with descriptive 

text. Adelaide, South Australia, n. d. [1890?] 
Cleghorn, Hugh, M.D., F.L.S. The Forests and Gardens of South 

India. Half green calf, 7.8X1.8X5., pp. xiv, 412; map, 13 plates, 

17 cuts. London: 1861. 
Bradley, R. A Survey of the Ancient Husbandry and Gardening, Col- 
lected from Cato, Varro, Columella, Virgil, and others, the most 

eminent Writers among the Greeks and Romans : etc. Full calf, 

7.9X1.2X4.9, pp. 16, 373, 10; 4 plates. London : 1725. 
Prothero, Rowland E. The Pioneers and Progress of English Farming. 

Dark blue cloth, 7.7X1.1X5., pp. xiv, 290. London: 1888. 
Our Country Home. Vol. 5. Nos. 8, 9, and 10. Vol. 6, Nos. 5, 6, and 

7. Pamphlets, 15.3X—X 10.6. New York : November, 1888-Octo- 

ber, 1889. 
Miller, Thomas. English Country Life. Consisting of Descriptions of 

Rural Habits, Country Scenery, and the Seasons. Half calf, 

7.1X1.3X4.8, pp. xiii, 479; cuts. London: 1859. 
Cariosities of Nature and Art in Husbandry and Gardening. Full calf, 

7.5 X. 9X4.5, pp. 352; 13 plates. London: 1707. 
Griffiths, A. B., Ph.D., F.R.S.E., F.C.S. Manures and their Uses : a 

Handbook for Farmers and Students. Salmon-colored cloth, 

7.3X.6X4.6, pp. xii, 159; 1 map, 12 cuts. London : 1889. 
Lawes, Sir J. B., Bart., LL.D., F.R.S., and Professor J. H. Gilbert, 

LL.D., F.R.S. On the present Position of the Question of the 

Sources of the Nitrogen of Vegetation, with some new Results, and 

preliminary Notice of new Lines of Investigation. Buff paper, 

11. 8X. 3X9., pp. 107. London: 1889. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 327 

Wrightson, John, M.R.A.C., F.C.S. Fallow and Fodder Crops. Green 

cloth, 8.3X1.X5.4; pp. xii, 276. London: 1889. 
Royal Agricultural Society of England. Journal. 

Second Series. Yol. 25, Part 2. — No. 50, October, 1889. pp. viii, 
381-792, xli-ccxxiv; cuts. 

Third Series. Vol. 1, Part 1. — No. 1, March 31, 1890. pp. iv, 
256, lxiv ; cuts. 
Part 2. — No. 2, June 30, 1890. pp. viii, iv, 257-472, lxvi-xcvi; 

1 map, 6 cuts. 

Part 3.— No. 3, September 30, 1890. pp. iv. 473-672, xcvii-clxxxiv ; 
cuts. 

Four parts, blue paper, 8. 4X. 7-1. 3X5. 5. London: [1889,1890.] 
Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland. Transactions. "With an 
Abstract of the Proceedings at Board and General Meetings, the 
Premiums offered by the Society in 1889, and List of Members. 
Fifth Series, Vol. 1. Blue cloth, 9. X 1.2X5.6, pp. iv, 279, 65, 87, 
57, iv; cuts. Edinburgh : 1889. 

Vol.11. 1890. Blue cloth, 9.X 1.4X5.7, pp. iv, 399, 62, 89, iv; 

2 cuts. Edinburgh : 1890. 

Gibson, W. The True Method of Dieting Horses. Sheep, 7.7X.8X4.5, 

pp. viii, iv, 4, 236, vii. London: 1721. 
Church, A. H., M.A. Oxon, F.C.S., F.I.C. Food Grains of India. Brown 

cloth, 10. 5 X. 7X7.7, pp. xi, 180; 35 cuts. London: 1886. 
Tropical Agriculturist. A Monthly Record of Information for Planters 
of Tea, Coffee, Cacao, Cinchona, Sugar, Cotton, Tobacco, Palms, 
Spices, Rubber, Rice, and other products suited for Cultivation in 
the Tropics. Vol. 8. Green cloth, 10.8 X 2. X 7.3, pp. xvi, 868, 
also supplementary pages on Sales of Tea, Coffee, etc. Colombo, 
Ceylon: 1889. 
Royle, J- Forbes, M.D., F.R.S. The Fibrous Plants of India, fitted for 
Cordage, Clothing, and Paper. With an Account of the Cultivation 
and Preparation of the Flax, Hemp, and their substitutes. Light 
brown cloth, 9.1X15X5.8, pp. xiv, 404. London and Bombay: 
1855. 
Tiinehri : Being the Journal of the Royal Agricultural and Commercial 
Society of British Guiana. New series. 

Vol. Ill, Part 2, December, 1889. pp. 209-403; 5 plates. 
Vol. IV, Part 1, June, 1890. pp. 186. 

Two parts, light blue-green paper, 8.7X.7X5.5. Demerara and 
London : 1889, 1890. 
Todaro, Augustino. Hortus Botanicus P^anormitanus, sive plantse novae 
vel critical quae in orto botanico Panormitano coluntur, etc. Tomus 
secundus, fasciculus quintus. (In continuation.) Magenta paper, 
19.X— X 13.3, pp. 33-40; plates 33, 34. Panormi : n. d. [1890?] 
Jacquin, Nicolaus Joseph. Hortus botanicus Vindobonensis, seu plan- 
tarum rariorum quae in horto botanico Vindobonensi . . . co- 
luntur. Three volumes in one. Half Russia, 19.1X3.3X12. Vol. 



328 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

1, pp. 8, 44; 1 colored plan and colored plates 1-100. — Vol. 2, 
pp. 2, 45-95, ii; colored plates 101-200. —Vol. 3, pp. 4, 52; colored 
plates 1-100. Vindobonge: 1770-1777. 
Tournefort, Joseph Pitton. Institutiones Rei Herbariae. Editio altera, 
gallica longe auctior, quingentis circiter tabulis geneis adornata. 
3 vols, bound in 2, including the Corollarium. Parchment, 
9.6X2.3-2.9X7.2. Vol. 1, pp. 20, 697, 6, 1, 54, 5 ; Vol. 2, plates 
1-250,251-476,477-489. Paris: 1700-1703. 
Plukenet, Leonard, M.D. Opera omnia botanica, in sex tomos divisa; 
viz., I, II, III, Phytographia ; IV, Almagestum Botanicum; V, 
Almagesti Botanici Mantissa; VI, Amaltheum Botanicum. 6 vol- 
umes boundin4. Old calf, 11.2X1.-2.1X8.3. Vol. 1 (I, II, and III), 
pp.4, 6; 328 plates. — Vol. 2 (IV), pp. 4, 5,402, ii.— Vol. 3 (V), 
pp. 4, 192, 28; plates 329-350. —Vol. 4 (VI), pp. 5, 214, 11; plates 
351-454. Londini: 1691-1720. 
Theophrastos, Eresios. Theophrasti Eresii de Historia Plantarum Libri 
Decern, Graece. Cum Syllabo Generum et Specierum, Glossario, et 
Notis. Gurante Joh. Stackhouse. 2 vols., full calf, 7.4X1.X4.9, 
pp. lii, 241, and 509; 4 plates. Oxonii : 1813, 1814. 
Hooker, ^VJ.D., K.C.S.I., C.B., M.D., F.R.S., etc. Icones Plan- 
tarum; or figures, with descriptive characters and remarks, of new 
and rare plants, selected from the Kew Herbarium. Vols. 8 and 9. 
Buff paper, 8.8X-4X5.5, plates 1701-1900, with descriptive text. 
London, Edinburgh, and Berlin : 1887-1889. 
Baillon, H. Histoire des Plantes. Monographic des Asclepiadacees, Con- 
volvulacees, Polemoniacees, et Boraginacees. Blue paper, 10.9 X 
.5X7., pp. iv, 221-402; cuts 157-300. Paris: 1890. 
Baker, J. G., F.R.S., F.L.S. Hand-book of the Bromeliaceae. Blue- 
green cloth, 9.X. 7X5. 7, pp. ix, 243. London : 1889. 
Andre, Ed. Bromeliaceae Andreanae. Description et histoire des Bro- 
meliacees recoltees dans la Colombie, l'Ecuador et le Venezuela. 
Half black cloth, 12.7X.6X9.7, pp. xi, 118; 40 plates. Paris: 
n. d. [1889?] 
Bolus, Harry, F.L.S. Orchids of the Cape Peninsula. [Transactions of 
the South African Philosophical Society. Vol. V. — parti.] Buff 
paper, 9.8X.7X6., pp. viii, 75-201; 36 plates, colored and plain. 
Cape Town : 1888. 
Jacobi, G. A. von. Versuch zu einer systematischen Ordnung der 
Agaveen. 4 pamphlets [to complete the work], 8.5-9.8X — X5.4- 
6.3, pp. 4, 34; 297-315; 317-319, 12; 12. Hamburg & Breslau : 

1854 to . 

Gray, Asa. Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States, includ- 
ing the district East of the Mississippi and North of North Carolina 
and Tennessee. Sixth edition, revised and extended westward to 
the 100th meridian, by Sereno Watson and John M. Coulter. Olive- 
brown cloth, 8.4X1.5X5.4, pp. vi, 760; 25 plates, with descriptive 
text. New York and Chicago : 1890. [2 copies.] 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 329 

Hind, W. M., LL.D., assisted by the late Churchill Babington, D.D., 
F.L.S. The Flora of Suffolk; A Topographical Enumeration of 
the Plants of the County, showing the Results of Former Observa- 
tions and of the most recent Researches. With an Introductory 
Chapter of the Geology, Climate, etc., by Wheelton Hind. Red 
cloth, 7.6X2. X5. 2, pp. xxxiv, 508; colored map. London: 1889. 
Painter, Rev. W. II. A Contribution to the Flora of Derbyshire. Being 
an account of the Flowering Plants, Ferns, and Characeae found in 
the County. Olive-green cloth, 9. X. 7X5. 8, pp. vii, 156; colored 
map. London and Derby : 1889. 
Parnell, Richard, M.D., F.R.S.E. The Grasses of Britain. Faded 
green cloth, 10. X 2. X 6.3, pp. xxvii, v-xxi, 311 ; 142 plates. Edinburgh 
and London : 1845. 
Pratt, Anne. The British Grasses and Sedges. Green cloth, 9.2X.9X5.8, 

pp. viii, 136; colored plates 238-272. London: [1859]. 
Parlatore, Filippo. Flora Italiana, continuata da Teodoro Caruel. Vol. 
VIII, Part 3. Plumbaginacee, per Antonio Mori ; Primulacee, per 
Lodovico Caldesi ; Diospiracee, Stiracacee, Ericacee, Vacciniacee, 
Pirolacee, Monotropacee. Blue paper, 9. 2X. 5X6.1, pp. 561-773. 
Firenze : Ottobre, 1889. 
Hooker, Sir J. D., C.B., K.C.S.I., etc. Assisted by various botanists. 
The Flora of British India. Vol. 5. Chenopodiaceae to Orchideae. 
Dark blue-green cloth, 8.9 X 2. X 5.5, pp. 909, 16. London: 1890. 
"WTH konrm , Maurice. Illustrationes Florae Hispaniae insularumque Ba- 
learium. Livraison XVI. [In continuation.] Blue paper, 14. 2X 
.1X10.2, pp. 85-98; plates 138-146. Stuttgart: 1889. 
Pierre, L. Flore Forestiere de la Cochin-Chine. 15 e fascicule. Half claret 
cloth, 22. X .4X 15.6, plates 225-240 with descriptive text. Paris : n. d. 
[1890?] 
Mueller, Ferd. von, K.C.M.G., M. & Ph.D., F.R.S. Iconography of 
the Australian Species of Acacia and cognate Genera. Decades 5- 
13. Buff paper, 12.1X-2X9.7, 10 plates in each. Melbourne: 
1887, 1888. 

■ . The Plants indigenous to the Colony of Victoria. 2 vols. 

Half green morocco, 12.1X1.2-1.5X9.4. Vol. 1, Thalamifiorge. 
pp. viii, 242; plates 1-12, and supplementary plates 1-11; Vol. 
2, Lithograms. pp. iii; plates 13-71, and suppl. plates 12-18. 
London: 1860-1865. 
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, M.D., R.N., F.R.S. , and L.S., etc. Flora 
Novae Zelandiae. Part I, Flowering Plants ; Part II, Flowerless 
Plants. 2 vols. Half claret morocco, 12.6X1.9X9.7, pp. xxxix, 
312, and 378; colored plates, — 70, and 71-130. London: 1853, 1855. 
Wawra V. Pernsee, Dr. Heinrich. Itinera Principum S. Coburgi. 
Die Botanische Ausbeute von den Reisen ihrer Hoheiten der Prinzen 
von Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha. Bearbeitet und herausgegeben von 
Dr. Giinther v. Beck. Zweiter theil. Half plum-colored cloth, 14. X 
1.1 X 10. 8, pp. vi, 250; 18 plates, colored and plain. Wien : 1888. 



330 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Bennett, Alfred W., M.A., B.Sc, F.L.S., and George Murray, F.L.S. 

A handbook of Cryptogamic Botany. Brown cloth, 8. 3X 1.1x5.5, 

pp. viii, 473; 382 cuts. London : 1889. 
Cooke, M. C. Illustrations of British Fungi (Hymenomycetes). To serve 

as an Atlas to the " Hand Book of British Fungi," by M. C. Cooke. 

Nos. LXVI to LXXIV. Blue-gray paper, 9.X.2X6., colored 

plates 1035-1174. London: 1888-1890. 
Torrey Botanical Club. Bulletin. Index to Vols. 7-16. Compiled by 

E. G. Britton. Pamphlet, tea, 9. X. IX 5. 8, pp. xx, 31. New York: 

1890. 
Linnean Society of London. Proceedings. Vol. T. Nov., 1838-June, 

1848. Vol. II, Nov., 1848-June, 1855. 2 vols, in 1. Half green 

morocco, 8.5X2.3X5.5, pp. xv, 401, and xiii, 448. London: 1849, 

1855. 
. Journal. Botany. Vol. 25, No. 172, pp. 307-483; 

plates 50-60, colored and plain. Vol. 26, Nos. 174, 175, pp. 121— 

316; plates 3-6. Vol. 27, Nos. 181-184, pp. 332 ; 8 plates, 29 cuts. 
7 parts, blue paper, 8.8X.2-.6X5.5. London : 1890. 
. Transactions. Second series. Botany. Vol. Ill, 



Part- 1. Blue paper, 11. 8X. 8X9. 2, pp. 139; 2 maps, 48 plates. 
London: 1888. 

Sorauer, Dr. Paul. Atlas der Pflanzenkrankheiten. Parts 3 and 4. Atlas, 
boards, 16. X. 2X10.1, plates 17-24, and 25-32. Text, pamphlets, 
10. X — X6.5, pp. 13-18, and 19-26. Berlin: n. d. [1890?] 

Ormerod, Eleanor A., F. R. Met. Soc, etc. Report of Observations of 
Injurious Insects and Common Farm Pests during the year 1888, 
with Methods of Prevention and Remedy. Twelfth Report. Salmon- 
colored paper, 9. 6X. 3X6.1, pp. vi, 130, 4; 1 plate, cuts, 1 chart. 
London : 1889. 

Report . . . during the year 1889. Thirteenth Report, pp. viii, 
130; 1 plate, cuts. London: 1890. 

Buckler, William (The Late). The Larvae of the British Butterflies and 
Moths. Edited by H. T. Stainton, F.R.'S. Vol. III. (The con- 
cluding portion of the Bombyces. ) Plum-colored cloth, 8.9 X .9 Xo.6, 
pp. xv, 80; colored plates xxxvi-liii, with descriptive text. [With 
a List of the Officers, etc, of the Ray Society, and of the Annual 
Volumes issued by the society, pp. 31.] London : 1889. 

The Naturalists' Directory for 1890. Containing the Names, Addresses, 
Special Departments of Study, etc., of Amateur and Professional 
Naturalists, Chemists, etc., etc. Compiled by Samuel E. Cassino. 
Pamphlet, fawn, 7.5X.7X5. pp. viii, 215, 70. Boston: 1890. 

Wheatley, Henry B., F.S.A. How to Catalogue a Library. Olive-green 
cloth, 7.1X. 9X4.5, pp. xii, 268. New York: 1889. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 331 



Books, Etc., Received by Donation and Exchange. 

Meager, Leonard. The New Art of Gardening, with the Gardener's Al- 
manack ; containing The true Art of Gardening in all its particulars. 
Half calf, 6. 2X. 7X3. 8, pp. iv, 164, 4, 6. London: n. d. [1697?] 
Mrs. Edward S. Davis. 
Bailey, E. H. Annals of Horticulture in North America, for the year 
1889. Claret-brown cloth, 8. IX. 9X5. 4, pp. 2, 249; 52 cuts. New 
York : 1890. The Author. 

— . The Horticulturist's Rule-Book. A Compendium of Useful 

Information for Fruit-Growers, Truck-Gardeners, Florists and 
others. Completed to the close of the year 1889. Claret, flexible 
cloth, 6. 5 X. 6X4.5, pp. 236. New York: n. d. The Author. 
Pitcher, James R., and W. A. Manda. Orchids for Beginners, being a 
Descriptive List with Cultural Directions for the care of the best 
Orchids, suitable for Florists or Private Gardeners. Pamphlet, buff, 
6.7X — X5.2, pp. # 15. Short Hills, New Jersey: 1890. The Authors. 
The Golden Flower, Chrysanthemum. Verses . . . illustrated with 
reproductions of studies from nature in water color. Lithographed 
and printed by L. Prang & Co., Publishers. Old rose and yellow 
cloth, 12.X. 9X10.2, pp. 9, prologue and epilogue, and 18 pp. of 
verses embellished with designs ; 16 colored plates. Boston: n. d. 
[1890.] The Publishers. 
"Wisconsin Florists' Club. Premium List for the First Annual Chrysan- 
themum Show and Floral Exhibition, Nov. llth-13th, 1890. Pam- 
phlet, 11.2 X— X 7., pp. 8. The Club. 
Chrysanthemum Society, The National. Annual Report and Finan- 
cial Statement. Schedule of Prizes for 1890. Pamphlet, fawn. 
8.3X.2X5.3, pp. iv, 84. London : n. d. C. Harman Payne, Honor- 
ary Foreign Corresponding Secretary. 
Veitch, Harry, F.R.H.S., F.L.S. The Hippeastrum (Amaryllis). [Re- 
printed from the Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society, Vol. 12, 
Part2.] Pamphlet, blue-gray, 8.4X—X5. 4, pp. 12. London : 1890. 
James Veitch & Sons. 
Calla Field, as grown by M. E. Walker of the Central Park Floral Co., 

Los Angeles, Cal., Photograph of. 8.5X5.2. 
Krelage, J. H. On Polyanthus Narcissus. [Reprinted from the Journal 
of the Royal Horticultural Society, Vol. XII, Part 2.] Pamphlet, 
olive-buff, 8.4X— X5.5, pp. 8. The Author. 
Lemoine, F. Les Gla'ieuls hybrides rustiques. Pamphlet, blue-gray, 

9.5X — X6.2, pp. 26. Nancy : 1890. The Author. 
G-artenflora. Zeitschrift fur Garten- und Blumenkunde. (Begriindet 
von Eduard Regel.) 38. Jahrgang. Herausgegeben von Prof. Dr. 
L. Wittmack in Berlin. 24 numbers. Pamphlets, yellow, 10. X. IX 7., 
1 plain and 24 colored plates, 97 cuts. Berlin : 1889. The Editor. 
Lawson, William. A New Orchard & Garden ; or, The best way for 
Planting, etc. Half calf, 7. 7X. 4X5.8, pp. 6, 102. Cuts. London: 
1083. Mrs. Edward S. Davis. 



332 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

EZenrick, William. The New American Orchardist, or an account of the 
most valuable varieties of Fruit, adapted to cultivation in the Cli- 
mate of the United States, from the latitude of 25° to 54°, etc., also 
a brief description of the most ornamental Forest Trees, Shrubs, 
Flowers, etc. Blue cloth, 7.4X 1.2X5., pp. xxxvi, 25-424; 1 cut. 
Boston : 1833. The family of C. M. Hovey. 
La Pomologie Francaise. Bulletin de la Societe Pomologique de France. 
Nos. 1-G, 1890. 6 pamphlets, yellow, 9. 3X .2X6.2, pp. 407 ; cuts. 
Lyon : 1890. Louis Cusin, Secretaire General. 
United States Special Consular Report. Fruit Culture in Foreign Coun- 
tries. Pamphlet, terra-cotta, 8.9X1.2X5.7, pp. 391-937, xiii ; cuts 
and diagrams. Washington : 1890. Hon. James G. Blaine, Secre- 
tary of State. 

[Victoria] Department of Agriculture. Bulletin No. 5. September, 1889. 
Proceedings of a Convention of Fruit Growers, held on September 
19, 20, and 21, 1889. Pamphlet, fawn-color, 8.4X.4X5.4, pp. 159. 
Melbourne: 1890. D. Martin, Secretary of Agriculture. 

Lombard, A. C, Sons of. Review of Exports of Apples from America to 
Europe. Seasons of 1888-89 and 1889-90. 2 broadside circulars, 
11.X8.5. Boston: 1889, '90. Messrs. Lombard. [2 copies each.] 

Apple, part Baldwin and part Russet, Photograph of. 6.4X4.2. Professor 
John Robinson. 

Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario. Twenty-first Annual Report, 

1889. Black cloth, 9. 8 X. 5X6. 4, pp. xvi, 128; 5 portraits. Toronto: 

1890. L. Woolverton, Secretary. [16 copies.] 

Fruit Growers' Association and International Show Society of Nova Scotia. 
Transactions and Reports. 1888 and 1889. Pamphlet, fawn, 
8.5X4X5.7, pp. 129, 113. Halifax, N.S. : 1889. C. H. R. Starr, 
Secretary-Treasurer. 

American Pomological Society. Proceedings of the Twenty-second 
Session, held in Ocala, Florida, February 20, 21, 22, 1889. Pam- 
phlet, tea, 12. IX. 5X9. 3, pp. 171, liv ; 1 portrait. 1889. Benjamin 
G. Smith, Treasurer. 

Maine State Pomological Society. Transactions for the year 1889. 
Edited by the Secretary, D. H. Knowlton. Pamphlet, yellow, 
9. IX. 3X5. 7, pp. 172; cuts and portrait. Augusta: 1890. D. H. 
Knowlton, Secretary. 

Iowa Agricultural College, Bulletin of the. Revised Notes on some of the 
Pears, Cherries, Plums, Apricots, Peaches, Ornamental Trees, 
Forest Trees, and Shrubs, which have been tested on the College 
grounds, and sent out for trial, during the past ten years. Pamphlet, 
8.5X — X5.7, pp. 32. Ames: 1890. Professor J. L. Budd. 

United States Department of Agriculture. Division of Pomology. 
Bulletin No. 3. Classification and Generic Synopsis of the Wild 
Grapes of North America. By T. V. Munson. Pamphlet, tea, 
8. 9 X. IX 5. 7, pp. 14. Washington: 1890. Hon. J. M. Rusk, 
Secretary of Agriculture. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 333 

Garfield, Charles W. Asparagus. Its Culture for Home and Market. 
[Read before the Michigan State Horticultural Society, July, 1889.] 
Pamphlet, 8.2 X— X6.5, pp. 7. The Author. 
Rodigas, Emile. Une visite a Petablissement de 1'Horticulture Interna- 
tionale (Linden) au Pare Leopold, a Bruxelles. Pamphlet, green, 
H.4X.1X10.9, pp. 16; 15 cuts. Gand : n. d. [1890?] The Author. 
Parsons, S. B. Landscape Gardening. I. Planting a small plot facing 
south. II. Planting a plot 300X480 ft. facing south. [2 articles 
from Shoppell's Modern Houses.] 2 sheets, 14.7X11.3, 2 pp. each; 
2 plans. The Author. 
Baltimore Park Commission. Thirtieth Annual Report to the Mayor and 
City Council of Baltimore, for the year ending December 31, 1889. 
Pamphlet, terra-cotta, 8.9X. 1X5. 7, pp. 56. Baltimore : 1890. The 
Commissioners. 
Mount Auburn Cemetery. Fifty -eighth Annual Report. January 1, 
1890. Pamphlet, drab, 9.1X— X6., pp. 20. Boston: 1890. The 
Proprietors of the Cemetery. 
American Cemetery Superintendents, Association of. Proceedings of 
the Third Annual Convention, held at Detroit, Mich., September 17, 
18, and 19, 1889. Pamphlet, blue-gray, 8. 7 X. 2X5. 8, pp. 110; 
frontispiece. Akron, O. : 1889. 

Fourth Annual Convention. Pamphlet, olive-buff, 8.5X — X5.8, 
pp. 47. Chicago : 1890. John G. Barker, President. 

Barker, John G. What Trees and Shrubs are the most desirable for 
Cemetery Decoration. (Read at the meeting of the Association of 
American Cemetery Superintendents, at Detroit, Mich., Sept. 18, 
1889.) Pamphlet, 8.8X— X6., pp. 8. The Author. 
Cook, Moses. The Manner of Raising, Ordering, and Improving Forest 
and Fruit Trees, and how to plant, make, and keep Woods, Walks, 
Avenues, Lawns, Hedges, etc., 1679. [This title is copied from 
Quaritch's Catalogue No. 90, No. 724, as the title-page to our copy 
is wanting. The preface to our copy bears the date Nov. 16, 1675.] 
Full calf, 7.9X. 8X6.1, pp. 14, 204, 4; 4 plates. J. D. W. French. 
Schurz, Hon. Carl. The Need of a Rational Forest Policy in the United 
States. [An Address delivered before the American Forestry Asso- 
ciation and the Pennsylvania Forestry Association, at Horticultural 
Hall, Philadelphia, Oct. 15, 1889.] Pamphlet, 9.1X— X5.8, pp. 
12. Philadelphia: n. d. Professor J. T. Rothrock. 
Brown, John Croumbie, LL.D., Compiler. The Forests of England 
and the Management of them in By-gone Times. Brown cloth, 
7. 7X. 9X5.1, pp. xvi, 263, 8. Edinburgh: 1883. The Author. 

. Introduction to the Study of Modern Forest Economy. 

Brown cloth, 7.6X.8X5., pp. xii, 228, viii, 6. Edinburgh: 1884. 
The Author. 
. Forestry in Norway : with Notices of the Physical Geog- 



raphy of the Country. Brown cloth, 7. 8X. 9X5., pp. 16, viii, 227. 
Edinburgh : 1884. The Author. 



334 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Brown, John Croumbie, LL.D., Compiler. Forests and Forestry of 
Northern Russia and lands beyond. Brown cloth, 7. 7X. 9X5., pp. 16, 
viii, 279. Edinburgh : 1884. The Author. 

. Forestry in the Mining Districts of the Ural Mountains in 

Eastern Russia. Brown cloth, 7. 7X. 7X5., pp. 16, viii, 182. Edin- 
burgh: 1884. The Author. 

. Forests and Forestry in Poland, Lithuania, the Ukraine, 

and the Baltic Provinces of Russia, with notices of the Exports of 
Timber from Memel, Dantzig, and Riga. Brown cloth, 7.7X.1X5., 
pp. 16, viii, 276. Edinburgh : 1885. The Author. 

. Schools of Forestry in Germany, with Addenda relative 

to a desiderated British National School of Forestry. Brown cloth, 
7. 5X. 9X5.1, pp. 16, vii, 232; 1 table. Edinburgh: 1887. The Au- 
thor. 

. School of Forest Engineers in Spain, indicative of a type 



for a British National School of Forestry. Old gold cloth, 7.7X.8X 
5., pp. xii, 232, 4. Edinburgh: 1886. The Author. 
. Hydrology of South Africa; or, Details of the Former 



Hydrographic Condition of the Cape of Good Hope, and of Causes 
of its present Aridity, with suggestions of appropriate Remedies for 
this aridity. Green cloth, 8. 9 X. 9X6. 6, pp. vii, 260. London: 1875. 
The Author. 
. Water Supply of South Africa and Facilities for the, 



Storage of it. Green cloth, 9.1X2. X5. 6, pp. xvi, 651. Edinburgh: 
1876. The Author. 

Smidth, J[ensJ H[ansen]. Arboretum Scandinavicum. Half maroon 
calf, 6.6X. 6X4.9, pp. 160. Kjobenhavn : 1831. Charles S. Sargent. 

Forest Leaves. July and September, 1886; April and November, 1887; 
February, May, June-July, August-September and October, 1889. 
Pamphlets, 10.1 X — X7. 6; plates. Philadelphia: 1886-89. [Towards 
completing the set.] Henry M. Fisher. 

Baux et Forets, Annuaire des, pour 1890. Gray flexible linen, 6.X.6X4. , 
pp. 4, 346. Paris : 1890. Publishers of Revue des Eaux et Forets. 

United States Department of Agriculture. Forestry Division. 

Report of the Chief of the Division for the year 1889. Pamphlet, 
tea, 9.X. IX 5. 7, pp. iv, 273-330; cuts. Hon. J. M. Rusk, Secre- 
tary of Agriculture. 

Bulletin No. 4. Report on the Substitution of Metal for Wood in 
Railroad Ties. By E. E. Russell Tratman, C. E. Together with 
a Discussion on Practicable Economies in the Use of Wood for Rail- 
way Purposes. By B. E. Fernow, Chief of Forestry Division. 
Pamphlet, tea, 9.X. 7X5. 7, pp.363; 30 plates. Washington: 1890. 
Hon. J. M. Rusk, Secretary of Agriculture. 
American Forestry Association. Appeal. 1 sheet, 11. X 8.5. Philadel- 
phia : 1890. Professor J. T. Rothrock. 
California State Board of Forestry, Memorial of the. Pamphlet, pink, 
8.9X — X5.8, pp. 7; 2 plates. Professor J. T. Rothrock. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 335 

Chapais, J. C, B.C.L. The Canadian Forester's Illustrated Guide. 
Pamphlet, fawn, 8. 5X. 5X5.2, pp. 199; 126 cuts. Montreal: 1885. 
J. D. W. French. 

Perrault, J. X. Memoire sur la mise en coupe reglee du Domaine for- 
estier de la Province de Quebec. Presente^a la Reunion du 2 Sep- 
tembre 1890. [Association Forestiere d'Amerique.] Pamphlet, 
8.2X— X5.4, pp. 8. J. D. W. French. 

"Worcester County Horticultural Society. Schedule of Premiums for the 
year 1890. Pamphlet, yellow, 9. 4 X. 1X5.8, pp. 40. Worcester: 
1890. Edward W. Lincoln, Secretary. 

Rhode Island Horticultural Society. Prizes to be awarded at the June 
and November Exhibitions, 1890. Pamphlet, 4.5X — X6.9, pp. 8. 
[Providence: 1890.] Thomas K. Parker, Corresponding Secretary. 

Hartford County Horticultural Society. Programme for the year 1890. 
Pamphlet, 9.X— X5.7, pp. 8. Hartford, Conn.: [1890.] C. H. 
Pember, Secretary. 

• . Souvenir. Chrysanthemum Exhibition. List of 

Officers and Members. Prizes given at its several exhibitions in 
1890, etc. Pamphlet, 9. X. IX 5. 8, pp. 57; cuts. Hartford, Conn. : 
1890. C. H. Pember, Secretary. 

"Western New York Horticultural Society. Proceedings of the Thirty- 
fifth Annual Meeting, held at Rochester, January, 1890. Pamphlet, 
terra-cotta, 9. IX. 4X5. 9, pp. 192. Rochester: 1890. John Hall, 
Secretary and Treasurer. 

New Jersey State Horticultural Society. Proceedings at the Fifteenth 
Annual Meeting, held at Trenton, N.J., Dec. 18 and 19, 1889. 
Pamphlet, blue-gray, 9. IX. 4X5. 8, pp. 224; 1 portrait. Newark: 
[1890.] E. Williams, Secretary. 

Pennsylvania Horticultural Society. Programme for 1890. Pamphlet, 
blue, 9. 2X. 1X5.7, pp. 18. Philadelphia: n. d. Daniel D. L. 
Farson, Secretary. 

. Advance Sheet, giving List of Premiums for the Annual 

Spring Exhibition and Bulb Show, March 17-20, 1891. Pamphlet, 
9.2X— .5.8, pp. 8. D. D. L. Farson, Secretary. 

Ohio State Horticultural Society. Twenty-third Annual Report, for the 
year 1889-90. Pamphlet, olive, 9.6 X. 5X6. 5, pp. 240; cuts. Co- 
lumbus : 1890. W. W. Farnsworth, Secretary. 

Columbus (Ohio) Horticultural Society. Journal. Vol. 3, 1888, and 
Vol. 4, 1889. Dark green cloth, 9.1X.7X5.7, pp. 2, 123, ii, and 
viii, 109, ii; 2 plates in Vol. 4. Columbus, Ohio: 1889. Vol. 5, 
parts 1-3, March-September, 1890. 3 pamphlets, blue, 9.X — X5.8, 
pp. 78; 6 plates, cuts. Columbus: [1890.] Clarence M. Weed, 
Secretary. 

Indiana Horticultural Society. Transactions for the year 1889, being the 
Proceedings of the Twenty-ninth Annual Session, held at Indian- 
apolis, December, 1889. Black cloth, 9. X. 5X5. 8, pp. 214; cuts. 
Indianapolis : 1890. C. M. Hobbs, Secretary. 



336 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Illinois State Horticultural Society. Transactions for the year 1889 ; 
being the Proceedings of the Thirty-fourth Annual Meeting, etc., 
etc. New series. Vol. 23. Green cloth, 8.9X1.3X6., pp. xviii, 
421; 1 portrait. Alton: 1890. A. C. Hammond, Secretary. 
[5 copies.] 
"Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. Annual Report. Vol. 20. 
Black cloth, 9. X. 9X5. 8, pp. 257; frontispiece and cuts. Madison: 
1890. The Superintendent of Public Property. [6 copies.] 
Minnesota State Horticultural Society. Annual Report for the year 
1890. Vol. 18. Black cloth, 9.4X1.X6.3, pp. 395; portrait, 
1 plate and 9 cuts. Minneapolis : 1890. Samuel B. Green, Secre- 
tary. [10 copies.] 
Missouri State Horticultural Society. Thirty-second Annual Report, 1889. 
Black cloth, 9.4X1.3X6.2, pp. 467, ii ; 7 cuts, 1 map. Jefferson 
City: 1890. L. A. Goodman, Secretary. [Ten copies.] 
Nebraska State Horticultural Society. Annual Report for the year 1889. 
Containing the Proceedings of the Annual and Semi-Annual Meetings 
held during the year 1889. Dark plum-colored cloth, 8. 9X. 7X5.9, 
pp. 294; 30 cuts. Lincoln: 1889. F. W. Taylor, President. 
Colorado State Horticultural and Forestry Association. Annual Report for 
the year 1889. Vol.5. Maroon cloth, 9.4 X 1.2X6.3, pp. 621, iv; 1 
portrait. Denver : 1890. Dr. Alex. Shaw, Secretary. [2 copies.] 
Oregon State Horticultural Association. Address of. Dr. J. R. Cardwell, 
President, delivered at the Annual Meeting, held at Portland, Oregon, 
Jan. 14, 1890. Pamphlet, light green, 7.X— X4.2, pp. 12. Portland : 
1890. The Association. 
California State Board of Horticulture. Annual Report for 1889. Black 
cloth, 9.3X1.2X6., pp. 536; 4 plates, 138 cuts. Sacramento: 1890. 
B. M. Lelong, Secretary. 
Royal Horticultural Society. Journal. Edited by D. Morris, Esq., M.A., 
F.L.S., Treasurer; and the Rev. W. Wilks, M.A., Secretary. 
Vol. 11, Part3, October, 1889. pp. 131-350, xxxiii-xcii. 
Vol. 12, Part 1, March, 1890. pp. 232, xciii-cliv ; cuts. 
Vol. 12, Part 2, July, 1890. pp. 233-408, lvi; 21 cuts. 
Three pamphlets, blue-gray, 8.4X.6X5.5. London: [1889, 1890.] 
The Society. 
Joly, Charles. Notes sur la Societe d'Horticulture de Londres et sur la 
Societe Pomologique Americaine. Pamphlet, blue-gray, 8.5X — X 
5.4, pp. 12. Paris : 1890. The Author. 
Societe* nationale d'Horticulture de France, Journal de la. 3 e serie, 
Tome 12, 1890. Half claret morocco, 9.2X1.8X5.5, pp. 792. Paris: 
1890. E. Glatigny, Librarian. 

. Congres d'Horticulture de 1890 a Paris. Regle- 

ment. Pamphlet, 8.3X — X5.3, pp. iv. Paris: 1890. The Society. 
Societe" centrale d'Horticulture du departement dela Seine-Inferieure, Bul- 
letin de la. Tome XXXP. — 3 e et 4 e cahiers de 1889 ; Tome XXXIP. 
— l er et 2 e cahiers de 1890. 4 pamphlets, lilac color, 9. X. 2X5. 7, 
pp. 141-328, and 1-200. Rouen : 1890. The Society. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 337 

Soci6t6 d'Horticulture de la Sarthe, Bulletin de la. Tome II. 1889, — 2 e , 
3 e , et 4 e triraestres ; 18 ( .)0, — l er et 2 e trimestres. 3 pamphlets, orange- 
color, 8.8X — X5.7, pp. 567-662. [Le Mans: 1889, 1890.] 

R. Societa Toscana di Orticultura, Bullettino della. Anno XV. 1890. 
(Vol. V. della 2. a Serie.) Half brown leather, 11. X 1.7X7.6, pp. 
384 ; 13 plates, colored and plain, cuts. Firenze : 1890. The So- 
ciety. 

Soci6t<3 d'Horticulture de Geneve, Bulletin de la. 36 me Annee. 1890. 12 
pamphlets, pink, 9.4X — X6.2, pp. 236; plates (1 colored) and cuts. 
Geneve : 1890. The Society. 

Verzeichniss der auf derGrossen Allgemeinen Gartenbau-Ausstellung des 
Vereins zur Beforderung des Gartenbaues in den preussischen 
Staaten, zu Berlin vom 25. April bis 8. Mai 1890. Pamphlet, lilac, 
8.6X — X5.8, pp. x, 32. Berlin : n. d. 

Nachtrag zum Programm fur die Grosse Allgemeine Gartenbau-Ausstel- 
lung des Vereins zur Beforderung des Gartenbaues in den Preus- 
sischen Staaten vom 25. April bis 5. Mai 1890 . zu Berlin. 
Pamphlet, pink, 9.8X — X6.6, pp. 20. Berlin: 1890. 

Jacquin, Nicholaus Joseph. Selectarum stirpium Americanarum historia, 
in qua ad Linneanum systema determinatae descriptseque sistuntur 
plantae illae quas in insulis Martinica, Jamaica, Domingo, aliisque 
et in vieinae Continentis parte, observavit rariores ; adjectis iconibus 
in solo natali delineatis. Half calf, 14. 9X2. 5X 10., pp. [6], 7, [5], 
284, [14] ; 183 plates. Vindobonse : 1763. Charles S. Sargent. 

Zuccarini, Jos[eph], Ger[hard]. Plantarum novarum vel minus cognita- 
rum quae in horto botanico herbarioque regio Monacensi servantur, 
fasciculus primus. Also Fasciculus quartus of the same. Pam- 
phlets, tea, 10.1X. 6X8.3, pp. 219-254, and 287-396; plates 1-9 and 
12-17. [Monachi: 1737-40.] Charles S. Sargent. 

"Watson, Sereno. Contributions to American Botany. XVII. 

I. Miscellaneous notes upon North American Plants, chiefly of 
the United States, with Descriptions of New Species. 

II. Descriptions of New Species of Plants, from Northern Mex- 
ico, collected chiefly by Mr. C. G. Pringle, in 1888 and 1889. 

[From the Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, Vol. XXV.] Pamphlet, tea, 9.7 X- 1X6.2, pp. 123-163, 
and index. [Issued Sept. 25, 1890.] The Author. 

Britton, N. L. A List of the State and Local Floras of the United States 
and British America. [Contributions from the Herbarium of Col- 
umbia College. — No. 14.] [Reprinted from the Annals of the New 
York Academy of Sciences. Vol. V.] Pamphlet, tea, 10. X .2X6.1, 
pp. 237-300. [New York :] April, 1890. The Author. 

Halsted, Professor Byron D. Notes upon Stamens of Solanaceae. [Extract 
from the Botanical Gazette, Vol. XV.] Pamphlet, 9.X — X6.2, pp. 
103-106; 1 plate. Crawfordsville, Ind. : 1890. The Author. 

Macoun, John, M.A., F.L.S., F.R.S.C. Catalogue of Canadian Plants. 
Part V. — Acrogens. [Geological and Natural History Survey of 



338 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Canada.] Pamphlet, gray, 10. X. 5X6. 6, pp. iv, 249-428. Montreal : 
1890. The Author. 
Pearson, Wm. Hy. List of Canadian Hepaticae. [Geological and Natural 
History Survey of Canada.] Pamphlet, gray, 9. 7X .1X6.5, pp. 31; 
12 plates. Montreal: 1890. Prof. John Macoun. 
Brittoil, N. L., Ph.D. Catalogue of Plants found in New Jersey. [From 
the Final Report of the State Geologist. Vol. II.] Half green mor- 
occo, 9.5X1.4X6.6, pp. 27-642. Trenton: 1889. The Author. 
Torrey Botanical Club. Bulletin. Edited by Nathaniel Lord Britton and 
other members of the Club. Vol. 17, 1890. 12 pamphlets, tea, 
9.1X.1X5.8, pp. 332; plates XCVIII-CX. New York : 1890. The 
Club. 
. . Index to Vols. 1-5. January, 1870 -Decem- 
ber, 1874. Unbound, 9.3X— X6., pp. 10. Index to Vol. 6, Janu- 
ary, 1875 - December, 1879. pp. 369-370. New York: n. d. 
The Club. 
Edinburgh. Botanical Society. Transactions and Proceedings. Vol. 
XIII, Parts II and III; Vol. XIV, Parts I, II, and III (complete); 
Vol. XV, Part I ; Vol. XVI, Part I ; Vol. XVII, Part III. 8 
pamphlets, tea and fawn color, 8.8X5-.9X5.6, plates IV-XX 
(1 colored) ; I-XIV (including III b.) ; I-IV; I-XI ; and VII, VIII. 
Edinburgh : 1878-1889. The Society. 
Missouri Botanical Garden. First Annual Report of the Director. 1889. 
Pamphlet, light brown, 9. X— X 6., pp. 17. St. Louis : 1890. Wil- 
liam Trelease, Director. 

. Second Announcement concerning Garden Pupils. 

November, 1890. Pamphlet, fawn, 7.8 X— X5.3, pp. 8. [St. Louis : 
1890.] William Trelease, Director. 
Kew Royal Botanic Gardens. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, 
1889. Half green cloth, 9.3X.9X5.9, pp. 306; 1 plain and 4 colored 
plates. London : 1889. W. T. Thiselton Dyer, Director. 
Botanic Garden, Adelaide, South Australia. Report on the Progress and 
Condition during the year 1889, by R. Schomburgk, Dr. Phil., 
Director. Pamphlet, fawn, 13. X — X8.3, pp. 20. Adelaide, South 
Australia : 1890. The Director. 
Collier, Dr. Peter. The Future of Agriculture in the United States. An 
Address delivered at the Agricultural Fair of the South Jury Dis- 
trict held at Ovid, N.Y., September 3, 1890. Pamphlet, light blue- 
green, 9.1 X — X5.8, pp. 15. The Author. 
, — ■ . How to Make Dairying More Profitable. An Address de- 
livered before the Holstein-Friesian Association of America, March 
19, 1890. Pamphlet, tea, 9.2X— X5.7, pp. 15. The Author. 
Harris, Joseph, M.S. (Moreton Farm, Monroe County, N.Y.) Essay 
on the Use of Nitrate of Soda for Manure, and the best mode of its 
employment. Pamphlet, drab, 7.7X. 2X5.1, pp. 96. 1890. 
United States Department of Agriculture. First Report of the Secretary 
of Agriculture. 1889. Black cloth, 9.3X1.6X5.8, pp. 560; 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 339 

43 plates, colored and plain. Washington: 1889. Hon. J. M. 
Rusk, Secretary of Agriculture. 
. Report of the Secretary of Agriculture. 1890. 



Pamphlet, tea, 9.X-1X5.7, pp. 52. Washington: 1890. Hon. J. 
M. Rusk, Secretary of Agriculture. 
. Report of the Superintendent of Gardens and 



Grounds for the year 1889. Author's edition. From the Annual Re- 
port of the Department of Agriculture for the year 1889. Pamphlet, 
tea, 9.X — X5.8, pp. 109-134. Hon. J. M. Rusk, Secretary of 
Agriculture. 
. Botanical Division. Special Bulletin. The 



Agricultural Grasses and Forage Plants of the United States ; and 
such Foreign kinds as have been introduced. By Dr. Geo. Vasey, 
Botanist; with an Appendix on the Chemical Composition of Grasses, 
by Clifford Richardson, and a glossary of terms used in describing 
grasses. Pamphlet, tea, 9. X. 7X5. 8, pp. 148; 114 plates. Wash- 
ington: 1889. Hon. J. M. Rusk, Secretary of Agriculture. 
. Section of Vegetable Pathology. Quarterly 



Bulletin. The Journal of Mycology : devoted to the Study of Fungi, 
especially in their relation to Plant Diseases. By B. T. Galloway, 
Chief of the Section. Vol. 5, No. 4, December, 1889. pp. 181- 
249; plates 13 and 14. Vol. 6, Nos. 1 and 2, March and Sep- 
tember, 1890. pp. 87 ; 3 plates, cuts. Three pamphlets, tea, 
9.X. 1X5.8. Washington: 1889, 1890. Hon. J.M.Rusk, Secre- 
tary of Agriculture. 
. Division of Chemistry. 



Bulletin No. 24. Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Convention of 
the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, held . . . Sep- 
tember, 1889. Pamphlet, tea, 9. X. 4X5. 7, pp.235. Washington: 
1890. 

Bulletin No. 25. A Popular Treatise on the Extent and Charac- 
ter of Food Adulterations. By Alex. J. Wedderburn, Special 
Agent. Pamphlet, tea, 9.X. 1X5. 7, pp. 61. Washington : 1890. 

Bulletin No. 26. Record of Experiments in the Production of 
Sugar from Sorghum in 1889, etc. By H. Wiley, Chemist. Pam- 
phlet, tea, 9. X.2X5. 7, pp. 112 ; 1 diagram. Washington : 1890. 

Bulletin No. 27. The Sugar-Beet Industry, Culture of the 
Sugar-Beet and Manufacture of the Beet Sugar. By H. W. Wiley, 
Chemist. Pamphlet, tea, 9. X. 7X5. 8, pp. 262; plates, 11 cuts- 
Washington: 1890. Hon. J. M. Rusk, Secretary of Agriculture. 
. Reports of the Statistician. New Series. 



Nos. 69-79. On the Crops of the Year ; Numbers and Values of 
Farm Animals; Distribution and Consumption of Corn and Wheat; 
Condition of Winter Grain ; Condition of Farm Animals ; Progress 
of Cotton Planting, and Wages of Farm Labor ; Acreage of Wheat 
and Cotton; Condition of Cereal Crops; Area of Corn, Potatoes, and 
Tobacco; Condition of Growing • Crops ; Condition of Crops in 



340 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

America and Europe ; Yield of Grain per Acre ; Yield of Crops per 
Acre; Freight Rates of Transportation Companies. 11 pamphlets, 
tea, 9. X . 1 X 5. 8. Washington : 1890. 

New Series, Miscellaneous. Report No. 1. A Report on Flax, 
Hemp, Ramie, and Jute, etc. By Charles Richards Dodge. Pam- 
phlet, tea, 9.X. 2X5.7, pp. 104; cuts. Washington: 1890. 

Hon. J. M. Rusk, Secretary of Agriculture. 
Bureau of Animal Industry. 



The Animal Parasites of Sheep. By Cooper Curtice, D.V.S., 
M.D. Dark brown cloth, 9.2X. 8X5.9, *pp- 222; 36 plates, colored 
and plain. Washington : 1890. Hon. J. M. Rusk, Secretary of 
Agriculture. 
. Office of Experiment Stations. 



Experiment Station Record. Vol. 1, Nos. 2-6, November, 1889,- 
July, 1890; Vol.2, Nos. 1-4, August-November, 1890. 9 pam- 
phlets, blue-gray, 8.9 X. IX 5. 7. Washington: 1889, 1890. 

Experiment Station Bulletin. Nos. 3-6, July, 1889,-May, 1890. 
(3.) Report of a Meeting of Horticulturists of the Agricultural Ex- 
periment Stations, at Columbus, Ohio, June 13, 14, 1889. By 
A. W. Harris, Assistant Director. (4) List of Horticulturists of 
the Agricultural Experiment Stations in the United States, with an 
outline of the work in Horticulture at the several Stations. 
Prepared by W. B. Atwood. (5.) Organization Lists of the Agri- 
cultural Experiment Stations, and Agricultural Schools and Colleges 
in the United States. (6.) List of Botanists of the Agricultural 
Experiment Stations in the United States, with an Outline of the 
Work in Botany, at the several Stations. 4 pamphlets, tea, 
9.X — X5.7. Washington: 1889, 1890. 

Farmers' Bulletin No. 2. The Work of the Agricultural Experi- 
ment Stations. Pamphlet, 9.1 X — X 5.8. Washington : 1890. 

Miscellaneous Bulletin No. 2. Proceedings of the Third Annual 
Convention of the Association of American Agricultural Colleges 
and Experiment Stations, held at Washington, D.C., Movember 12- 
15, 1889. Edited by A. W. Harris and H. E. Alvord. Pamphlet, 
tea, 8. 9X. 2X5.7. Washington : 1890. 

Circular No. 12. Regarding the Library and Publications of the 

Office of Experiment Stations. Pamphlet, tea, 9.X — X5.9. 

Washington: 1889. Professor W. O. Atwater, Director. 

Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletins and Annual Reports have 

been received from the Stations in the United States and Canada. 
Ontario Department of Agriculture. Bureau of Industries. Bulletins 22- 
35. Crops and Live-stock in Ontario, etc., etc. 14 pamphlets, 
6.1X — X4.1. Toronto : 1888-1890. A. Blue, Secretary. 
Maine Board of Agriculture. Thirty-third Annual Report of the Secre- 
tary, for the year 1889-90. Black cloth, 9.5X1.6X6., pp. v, 242, 
216, 176; plates and cuts. Augusta: 1890. Z. A. Gilbert, Secre- 
tary. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 341 

Massachusetts Board of Agriculture. Thirty-seventh Annual Report 
of the Secretary, together with the Seventh Annual Report of the 
State Experiment Station, 1889. Black cloth, 9.1 X 1.8X5.7, pp. 
xxiv, 383, 333; 8 plates, 2 maps. Boston: 1890. Hon. William R. 
Sessions, Secretary. [50 copies.] . 

. Crop Reports for the months of May to October, 1890. 

Bulletins 1-6. Compiled by William R. Sessions, Secretary of the 
Board of Agriculture. 6 pamphlets, 9.X — X5.7. Boston: 1890. 
The Secretary. 

The Farmer's University. (Massachusetts Agricultural College.) A 
sheet from the New England Homestead, Aug. 24, 1889. 1 p., cuts 
and portraits. 

Essex Agricultural Society. Transactions for the year 1889, and Sixty- 
seventh Annual Address, by Charles J. Peabody; with Premium 
list for 1890. Pamphlet, tea, 9. X. 5X5.7, pp. 219. Beverly, Mass. : 
1889. The Society. 

Hingham Agricultural and Horticultural Society. Transactions for the 
year 1889. Pamphlet, fawn, 9. IX. IX 5. 8, pp. 92. Edmund Hersey. 

Marshfield Agricultural and Horticultural Society. Transactions during 
the year 1889. With the List of Premiums during the year 1890. 
Pamphlet, tea, 9. X. IX 5.8, pp. 25, 19. Plymouth: 1889. 

Worcester North Agricultural Society. Transactions for the year 1889, 
together with a List of the Committees and Premiums for 1890. 
Pamphlet, blue, 8.8X. 2X5.8, pp. 90. Fitchburg: 1890. The Society. 

Census of Massachusetts: 1885. Vol. 3, Agricultural Products and 
Property. Prepared under the direction of Carroll D. Wright, 
Chief of the Bureau of Statistics of Labor. Black cloth, 10.1X2.3 
X7.,pp. Ixii, 934. Boston: 1887. Bureau of Statistics. 

Rhode Island Society for the Encouragement of Domestic Industry. 
Seventieth Anniversary. Also Premium List for the State Fair to 
beheld at Narragansett Park, September, 1890. Pamphlet, cream- 
color, 7.7X.5X5.2, pp. 198; 3 portraits and cuts. David S. Collins, 
Secretary and Treasurer. 

Connecticut Board of Agriculture. Twenty-second Annual Report of 
the Secretary, 1888. With Annual Report of the Connecticut Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station for 1888, and the First Annual Report 
of the Storrs School Agricultural Experiment Station. Black 
cloth, 9.1X15X6., pp. 340, vii, 166, 104, 13; 1 plate, cuts. 
Hartford: 1888, 1889. 

Twenty-third Annual Report of the Secretary, 1889. With Annual 
Report of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station for 1889, 
and Second Annual Report of the Storrs School Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, 1889. Black cloth, 9. X 1.8X6., pp. 378, vii, 280, 183, 
20; 3 plates, 13 cuts. Hartford, New Haven, and Middletown : 
1889, 1890. T. S. Gold, Secretary. 

South Carolina State Agricultural and Mechanical Society. Premium 
List for the Twenty-second Annual Fair, to be held in Columbia, 



342 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

S. C, November, 1890. Pamphlet, fawn, 9.2X.1X5.8, pp. 46. 
Charleston : 1890. Thomas W. Holloway, Secretary. 
Georgia Department of Agriculture. Circulars 124-133. New Series. 
Crop Reports, Analyses of Commercial Fertilizers, etc. 9 pamphlets, 
9.X — X5.8. Atlanta: 1890. J. T. Henderson, Commissioner. 
Louisiana Department of Agriculture. Circulars 1-5. Series of 1890. 
Reports on Yield and Condition of Crops, etc. January to October, 
1890. Pamphlets, 9.X— X5.8, pp. 93. Baton Rouge: 1890. 
T. S. Adams, Commissioner. 
Texas Agricultural Bureau of the Department of Agriculture, Insurance, 
Statistics, and History. Second Annual Report, 1888-89. L. L. 
Foster, Commissioner. Pamphlet, fawn, 9.1 X .8X6., pp. xxiii, 387; 
cuts. Austin : 1890. H. W. Nye. 
Iowa State Agricultural Society. Annual Report of the Board of Directors 
for the year 1889. Black cloth, 9. XI. 7X6.6, pp. 671. Des Moines : 
1890. John R. Shaffer, Secretary. 
Nebraska State Board of Agriculture. Annual Report for tfie year 1889. 
Prepared byRobt. W. Furnas, Secretary. Black cloth, 9. X. IX 6. 2, 
pp. 390; cuts. Lincoln: 1890. Hon. Robt. W. Furnas, Secretary. 
[2 copies.] 
Sociedad Rural Argentina Anales de la. Vol. 24. 1890. 18 pamphlets, 
blue-gray, 10.8X— X7.3, pp. 816. Buenos Aires: 1890. The 
Society. 
Asociacion Rural del Uruguay. Vol. 19. 1890. 24 pamphlets, 10.3 X 

—X 6.8, pp. 586. Montevideo: 1890. The Association. 
Massachusetts Agricultural College. Twenty-seventh Annual Report. 
January, 1890. Public Document No. 31. Pamphlet, blue, 
9. IX. 2X5. 8, pp. 99; frontispiece. Boston : 1890. The College. 
California, University of. College of Agriculture. Supplement No. 1 to 
the Report of the Board of Regents. Pamphlet, salmon-color, 9. IX 
— X5.9, pp. 25; cuts. Sacramento: 1880. E. W. Hilgard, Direc- 
tor of the Experiment Station. 
. . Report of the Professor in Charge to the 



Board of Regents, being a part of the Report of the Regents of the. 
University. 1880. Pamphlet, tea, 9. IX. 2X5. 8, pp. 108. Sacra- 
mento : 1881. E. W. Hilgard. 

Ward, H. Marshall, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S. Diseases of Plants. [Ro- 
mance of Science Series.] Dark dull-green cloth, 6.8X.9X4.7, 
pp. iv, 196. London, n. d. [1890?] Waldo O. Ross. 

Halsted, Professor Byron D. Rusts, Smuts, Ergots, and Rots. Some of 
the Diseases that Seriously Affect Field Crops, Vegetables, and Fruit. 
Remedies that have proved successful. [Address before the New 
Jersey Board of Agriculture, at Trenton, Jan. 31, 1890.] Pamphlet, 
blue-gray, 9.2X — X5.7, pp. 21 ; 4 plates. The Author. 

United States Department of Agriculture. Division of Entomology. 

Bulletin No. 21. Report of a trip to Australia made under direc- 
tion of the Entomologist to investigate the Natural Enemies of the 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 343 

Fluted Scale. By Albert Koebele. Pamphlet, tea, O.X— X5.6, 
pp.32; 16 cuts. Washington: 1890. 

Bulletin No. 22. Reports of Observations and Experiments in 
the Practical Work of the Division, made under the direction of the 
Entomologist. Pamphlet, tea, 9. X. 2X5. 7, pp. 110. Washington: 
1890. Hon. J. M. Rusk, Secretary of Agriculture. 

New York, Injurious and other Insects of the State of. Sixth Report. 
By J. A. Lintner, Ph.D., State Entomologist. [From the 43d Re- 
port of the New York State Museum of Natural History.] Pam- 
phlet, drab, 9. IX. 2X5. 8, pp. 101-205; 25 cuts. Albany: 1890. 
The Author. 
Galls of Cynipidae. — Various Galls. Two volumes of Photographs taken 
by Miss Cora H. Clarke. Half Russia, 10.8 Xl.X 9.1. Miss Clarke. 
New York Microscopical Society. Journal. Vol. 6, 1890. 4 pamphlets, 
fawn, 9. 3X. 1X5.9, pp. 122; plates 21-25, cuts. New York : 1890. 
The Society. 
Boston Society of Natural History. Proceedings. Vol. 23, parts 3 and 4 ; 
Vol. 24, parts 1-4. 6 pamphlets, tea, 9. 8X. 3— .9X6.1, pp. 273-572, 
and 1-597; 8 and 9 plates, cuts. Boston: 1888-1890. The Society. 

. Memoirs. Vol. 4, Nos. 1-9. Pamphlets, tea, 

11.7X.2-.4X9., pp. 472; 42 plates. Boston: October, 1885,-Sep- 
tember, 1890. The Society. 
"Worcester Natural History Society. Summer Camp for Boys, at Lake 
Quinsigamond. Prospectus for 1890. Pamphlet, tea, 4.7X — X6.2, 
pp. 12. The Society. 
Essex Institute. Bulletin. Vol. 14, Nos. 7-12, July to December, 1882; 
Vol. 15, 1883, 1 colored plate, 19 cuts; Vol. 16, 1884; Vol. 17, 
1885, 3 plates, 58 cuts; Vol. 18, 1886, 1 colored and 8 plain 
plates; Vol. 19, 1887; Vol. 20, 1888; Vol. 21, 1889, 13 plates, 
colored and plain, cuts; Vol. 22, 1890, Nos. 1, 2, 3; 1 plate. Pam- 
phlets, 9. 7X. 2X6.1. Salem: 1882-1890. The Institute. 
Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. Journal. 1889. Volume 6, part 2, 
July to December, 1889. Pamphlet, light tea, 9. X. 3X5. 8, pp. 41- 
J61; 9 plates and cuts. Raleigh, N. C. : 1890. Vol. 7, part 1, 
January-June, 1890. Pamphlet, blue, 8. 9X. 1X5. 7, pp. 56 ; 2 plates. 
Raleigh, N. C. : 1890. F. P. Venable, Permanent Secretary. 
Zoe — A Biological Journal. Vol. I, Nos. 3-6. May to August, 1890. 
Pamphlets, olive, 10. X — X6.2, pp. 65-192; plates 2-6. San Fran- 
cisco : 1890. Frank H. Vaslit, Editor. 
Minnesota Academy of Natural Sciences. Bulletin. Vol. Ill, No. I. 
Proceedings and Accompanying Papers, 1883-86. Pamphlet, light 
brown, 9. 3X. 5X6., pp. 160; 2 plates. Minneapolis : 1889. C. W. 
Hall, Editor. 
Saint Louis Academy of Sciences. 1890. Pamphlet, coffee-color, 8.5X 

.2X5.8, pp. 62. The Academy. 
Iowa State University. Bulletin from the Laboratories of Natural History. 
Vol. I, Nos. 2, 3, 4; Vol. II, No. 1. Pamphlets, olive, 9.2X.3-.5X 



344 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



6.1, pp. 97-304 and 98 ; 10 and 12 plates, with descriptive text. Iowa 
. City: 1889, 1890. S. Calvin and T. H. McBride, Editors. 

Ottawa Naturalist. The Transactions of the Ottawa Field Naturalists' 
Club. Vol. 3, No. 4, January to March, 1890. pp. 117-159, 70-73 ; 
Vol. 4, Nos. 1-9, April to December, 1890. pp. 164, 74-77; 1 map. 
Ottawa: 1890. W. A. D. Lees, Librarian. 

Leopoldina. Amtliches organ der Kaiserlichen Leopoldino-Carolinischen 
Deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher. Herausge^eben unter 
mitwirkung der sektionsvorstaende von dem praesidenten Dr. C. H. 
Knoblauch. Fuenfundzwanzigstes heft — Jahrgang 1889. Pamphlet, 
blue, 12.5X.3X9.5, pp. 220. Halle : 1889. Dr. C. H. Knoblauch. 

Smithsonian Institution, Fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnol- 
ogy to the Secretary of the. 1883-84. By J. W. Powell, Director. 
Dark olive cloth, 11.6X2.1X7.8, pp. liii, 564; 23 plates and maps, 
colored and plain ; 76 cuts. Washington: 1887. Sixth Annual Re- 
port. 1884-85. By J. W. Powell, Director, pp. lviii, 675 ; 10 plates 
and plans and 546 cuts. Washington : 1888. 

Bibliography of the Muskhogean Languages. By James Constan- 
tine Pilling. Pamphlet, tea, 9. 7 X. 2X6. 2, pp. v, 114. Washington: 
1889. 

Bibliography of the Iroquoian Languages. By James Constantine 
Pilling. Pamphlet, tea, 10. X. 5X6.2, pp. vi, 208 ; tables. Wash- 
ington: 1888. 

Textile Fabrics of Ancient Peru. By William H. Holmes. Pam- 
phlet, tea, 9.7X— X6.1. pp. 17; 11 cuts. Washington: 1889. 

The Problem of the Ohio Mounds. By Cyrus Thomas. Pamphlet, 
tea, 9. 7X. 1X6., pp. 54; 8 cuts. Washington: 1889. 

The Circular, Square, and Octagonal Earthworks of Ohio. By 
Cyrus Thomas. Pamphlet, tea, 8.9X.1X5.9, pp.35; 11 plates, 5 
cuts. Washington: 1889. The Institution. 

Texas Geological Survey. First Annual Report. 1889. Pamphlet, fawn, 
10.2X1.2X6.8, pp. xc, 410; plates and map. Austin: 1890. H. 
W. Nye. 

United States Bureau of Education. Special Report on Public Libraries. 
Part II. Rules for a Dictionary Catalogue. By Charles A. Cutter, 
Librarian of the Boston Athenaeum. Second edition. Pamphlet, 
tea, 8.9X. 3x5.7, pp. 133. Washington : 1889. W. T. Harris, Com- 
missioner. 

Lawrence (Mass.) Free Public Library. Eighteenth Annual Report of 
the Board of Trustees and Report of the Librarian. 1889. Pamphlet, 
tea, 8.9X— X5.8, pp. 32. Lawrence : 1890. F. H. Hedge, Jr., Li- 
brarian. 

Salem (Mass.) Public Library. Address of Hon. John M. Raymond, at the 
Opening of the Salem Public Library, June 20, 1889. Pamphlet, 
terracotta, 9.3X.2X6.4, pp. 62; 2 plates, 4 cuts, and plan. Salem: 
18S9. The Trustees. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 345 

Salem (Mass.) Public Library. First Report of tbe Trustees. December, 
1889. Pamphlet, terra-cotta, 9.4 X. IX 6.6, pp. 18. Salem: 1890. The 
Trustees. 

Astor Library. Forty-first Annual Report of the Trustees, for the year 
1889. Pamphlet, light blue, 9. X. IX 5.8, pp. 49. New York: 1890. 
The Librarian. 

Quaritch, Bernard. Catalogue of Books on the History, Geography, and 
of the Philology of America, Australasia, Asia, Africa. Red cloth, 
8.7X1.X5.9, pp. 2, 2747-3162. London: 1886. The Author. 

Hanbury, Frederick J., F.L.S. The late James Backhouse. A Biogra- 
phical Sketch. [Reprinted from the " Journal of Botany " for De- 
cember, 1890.] Pamphlet, blue-gray, 8.5X — X 5.6, pp. 4; portrait. 
[London : December, 1890.] 

Wisconsin State Historical Society. Proceedings of the Thirty-seventh 
Annual Meeting. Pamphlet, blue-gray, 8. 9 X. 3X5. 7, pp. 113. Mad- 
ison : 1890. Reuben G. Thwaites, Corresponding Secretary. 

Kansas State Historical Society. Transactions, embracing the Fifth 
and Sixth Biennial Reports, 1886-1888, etc. Compiled by F. G. 
Adams, Secretary. Plum-colored cloth, 9.3X1.8X6.7, pp. 819. 
Topeka : 1890. The Secretary. 

United States Bureau of Education. Report of the Commissioner for 
the year 1887-88. Black cloth, 9.1X2.8X5.8, pp. xiii, 1209. 
Washington: 1889. 

. Circulars of Information, Nos. 2 and 3, 1889, and 

Nos. 1, 2, and 3, 1890. 5 pamphlets, tea and blue-gray, 9. X.2-.8 
X5.8. Washington: 1889, 1890. W. T. Harris, Commissioner. 

. Bulletins No. 1, 1889, and No. 1, 1890. 2 pam- 



phlets, 8. 9X—X5. 8. Washington: 1890. W. T. Harris, Commis- 
sioner. 

Bowdoin College and Medical School of Maine. Catalogue. 1890-91. 
Pamphlet, terra-cotta, 8. 7X. 1X5.8, pp. 63. Brunswick: 1890. 
The College. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Twenty-fifth Annual Cata- 
logue of the Officers and Students, with a Statement of the Courses 
of Instruction and a List, of the Alumni. 1889-1890. Pamphlet, buff, 
9.X. 5X5. 8, pp. 207; 2 plans. Cambridge: 1889. The Institute. 

— ' . Twenty- fifth Anniversary. Commemorative Address 

by Augustus Lowell, Esq., at the Graduation Exercises, June 3, 
1890. Pamphlet, fawn, 9.1 X — X5.8, pp. 24. Cambridge : 1890. 

Cornell University Register. 1889-90. [3d edition.] Pamphlet, gray, 
7.6X. 5X5.1, pp. 224. Ithaca: n. d. The University. 

Illinois, University of. Catalogue and Circular. 1889-90. Pamphlet, 
pearl-gray, 7.5X.3X5.2, pp. 104; 4 plates. Chicago: 1890. The 
University. 

Education of the Colored Race. What Texas . . . has done . . . and is 
. . . doing for the education and betterment of the colored race. 
Pamphlet, 9.2X— X6.1. pp. 3. H. W. Nye. 



346 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

United States Consular Reports. Nos. 110-119, November, 1889, to 

August, 1890, inclusive. 9 pamphlets, blue, 9. X. 3-1. 1X5. 7. 

Washington : 1890. Hon. James G. Blaine, Secretary of State. 
. Index to Nos. 60-111 (Vols. 18 to 31). 1886-1889. 

Pamphlet, blue, 8.9X.4X5.7, pp. 192. Washington: 1890. Hon. 

James G. Blaine, Secretary of State. 
. Special Reports. Cotton Textiles in Foreign 



Countries. — Carpet Manufacture in Foreign Countries. — Malt and 
Beer in Spanish America. 3 pamphlets, terra-cotta, 9.X.1-.5X5.7, 
pp. 1-237, and 269-390. Washington : 1890. Hon. James G. 
Blaine, Secretary of State. 
Interstate Commerce Commission. Third Annual Report, December 1, 
1889. Dark claret cloth, 9.2X1.2X5.9, pp. 463. Washington : 1889. 
W. G. Veazey, Commissioner. 
United States Department of the Interior. Statistics of the Population 
of the United States at the Tenth Census (June 1, 1880). Black 
cloth, 12. X3. 3X10., pp. Ix, 961 ; maps and charts. Washington: 
1883. Hon. Wm. Noble, Secretary of the Interior. 
. Tenth Census of the United States, Com- 
pendium of the. 1880. Revised edition. 2 vols. Black cloth, 
9.2X1.9-2.6X6., pp. lxxvi, 1-924, xxxix; and ix, 925-1771. 
Washington: 1885, 1888. Hon. Wm. Noble, Secretary of the In- 
terior. 
Texas, Statistics and Information concerning the State of. Pamphlet, red, 
7.5X. 2X5.2, pp. 93; 1 map. H. W. Nye. 

, Report of the Comptroller of Public Accounts of the State of, for the 

year ending August 31, 1889. Black cloth, 9.4X1.X6.1, pp. 366. 
Austin : 1890. H. W. Nye. 

, State of. Governor's Message and Inaugural Address. Olive-brown 

cloth, 9.3X.2X6., pp. 23. H. W. Nye. • 

, Biennial Report of the Secretary of State of, 1888. J. M. Moore, 

Secretary. Pamphlet, fawn, 9.2X.6X6., pp. 297. Austin: 1889. 
II . W. Nye. 
Paris Universal Exposition, 1889. Official Catalogue of the United States 
Exhibit. Red cloth, 7.4X1.X4.8, pp. xliii, 271; 1 map. Paris: 
1889. U. S. Commission to the Paris Exposition. 
North Shore of Massachusetts Bay. 12th edition. Pamphlet, light blue- 
green, 7. IX. 3X4.7, pp. 103; cuts, maps. Salem: 1890. B. D. 
Hill. 
"Wootton. [A Description, etc., from Ashtnead's History of Delaware 
County, Pennsylvania.] Pamphlet, 5.3X — X3.4, pp. 48. D. D. L. 
Farson, Secretary of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society. 
Grand Rapids as it is. 1890-1. Published by the Grand Rapids Board 
of Trade. Pamphlet, green and white, 9. 2X. IX 12.1, pp. 52; cuts. 
The Board of Trade. 
L'Afrique en 1890. Notice et Carte. (Carte extrait de l'Atlas de 
Geographie moderne, par F. Schrader, F. Prudent, et E. Anthoine.) 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 347 

Pamphlet, gray, 9.7 X— X6.2, pp. 32; 1 colored map. Paris : 1890. 
Charles Joly. 
American Congregational Association. Twenty-seventh Annual Report 
of the Directors. Pamphlet, straw-color, 9.X — X5.9, pp. 24. 
Boston: 1890. The Association. 



Periodicals Purchased. 

English. — Gardeners' Chronicle. 

Gardeners' M gazine. 

Journal of Horticulture and Cottage Gardener. 

The Garden. 

Gardening Illustrated. 

Horticultural Times and Covent Garden Gazette. 

Curtis's Botanical Magazine. 

Journal of Botany. 

Grevillea. 
French. — Revue Horticole. 

Revue des Eaux et Forets. 

Journal des Roses. 
Belgian. — Illustration Horticole. 

Revue de l'Horticulture Beige et Etrangere. 

Journal des Orchidees. 
German. — Botanische Zeitung. 
American. — Country Gentleman. 

Garden and Forest. 

American Naturalist. 

American Journal of Science. 

Zoe. 



Periodicals Received in Exchange. 

Canadian Horticulturist. 

American Garden. 

Popular Gardening. 

Vick's Illustrated Monthly Magazine. 

Horticultural Art Journal. 

American Florist. 

Florists' Exchange. 

Orchard and Garden. 

Green's Fruit Grower. 

Seed-Time and Harvest. 

Forest Leaves. 

Botanical Gazette. 

Pittonia. 



348 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

"West American Scientist. 

Maine Farmer. 

New England Farmer. 

Massachusetts Ploughman. 

American Cultivator. 

New England Homestead. 

Our Country Home. 

American Agriculturist. 

Rural New-Yorker. 

American Rural Home. 

Farm Journal. 

National Stockman and Farmer. 

Germantown Telegraph. 

Maryland Farmer. 

Florida Dispatch, Farmer and Fruit Grower. 

Prairie Farmer. 

Orange Judd Farmer. 

The Industrialist. 

Pacific Rural Press. 

Cottage Hearth. 

Boston Daily Advertiser. 

Boston Morning Journal. 

Boston Post. 

Boston Daily Globe. 

Boston Evening Transcript. 

Boston Daily Evening Traveller. 

Boston Commonwealth. 

Boston Times. 

New York Weekly World. 

Jeffersonian Republican. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



SECRETARY AND LIBRARIAN, 



FOR THE YEAR 1890. 



First, as Secretary. At the date of my last report, Part II of 
the Transactions for 1888 had just been placed in the hands of 
the printer. This was completed as speedily as possible, and it 
was then deemed best by the Committee on Publication to print 
next the first part for 1890, leaving the Transactions for 1889 to 
be brought up afterwards, which was accordingly done, and the 
first part for 1889 has since been published. The second part for 
that year is nearly ready for the printer, and will be pushed to 
completion as early as possible. I regret exceedingly that with 
the utmost diligence I have been unable to wholly fill the gap 
existing, for nothing could be a greater relief to me than to feel 
that this whole matter was cleared up and could be dismissed from 
my mind until it is time to go to work on the next one. 

It requires no argument to show that to be done to the best 
advantage the work on the Transactions should be continuous, 
but thus far it has been impossible to command such time for this 
work. I wish that I, or any of those who equally with myself 
would like to have the publications of the Society appear more 
promptly, could devise some way in which I could devote my 
whole, or substantially my whole, attention to them until they 
were completed ; but thus far this has not been effected, but on the 
contrary the calls on my time in other directions are still on the 
increase. As an instance, I may mention that when I commenced 
editorial work on the Transactions, the Rose and Annual Exhi- 
bitions of the Society occupied only six days, the Spring and 
Chrysanthemum exhibitions being then merely " Saturday shows ;" 
but the time devoted to " all clay " exhibitions gradually crept up 
to twelve days, at which it remained until the preseut season, 



350 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

when four more clays were added. Now, it is impossible to count 
on doing any editorial work during these exhibitions, and the 
subtraction of four whole da} 7 s from the time which can be given 
to this work is not unimportant. Moreover, the Committee of 
Arrangements have this year held twenty meetings (there having 
never been more than nine in any previous year), and at all but 
one of these I have been present and made the record. The 
gratifying success of the exhibitions of this season has not been 
attained without much incidental work in this department ; indeed, 
it may be said that in whatever direction the operations of the 
Society broaden, additional work in this department is involved. 

Second, as to the Library. When my last report was presented 
the work of S} T stematically rearranging and cataloguing the whole 
Librar} T was before us. The arrangement and classification has 
now been completed, and, though far from the ideal, is certainly 
a great improvement upon the past, and has received the commen- 
dation of those best qualified to judge. All the books on any 
given subject have been brought together as far as space permit- 
ted, though it has been impossible to carry this to perfection 
without wasting too much space. It was, however, not long 
before the progress of this work disclosed the fact that the book- 
cases, with all the additions recently made, are not more than suffi- 
cient properly to accommodate the books we now possess without 
any allowance for their increase. It is true that some empty 
shelves, or parts of shelves, may be seen, but these would be more 
than filled if all the books now placed behind others were brought 
into the front row. By properly accommodating, I mean allowing 
all the books to be arranged in a single row so that all can be 
seen without taking out books in front of them. When books are 
arranged in two rows on a shelf the usefulness of the Library is 
seriously impaired for the reason that many readers do not consult 
the Catalogue, and do not know that a book is in the Library unless 
they can see it on the shelf. But with all existing imperfections it 
is a great satisfaction to know that for the first time for years we 
can find any book belonging to the Library without going out of this 
room, and I trust that unless some extraordinary addition should 
be made to the Library, we may be able to accommodate them in 
this room, as long as the Society shall remain in this building. 

After the books were arranged a count was made, which gave a 
total of 6,018 books and 5,889 pamphlets. The last previous 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY AND LIBRARIAN. 351 

count was made in 1884, and showed 4,800 books and 1,350 pam- 
phlets. The extraordinary increase in pamphlets is due to the large 
number of Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletins collected ; 
to a large number of pamphlets contained in the donation from the 
family of our late President, Charles M. Hovey, received last 
year, and mentioned in my last report, and to a large number 
received as a donation from the New England Historic Genealogi- 
cal Society. Besides the six thousand books and nearly six 
thousand pamphlets previously mentioned, the collection of 
Nursery, Seed, and Florists' Catalogues has been arranged alpha- 
betically, and after rejecting duplicates, numbers nearly four 
thousand. Among them are some of the earliest catalogues of what 
is now the house of Joseph Breck & Sons, established in 1822, and 
the first Seed Catalogue issued by Hovey & Co., in 1835. 

The most valuable books added to the Library this year are 
Gallesio's " Pomona Italiana " in three folio volumes with colored 
plates of the highest excellence, which was the greatest desider- 
atum in the pomological department of the Library, and Hooker's 
" Flora Novse Zelanclise," a very scarce and valuable work, which 
we have for years been seeking as a companion to the u Flora Ant- 
arctica" and " Flora Tasmanise " of the same author. 

The work of cataloguing the Library was begun immediately 
after the arrangement was completed. The first thing was to 
change the shelf number in the books, and the greater portion of 
this work is done. The next work will be to write on cards the 
name, description, and shelf number of each book. 

In my report for 1887 I mentioned, as an indication of the rapid 
increase of books, that the record book of Library Accessions 
(other than those purchased from the Stickney Fund) which was 
begun in 1867, was filled in October, 1882, requiring a period of 
nearly sixteen years. Another book of the same size was then 
procured, which was filled at the end of November, 1887, a period 
of five years, showing that the additions to the Library therein 
recorded had averaged fully three times as many as in the first 
period. A third book of the same size has now been filled in 
three years, showing that the rapidity with which books are added 
to the Library, by donation and exchange, continues to increase. 

Robert Manning, 

Secretary and Librarian, 



TREASURER'S REPORT, 



FOE THE YEAR 1890. 



Massachusetts Horticultural Society, in account current to December 
31, 1890, with W. Wyllts Gannett, Treasurer: 



1890. Dr. 

Dec. 31. To amount paid on account of the Library 
during 1890, viz. : 
For books, periodicals, and binding 
Income of Stickney Fund, expended 
for books 



To amount paid on account of Furniture 

and Exhibition Ware during 1890 
To prizes awarded in 1889 and paid dur- 
ing 1890, as follows : 
For Plants and Flowers 

" Fruits 

" Vegetables 

" Gardens and Greenhouses 

" Hunnewell Rhododendron prizes 

" Special Faxon prizes 

" Window Gardening prizes 



$300 00 



700 00 



. $2,802 


55 


. 1,566 


00 


937 


00 


210 


00 


105 


00. 


19 


00 


300 


00 



$1,000 00 



22 62 



5,939 55 



To amount paid for Salaries in 1890 

" " Extra Assistance in Li- 

brary toward bring- 
ing up arrears of 
work 

" " Taxes in 1890 . 

" *' Interest on mortgage 

$25,000 at 44% 

" " City Water Rates 

Amounts carried over . .... 



$3,175 00 



473 00 

2,606 80 

1,062 50 

90 50 

17,407 80 



,962 17 



treasurer's report. 353 

• Amounts brought over $7,407 80 $6,962 17 



. 


$7,407 80 


Stationery, Printing, 




and Postage . 


1,662 81 


Publications and Dis- 




cussions 


164 75 


Card Catalogue of 




Plates 


100 00 


Expenses of Commit- 




tee of Arrangements 




. of 1890 


296 50 


Heating 


476 86 


Lighting 


1,518 21 


Labor, including Sala- 




ries of Janitor and 




Fireman 


1,444 02 


Incidental Expenses 




of the year 


633 47 



13,704 42 
To Investment of John Lewis Russell 

Fund in $1,000 Bond of Kansas City, 

Clinton & Spr. R.R. 5% . . ... . 1,000 00 

To Amount paid on account of Mortgage, 

September 22, 1890 ...... 10,000 00 

To Interest on Funds for Prizes, credited . . 1,892 72 



Total Payments of 1890 . . . $33,559 31 
To balance account, cash on hand, 

December 31, 1890 . . . . . . 15,222 08 



,781 39 
1890. Cr. 

Jan. 1 . By Balance from account rendered Decem- 
ber 31, 1889 #10,620 56 

Dec. 31. By Income from Building in 1890, viz. : 

Rent of Stores . . $17,475 00 

" Halls . . 9,639 05 

$27,114 05 



By Income Mount Auburn Cemetery for 

1890 5,360 44 

By Receipts from Annual Exhibitions, 

gross amount . . $4,645 78 

Less Expenses . . 3,426 16 

1,219 62 



By Receipts Admissions and Assessments 

of members . . 840 00 

" Massachusetts State Bounty, 600 00 



Amounts carried over $35,134 11 $10,620 56 



354 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Amounts brought over $35,134 11 $10,620 56 

By Interest received on Bonds, $422 50 
By Interest received on Depos- 
its in Bank . . . . 183 00 

605 50 



By Bond of Illinois Grand Trunk R.R., 

maturing October, 1890, and collected, 500 00 
By Receipts from sales of the History of 

the Society 9 5t) 

By Receipts from Marshall B. Faxon, for 

Special Prizes of 1889 . . . . . 19 00 

By Interest credited the following Funds, 
against charges opposite : 
Samuel Appleton Fund, $1,000, 

at 5% . . . . $50 00 
John A. Lowell Fund, $1,000, 

at 5% .... 50 00 

Theodore Lyman Fund, $10,000, 

at 5% . . . . 550 00 
Josiah Bradlee Fund, $1,000, 

at 5% .... 50 00 

Benjamin V. French Fund, $500, 

at 5% .... 25 00 

H. H. Hunnewell Fund, $4,000, 

at 5% . . . . 200 00 
William J. Walker Fund, 

$2,354.43, at 5% . . 117 72 
Levi Whitcomb Fund, $500, 

at 5% .... 25 00 

Benjamin B. Davis Fund, $500, 

at 5% .... 25 00 

Marshall P. Wilder Fund, 

$1,000, at 5% ... 50 00 

John Lewis Russell Fund, 

$1,000, at 5% ... 50 00 

Josiah Stickney Fund, $12,000, 

amount . . . . 700 00 



1,892 72 
$38,160 83 



$48,781 39 
W. WYLLYS GANNETT, Treasurer. 
Boston, Decern er 31, 1890. 

Audited January 7, 1891. 



Frederick L. Ames, J Committee. 



,} 



TREASURERS REPORT. 



355 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Balance Sheet, December 31, 1890. 

ASSETS. 

Real Estate, Ledger account value . . . $250,000 00 

Furniture and Exhibition Wares .... 3,567 34 

Library 29,628 72 

Stereotype Plates and Copies of History . . 278 00 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R.R. 7% Bonds . 1,500 00 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R.R. 4% Bonds, 

$5,000, cost 4,925 00 

Kansas City, Clinton & Springfield R.R. 5% Bond, 

82,000, cost 1,980 00 

Cash on hand December 31, 1890 .... 15,22208 

$307,101 14 

LIABILITIES. 

Mortgage on Building $15,000 00 

Josiah StickneyFund, payable in 1899 to Harvard 

College . . . . .' . . . 12,000 00 
Prize Funds, invested in Building, viz. : 

Samuel Appleton Fund, $1,000 00 

John A. Lowell " 1,000 00 

Theodore Lyman " 11,000 00 

Josiah Bradlee " 1,000 00 

Benjamin V. French Fund, 500 00 

William J. Walker " 2,354 43 

Levi Whitcomb " 500 00 

Benjamin B. Davis " 500 00 

H. H. Hunnewell " 2,500 00 

$20,354 43 

Prize Funds, invested in Bonds as 
above : 
H. H. Hunnewell Fund, $1,500 00 
Marshall P. Wilder " 1,000 00 

John Lewis Russell " 1,000 00 

3,500 00 

23,854 43 

Prizes of 1890 due and unpaid .... 6,300 00 

57,154 43 

Surplus $249,946 71 



W. WYLLYS GANNETT, 

Treasurer. 



356 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Membership Account, December 31, 1890. 

Number of Life Members per last report . ... 573 

" added during 1890 12 

585 

Deceased 1889-1890 23 

562 

Number of Annual Members per last report . . . 220 

" added during 1890 7 

227 

Deceased 1889-1890 5 

Dropped for non-payment of dues 7 

— " 12 

— 215 

Present membership 777 

f Income from Membership in 1890. 

12 Life Members, @ $30 $360 00 

7 Annual Members, @ $10 70 00 

Assessments . . . . . . . . . . 410 00 



$840 00 



MOUNT AUBURN CEMETERY. 



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3 N 58 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Massachusetts Horticultural Society 

To the Proprietors op the Cemetery of Mount Auburn, Dr. 

For one-fourth part of the following expenditures, for grading new lands for 
sale during the year 1890 : 

Glen Avenue. 



188 days, men $423 00 

109| days, man and horse 411 56 



$834 56 



Birch Avenue to Eagle and Cherry Avenues. 



25 days, men 

\1\ days, man and horse . 



$56 25 
64 69 


$120 94 




- 


$955 50 



One-fourth part of $955.50 is ...... . $23887 

Mount Auburn, December 31, 1890. 

I certify the foregoing to be a true copy of improvements for the year 
1890, rendered by the Superintendent. 

H. B. MACKINTOSH, 

Treasurer. 



assatjwsdts Ijarikdttmd Sadetn. 

C) Jo-' uo 



OFFICERS J±NL> STANDING COMAIITTBES FOR 1891. 



President. 
WILLIAM H. SPOOLER, of Jamaica Plain. 

Vice-Presidents. 
CHARLES H. B. BRECK, of Brighton. FREDERICK L. AMES, of North Easton. 
BENJAMIN" G-. SMITH, of Cambridge. NATHANIEL T. KIDDER, of Milton. 

Treasurer and Superintendent of the Building. 
CHARLES E. RICHARDSON, of Cambridge. 

Secretary and Librarian. 
ROBERT MANNING, of Salem.* 

Recording Secretary. 
ROBERT MANNING-, of Salem. 

Professor of Botany and Vegetable Physiology. 
, CHARLES S. SARGENT, of Brookline. 

Professor of Entomology. 
SAMUEL H. SCUDDER, of Cambridge. 

Delegate to the State Board of Agriculture. 
E. W. WOOD, of West Newton. 

Delegate to the Board of Control of the State Agricultural Experiment 

Station. 

WILLIAM C. STRONG, of Waban. 

* Communications for the Secretary, on the business of the Society, should be addressed 
to him at Horticultural Hall, Boston. 



360 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



STANDING COMMITTEES. 

Executive. 

The President, WILLIAM H. SPOONER, Chairman. 

The Chairman op the Finance Committee, H. H. HUNNEWELL, EX OFFICIO ; 

WILLIAM C. STRONG, FREDERICK L. AMES, CHARLES H. B. BRECK, 

JOHN C. HO VET, CHARLES S. SARGENT, BENJAMIN C. CLARK, 

JAMES P. C. HYDE. 

Finance. 

H. HOLLIS HUNNEWELL, of Boston, Chairman. 

FREDERICK L. AMES. WILLIAM H. SPOONER. 

Publication and Discussion. 
O. B. HADWEN, or Worcester, Chairman. 
WILLIAM H. HUNT. FRANCIS H. APPLETON. 

Establishing Prizes. 

CHAIRMAN OF COMMITTEE ON FRUITS, Chairman. 

CHAIRMEN OF COMMITTEES ON PLANTS, FLOWERS, VEGETABLES, AND 

GARDENS, EX OFFIOIIS ; CHARLES M. ATKINSON, 

J. WOODWARD MANNING, Jr. 

Library. 

WILLIAM E. ENDICOTT, of Canton, Chairman. 

THE PROFESSOR OF BOTANY AND VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY 

AND THE PROFESSOR OF ENTOMOLOGY, EX OFFICII 'S ; 

J. D. W. FRENCH. NATHANIEL T. KIDDER. 

FRANCIS H. APPLETON. GEORGE W. HUMPHREY. 

Gardens. 
JOHN G. BARKER, of Jamaica Plain, Chairman. 
CHAIRMEN OF COMMITTEES ON FRUITS, PLANTS, FLOWERS, AND VEGE- 
TABLES, EX OFFICII S; CHARLES W. ROSS, \ 
HENRY W. WILSON. 

Fruit. 
E. W. WOOD, of West Newton, Chairman. 
BENJAMIN G. SMITH. O. B. HADWEN. SAMUEL HARTWELL. 

CHARLES F. CURTIS. WARREN FENNO. J. WILLARD HILL. 



OFFICERS AND STANDING COMMITTEES. 361 



Flowers. 

ARTHUR H. FEWKES, of Newton Highlands, Chairman. 
MICHAEL H. NORTON. JOHN H. MOORE. 

WILLIAM J. STEWART. E. H. HITCHINGS. 



Plants. 

FREDERICK L. HARRIS, of Welle slet, Chairman. 
DAVID ALLAN. JAMES COMLEY. 

AZELL C. BOWDITCH. WILLIAM ROBINSON. 

Vegetables. 

CHARLES N. BRACKETT, of Newton, Chairman. 
CEPHAS H. BRACKETT. VARNUM FROST. CHARLES A. LEARNED. 

P. O. HANSON. JOHN C. HOVEY. JOSEPH H. WOODFORD. 

Committee of Arrangements. 

PATRICK NORTON, of Boston, Chairman. 
CHAIRMEN OF COMMITTEES ON FRUITS, PLANTS, FLOWERS, VEGE- 
TABLES, AND GARDENS, EX OFFICIIS ; 
ROBERT FARQUHAR. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 



Members of the Society and all other persons tvho may know of deaths, 
changes in residence, or other circumstances showing that the following list 
is inaccurate in any particular, will confer a favor by promptly communicat- 
ing to the Secretary the needed corrections. 

Information, or any clew to it, is especially desired in regard to members 
whose names are marked thus f. 



Adams, Luther, Brighton. 

Albro, Charles, Taunton. 

Alger, K. F., Becket. 

Allan, David, Mount Auburn. 

Ames, Frank M., Canton. 

Ames, Frederick L., North Easton. 

Ames, George, Boston. 

Ames, Hon. Oliver, Boston. 

Ames, Preston Adams, South Hing- 

ham. 
Amory, Charles, Boston. 
Amory, Frederick, Boston. 
Anderson, Alexander, West Hingham. 
Andrews, Charles L., Milton. 
Andrews, Frank W., Washington, 

D. C. 
Andros, Milton, San Francisco, Cal. 
Appleton, Edward, Reading. 
Appleton, Francis H., Peabody. 
Appleton, William S., Boston. 
Atkins, Edwin F., Belmont. 
Augur, P. M., Middlefield, Conn. 
Avery, Edward, Boston. 
Ayling, Isaac, M.D., Waltham. 

Bancroft, John C, Boston. 
Banfield, Francis L., M.D., Worces- 
ter. 
Barber, J. Wesley, Newton. 



Barnard, James M., Maiden. 
Barnard, Robert M., Everett. 
Barnard, Samuel, Belmont. 
Barnes, Walter S., Somerville. 
Barnes, William H., Boston. 
fBarney, Levi C, Boston. 
Barratt, James, East Pasadena, Cal. 
Barrett, Edwin S., Concord. 
Bartlett, Edmund, Newburyport. 
Bates, Amos, Hingham. 
Bates, Caleb, Kingston. 
Beal, Leander, Boston. 
Beckford, Daniel R., Jr., Dedham. 
Beebe, Franklin H., Boston. 
Bell, Joseph H., Quincy. 
Berry, James, Brookline. 
Birchard, Charles, Framingham. 
Black, James W., Cambridge. 
Blake, Arthur W., Brookline. 
Blakemore, John E., Rosiindale. 
Blanchard, John W., Dorchester. 
Blaney, Henry, Salem. 
Blinn, Richard D., Chicago, 111. 
Bliss, William, Boston. 
Bocher, Prof. Ferdinand, Cambridge. 
Bockus, Charles E., Dorchester. 
Bond, George W., Jamaica Plain. 
Botume, John, Wyoming. 
Bouve, Thomas T., Boston. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 



363 



Bowditch, Azell C, Somerville. 
Bowditcli, Charles P., Jamaica Plain. 
Bowditch, William E., Roxbury. 
Bowker, William H., Boston, 
Brackett, Cephas H., Brighton. 
Brackett, Charles N.j Newton. 
Bresee, Albert, Hubbardton, Vt. 
Brewer, Francis W., Hingham. 
Brewer, John Reed, Boston. 
fBrigham, William T., Boston. 
Brimmer, Martin, Boston. 
Brintnall, Benjamin, Charlestown. 
Brooks, Francis, West Medford. 
Brooks, J. Henry, Milton. 
Brown, Alfred S., Jamaica Plain. 
Brown, Charles E., Yarmouth, N. S. 
Brown, Edward J., Weston. 
Brown, George Barnard, Boston. 
Brown, George Bruce, Framingham. 
Brown, Jacob, Woburn. 
Brownell, E. S., Essex Junction, Vt. 
Bruce, Nathaniel F., Billerica. 
Bullard, John R., Dedham. 
Bullard, William S., Boston. 
Burnett, Joseph, Southborough. 
Burnham, Thomas O. H. P., Boston. 
Burr, Fearing, Hingham. 
Burr, Matthew H., Hingham. 
Buswell, Edwin W., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Buswell, Frank E., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Butler, Aaron, Wakefield. 
Butler, Edward K., Jamaica Plain. 
Butterfield, William P., East Lex- 
ington. 

Cabot, Edward C, Brookline. 
Cadness, John, Flushing, N. Y. 
Cains, William. South Boston. 
Calder, Augustus P., Boston. 
Capen, John, Boston. 
Carlton, Samuel A., Boston. 
fCarruth, Charles, Boston. 
Carter, Miss Sabra, Wilmington. 
Cartwright, George, Dedham. 
Chadbourne, Marshall W. , Mount 

Auburn. 
Chamberlain, Chauncey W., Boston. 



Chapin, Nathaniel G., Brookline. 
Chase, Andrew J., Lynn. 
Chase, Daniel E., Somerville. 
fChase, George B., Boston. 
Chase, Hezekiah S., Boston. 
Chase, William M., Baltimore, Md. 
Cheney, Benjamin P., Boston. 
Child, Francis J., Cambridge. 
Child, William C, Medford. 
Childs, Nathaniel R., Boston. 
Choate, Charles F., Cambridge. 
Claflin, Hon. William, Newtonville. 
Clapp, Edward B., Dorchester. 
Clapp, Hon. Eugene H., Roxbury. 
Clapp, James H., Dorchester. 
Clapp, William C, Dorchester. 
Clark, Benjamin C, Boston. 
Clark, J. Warren, Rockville. 
fClark, Orus, Boston. 
Clarke, Miss Cora.H., Jamaica Plain. 
Clay, Henry, Dorchester. 
Cleary, Lawrence, West Roxbury. 
Clement, Asa, Dracut. 
Cobb, Albert A., Brookline. 
Coburn, Isaac E., Everett. 
Codman, Henry Sargent, Brookline. 
Codman, James M., Brookline. 
Codman, Ogden, Lincoln. 
Coffin, G. Winthrop, West Roxbury. 
Coffin, William E., Dorchester. 
Collamore, Miss Helen, Boston. 
Converse, Elisha S., Maiden. 
Converse, Parker L., Woburn. 
Coolidge, Joshua, Mount Auburn. 
Copeland, Franklin, West Dedham. 
Cowing, Walter H., West Roxbury. 
Coy, Samuel I., Boston. 
Crosby, George E., West Medford. 
Crowell, Randall H., Chelsea. 
Crowninshield, Benjamin W., Boston. 
Cummings, John, Woburn. 
Curtis, Charles F., Jamaica Plain. 
Curtis, George S., Jamaica Plain. 
Cushing, Robert M., Boston. 

fDaggett, Henry C, Boston. 
Damon, Samuel G., Arlington. 



364 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Dana, Charles B., Wellesley. 
Davenport, Edward, Dorchester. 
Davenport, George E., Medford. 
Davenport, Henry, Boston. 
Dawson, Jackson, Jamaica Plain. 
# Day, William F., Roxbury. 

Dee, Thomas W., Mount Auburn. 
Denny, Clarence H., Boston. 
Denton, Eben, Dorchester. 
Dewson, Francis A., Newtonville. 
Dexter, F. Gordon, Boston. 
Dickerman, George H., Somerville. 
Dike, Charles C, Stoneham. 
Dorr, George, Dorchester. 
Dove, George W. W., Andover. 
Durant, William, Boston. 
Durfee, George B., Fall River. 
Dutcher, F. J., Hopedale. 



Eaton, Horace, Cambridge. 
Eldridge, E. H., Roxbury. 
Ellicott, Joseph P., Boston. 
Elliott, Mrs. John W., Boston. 
Elliott, William H., Brighton. 
Endicott, William E., Canton. 
Eustis, William C, Hyde Park. 
Everett, William, Dorchester. 
Ewell, Warren, Dorchester. 



Fairchild, Charles, Boston. 
Falconer, William, Glencove, N. Y. 
Farlow, Lewis H., Newton. 
Farquhar, James F. M., Roslindale. 
Farquhar, Robert, Boston. 
Faxon, John, Quincy. 
Fenno, J. Brooks, Boston. 
Fewkes, Arthur H., Newton High- 
lands. 
Fisher, David, Montvale. 
Fisher, James, Roxbury. 
Fisher, Warren, Boston. 
Flagg, Augustus, Boston. 
Fleming, Edwin, West Newton. 
Fletcher, George V., Belmont. 
Fletcher, J. Henry, Belmont. 



Fletcher, John W., Chelsea. 
Flint, David B., Watertown. 
Flynt, William N., Monson. 
Forster, Edward J., M. D., Boston. 
Foster, Francis C, Cambridge. 
Fottler, John, Jr., Dorchester. 
Fowle, George W., Jamaica Plain. 
Fowle, William B., Auburndale. 
French, Jonathan, Boston. 
French, J. D. Williams, Boston. 



Galloupe, Charles W. , Swampscott. 
Galvin, John, West Roxbury. 
f Gardner, Henry N., Mount Auburn. 
Gardner, John L., Brookline. 
Gibbs, Wolcott, M.D., Newport, R. I. 
Gill, George B., Medford. 
Gillard, William, Atlantic. 
Gilmore, E. W., North Easton. 
Gilson, F. Howard, Reading. 
Glover, Albert, Boston. 
Glover, Joseph B., Boston. 
Goddard, A. Warren, Brookline. 
Goddard, Joseph, Roxbury. 
Goddard, Mrs. Mary T., Newton. 
Goodell, L. W., Dwight. 
Gorham, James L., Jamaica Plain. 
fGould, Samuel, Boston. 
Gray, James, Wellesley. 
Gregory, James J. H., Marblehead. 
Greig, George, Toronto, Ontario. 
Grey, Benjamin, Maiden. 
Guild, J. Anson, Brookline. 



Hadwen, Obadiah B., Worcester. 
Hall, Edwin A., Cambridgeport. 
Hall, George A., Chelsea. 
Hall, George R., Fort George, Fla. 
fHall, John R., Roxbury. 
Hall, Lewis, Cambridge. 
Hall, Stephen A., Revere. 
Hall, William F., Brookline. 
Halliday, William H. , South Boston. 
Hammond, Gardiner G., New Lon- 
don, Conn. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 



365 



Hammond, George W., Boston. 
Hammond, Samuel, Boston. 
Hanson, P. G., Woburn. 
Harding, Charles L., Cambridge, 
t Harding, George W., Arlington. 
Harding, Louis B., Stamford, Ct. 
Hardy, F. D., Jr., Cambridgeport. 
Harrington, Nathan D., Somerville. 
Harris, Charles, Cambridge. 
Harris, Thaddeus William, A.M., 

Cambridge. 
Hart, William T., Boston. 
Hastings, Levi W., Brookline. 
Hathaway, Seth W., Marblehead. 
Hawken, Mrs. Thomas, Salem. 
Hayes, Daniel F., Exeter, N. H. 
Hayes, Francis Brown, Lexington. 
fHazeltine, Hazen, Boston. 
Hemenway, Augustus, Canton. 
Henshaw, Joseph P. B., Boston. 
Heywood, George, Concord. 
Hilbourn, A. J., Boston. 
Hill, John, Stoneham. 
Hitchings, E. H., Maiden. 
Hittinger, Jacob, Belmont. 
Hoar, Samuel, Concord. 
Hodgkins, John E., Boston. 
Hollis, George W., Grantville. 
Hollis, John W., Allston. 
Holt, Mrs. Stephen A., Winchester. 
Hooper, Thomas, Bridgewater. 
Horner, Mrs. Charlotte N. S., 

Georgetown. 
Horsford, Miss Kate, Cambridge. 
Hovey, Charles H., East Pasadena, 

Cal. 
Hovey, John C, Cambridgeport. 
Hovey, Stillman S., Woburn. 
Hubbard, Charles T., Weston. 
Hubbard, Gardner G., Cambridge. 
Hubbard, James C, Everett. 
Humphrey, George W., Dedham. 
Hunnewell, Arthur, Wellesley. 
Hunnewell, H. Hollis, Wellesley. 
Hunnewell, Walter, Wellesley. 
Hunt, Franklin, Boston. 
Hunt, William H., Concord. 



Hyde, James F. C, Newton High- 
lands. 

Jackson, Charles L., Cambridge. 
Jackson, -Robert T., Dorchester. 
Janvrin, William S., Revere. 
Jeffries, John, Boston. 
Jenks, Charles W., Boston. 
Johnson, J. Frank, Boston. 
Jose, Edwin H., Cambridgeport. 
Joyce, Mrs. E. S., Medford. 

Kakas, Edward, West Medford. 
Kelly, George B., Jamaica Plain. 
Kendall, D. S., Woodstock, Ont. 
Kendall, Edward, Cambridgeport. 
Kendall, Joseph R., San Francisco, 

Cal. 
Kendrick, Mrs. H. P., Allston. 
Kennard, Charles W., Boston. 
Kennedy, George G., M.D., Milton. 
fKent, John, Charlestown. 
fKeyes, E. W., Denver, Col. 
Keyes, George, Concord. 
Kidder, Charles A., Boston. 
Kidder, Nathaniel T., Milton, 
f Kimball, A. P., Boston. 
King, Franklin, Dorchester. 
Kingman, Abner A., Brookline. 
Kingman, CD., Middleborough. 
Kinney, John M., East Wareham. 

Lancaster, Charles B., Newton. 
Lane, John, East Bridgewater. 
Lawrence, James, Groton. 
fLawrence, John, Boston. 
Learned, Charles A., Arlington. 
Lee, Charles J., Dorchester. 
Lee, Henry, Boston. 
Leeson, Joseph R., Newton Centre. 
Lemme, Frederick, North Cam- 
bridge. 
Leuchars, Robert B., Boston. 
Lewis, A. S., Framingham. 
Lewis, William G., Framingham. 
Lincoln, George, Hingham. 
Lincoln, Col. Solomon, Boston. 



366 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Little, James L., Jr., Brookline. 
Locke, William H., Belmont. 
Lockwood, Rhodes, Boston. 
fLoftus, John P., North Easton. 
Lord, George C, Newton. 
Loring, Caleb W., Beverly Farms. 
Loring, George B., Salem. 
Lovett, George L., West Newton. 
fLowder, John, Watertown. 
Lowell, Augustus, Boston. 
Luke, Elijah H., Cambridgeport. 
Lumb, William, Boston. 
Lyman, Theodore, Brookline. 
Lyon, Henry, Charlestown. 

f Mahoney, John, Boston. 
Mann, James F., Ipswich. 
Mann, Jonathan, Readville. 
Manning, Jacob W., Reading. 
Manning, Mrs. Lydia B., Reading. 
Manning, Robert, Salem. 
Manning, Warren H., Brookline. 
Marshall, Frederick F., Chelsea. 
Martin, John S., Roxbury. 
Matthews, Nathan, Boston. 
McCarty, Timothy, Providence, R. I. 
McClure, John, Revere. 
Mc William, George, Whitinsville. 
Melvin, James C, West Newton. 
Merriam, Herbert, Weston. 
Merriam, M. H., Lexington. 
Merrifield, William T., Worcester. 
Merrill, Hon. Moody, Roxbury. 
Metivier, James, Cambridge. 
Milmore, Mrs. Joseph , Newton Lower 

Falls. 
Minton, James, Boston. 
Moore, John H., Concord. 
Morrill, Joseph, Jr., Roxbury. 
fMorse, Samuel F., Boston. 
Morse, William A., Charlestown. 
Motley, Thomas, Jamaica Plain. 
Miudge, George A., Portsmouth, N. H. 
fMunroe, Otis, Boston. 

Needham, Daniel, Groton. 
Nevins, David, Framingham. 



Newman, John R. , Winchester. 
Newton, Rev. William W., Pittsfield. 
Nickerson, Albert W., Marion. 
Nickerson, George A., Dedham. 
Norton, Charles W., Allston. 
Nourse, Benjamin F., Boston. 

Oakman, Hiram A., North Marsh- 
field. 
fOsgood, James Ripley, Boston. 

Packer, Charles H., Boston. 
Paige, Clifton H., Boston. 
Palmer, Julius A., Jr., Boston. 
Park, William T., Boston. 
Parker, Augustus, Roxbury. 
Parkman, Francis, Jamaica Plain. 
Partridge, Horace, North Cambridge. 
Paul, Alfred W., Dighton. 
Peabody, John E., Boston. 
Peabody, Col. Oliver W., Milton. 
Pearce, John, West Roxbury. 
Peck, Lucius T., Dorchester. 
Peck, O. H., Denver, Col. 
Peck, William G., Arlington. 
Peirce, Silas, Boston. 
Penniman, A. P., Waltham. 
Perkins, Augustus T., Boston. 
Perkins, Edward N., Jamaica Plain. 
Perkins, William P., Wayland. 
fPerry, George W., Maiden. 
Philbrick, William D., Newton Centre. 
Pierce, Dean, Brookline. 
Pierce, Henry L., Boston. 
Pierce, Samuel B., Dorchester. 
Poor, John R., Boston. 
Porter, Herbert, Maiden. 
Potter, Joseph S., Arlington. 
Prang, Louis, Roxbury. 
Pratt, Laban, Dorchester. 
Pratt, Lucius G., West Newton. 
Pratt, Robert M., Boston. 
Pratt, William, Winchester. 
Pray, Mark W., Boston. 
fPrescott, Eben C, Boston. 
fPrescott, William G., Boston. 
Prescott, William G., Quincy. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 



367 



Pringle, Cyrus G., Charlotte, Yt. 
Proctor, Thomas P., Jamaica Plain. 
Prouty, Gardner, Littleton. 
Putnam, Joshua H., Brookline. 

Quinby, Hosea M., M.D., Worcester. 

Rand, Miss Elizabeth L., Newton 

Highlands. 
Rand, Harry S., North Cambridge. 
Rand, Oliver J., Cambridgeport. 
Rawson, Warren W., Arlington. 
Ray, James F., Franklin. 
Ray, James P., Franklin. 
Ray, Joseph G., Franklin. 
Raymond, Walter, Cambridgeport. 
Reed, George W., Boston. 
Rice, George C, Worcester. 
Richards, John J., Boston. 
Richardson, Charles E., Cambridge. 
Rinn, J. Ph., Boston. 
Ripley, Charles, Dorchester. 
Robbins, I. Gilbert, Wakefield. 
fRobeson, William R., Boston. 
Robinson, John, Salem. 
Robinson, Joseph B., Allston. 
Ross, Henry, Newtonvilie. 
Ross, M. Denman, Forest Hills. 
Ross, Waldo O., Boston. 
R'uddick, William H., M.D., South 

Boston. 
Russell, George, Woburn. 
Russell, Hon. John E., Leicester. 
Russell, Walter, Arlington. 

fSampson, George R., London, Eng- 
land. 
Sanford, Oliver S., Hyde Park. 
Sargent, Charles S., Brookline. 
Sargent, John O., Lenox. 
Saville, Richard L., Brookline. 
Sawtelle, Eli A., Boston. 
Sawyer, Timothy T., Charlestown. 
fScott, Charles, Newton. 
Scudder, Charles W., Brookline. 
Sears, J. Montgomery, Boston. 
Seaver, Nathaniel, East Boston. 



Shaw, Christopher C, Milford, N. H. 
Shimmin, Charles F., Boston. 
Shorey, John L., Lynn. 
Skinner, Francis, Boston. 
Smith, Benjamin G., Cambridge. 
Smith, Calvin W., Grantville. 
Smith, Charles H., Jamaica Plain. 
Smith, Charles S., Lincoln. 
Smith, Chauncey, Cambridge. 
Smith, Edward N., San Francisco. 
Smith, George 0., Boston. 
Smith, James H., Dedham. 
Smith, Thomas Page, Waltham. 
Snow, Eben, Cambridge. 
Snow, Miss Salome H., Brunswick, 

Me. 
Spaulding, Edward, West Newton. 
Speare, Alden, Newton Centre. 
Springall, George, Maiden. 
Stetson, Nahum, Bridgewater. 
Stewart, William J. , Winchester. 
Stickney, Rufus B., Somerville. 
Stone, Amos, Charlestown. 
Stone, Charles W., Boston. 
Stone, George F., Chestnut Hill. 
Stone, Phineas J., Charlestown. 
Strong, William C, Waban. 
Sturgis, Russell, Manchester. 
Sturtevant, E. Lewis, M.D., South 

Framingham. 
Surette, Louis A., Concord. 

Taft, John B., Cambridge. 
Tarbell, George G., M.D., Boston. 
Taylor, Horace B., Boston. 
Temple, Felker L., Somerville. 
Thurlow, Thomas C.,West Newbury. 
Tidd, Marshall M., Woburn. 
Tilton, Stephen W., Roxbury. 
Todd, John, Hingham. 
Tolman, Benjamin, Concord. 
fTolman, Miss Harriet S., Boston. 
Torrey, Everett, Charlestown. 
Tufts, Arthur W., Roxbury. 
fTurner, JohnM., Dorchester. 
Turner, Roswell W., Dorchester. 
Turner, Royal W., Randolph. 



368 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Underwood, William J., Belmont. 

Vanderwoerd, Charles, Waltham. 
Vinal, Miss Mary L., Somerville. 

Wainwright, William L., Braintree. 
Wakefield, E. H., Cambridge. 
Walcott, Henry P., M.D., Cambridge. 
Wales, George O., Braintree. 
Walker, Edward C.R., Roxbury. 
Walley, Mrs. W. P., Boston. 
Walton, Daniel G., Wakefield. 
Ward, Francis Jackson, Roxbury. 
Ward, John, Newton Centre. 
Wardwell, William H., Brookline. 
Ware, Benjamin P., Clifton. 
Warren, George W., Boston. 
Washburn, Andrew, Hyde Park. 
Waters, Edwin F., Boston. 
Waters, George F., Boston. 
Watson, Benjamin M., Jr., Jamaica 

Plain. 
Watson, Thomas A., East Braintree. 
Watts, Isaac, Waverly. 
Webber, Aaron D., Boston. 
Weld, Christopher Minot, Jamaica 

Plain. 
Weld, George W., Newport, R. I. 
Weld, Moses W., M.D., Boston. 
Weld, Richard H., Boston. 
Weld, William G., Boston. 
West, Mrs. Maria L., Neponset. 



Weston, Leonard W., Lincoln. 
Weston, Seth, Revere. 
Wheeler, Frank, Concord. 
Wheelwright, A. C, Brookline. 
Whitcomb, William B., Medford. 
White, Edward A., Boston. 
White, Francis A., Brookline. 
White, Joseph H., Brookline. 
fWhitely, Edward, Cambridgeport. 
Whitten, Charles V., Dorchester. 
tWhytal,Thomas G., New York,N.Y. 
Wilbur, George B., West Newton. 
Wilder, Edward Baker, Dorchester. 
Wilder, Henry A., Maiden. 
Willard; E. W., Newport, R. I. 
Willcutt, Levi L., West Roxbury. 
Williams, Aaron D., Boston. 
Williams, Benjamin B., Boston. 
Williams, Philander, Taunton. 
Willis, George W., Chelsea. 
Willis, Joshua C, Roxbury. 
Wilson, Col. Henry W., Boston. 
Wilson, William Power, Boston. 
Winthrop, Robert C, Jr., Boston. 
Wood, Charles G. , Boston. 
Wood, Luke H., Marlborough. 
Wood, R. W., M.D., Jamaica Plain. 
Wood, William K., West Newton. 
Woods, Henry, Boston. 
Woodward, Royal, Brookline. 
Wright, George C, West Acton. 
Wyman, Oliver B., Shrewsbury. 



ANNUAL MEMBEES. 



Members of the Society and all other persons who may know of deaths, 
changes of residence, or other circumstances showing that the following list 
is inaccurate in any particular, will confer a favor by promptly communi- 
cating to the Secretary the needed corrections. 



Abbot, Samuel L., M.D., Boston. 
Abbott, Allen V., Boston. 
Allen, Charles L., Floral Park, N. Y. 
Arnold, Mrs. AnnaE., Newton. 
Atkinson, Charles M., Brookline. 
Atkinson, Edward, Brookline. 
Atkinson, William B., Newburyport. 

Bacon, Augustus, Roxbury. 
Badlam, William H., Dorchester. 
Bard, James, Dorchester. 
Barker, John G., Jamaica Plain. 
Beard, Edward L., Cambridge. 
Beer, Carl, Bangor, Maine. 
Benedict, Washington G., Boston. 
Bigelow, Arthur J., Marlborough. 
Bird, John L., Dorchester. 
Bliss, Benjamin K., East Bridgewater. 
Bock, William A., North Cambridge. 
Bolles, Matthew, Boston. 
Bolles, William P., Roxbury. 
Bolton, John B., Somerville. 
Bowditch, E. F., Framingham. 
Bowditch, James H., Brookline. 
Bowker, Albert, East Boston. 
Boyden, Clarence F., Taunton. 
Breck, Charles H., Newton. 
Breck, Charles H. B., Brighton. 
Brooks, George, Brookline. 
Brown, David H., West Medford. 
Burley, Edward, Beverly. 
Butler, Edward, Wellesley. 



Carroll, James T., Chelsea. 
Carter, Miss Maria E., Woburn. 
Carter, Mrs. Sarah D. J., Wilmington. 
Chaffin, John C, Newton. 
Chase, Joseph S., Maiden. 
Chase, Leverett M., Roxbury. 
Cheney, Amos P., Natick. 
Chubbuck, Isaac Y., Roxbury. 
Clapp, Henry L., Roxbury. 
Clark, Joseph, Manchester. 
Clark, Theodore M., Newtonville. 
Collins, Frank S., Maiden. 
Comley, James, Lexington. 
Coolidge, David H., Jr., Boston. 
Crafts, William A., Boston. 
Crosby, J. Allen, Jamaica Plain. 
Curtis, Joseph H., Boston. 

Davenport, Albert M., Watertown. 
Davis, Frederick, Saxonville. 
Davis, Frederick S., West Roxbury. 
Davis, Thomas M., Cambridgeport. 
De Mar, John A., Brighton. 
Dolbear, Mrs. Alice J., College Hill. 
Doliber, Thomas, Brookline. 
Doran, Enoch E., Brookline. 
Doyle, William E., East Cambridge. 
Duffley, Daniel, Brookline. 

Eaton, Jacob, Cambridgeport. 
Endicott, Miss Charlotte M., Canton. 



370 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Faxon, Edwin, Jamaica Plain. 
Faxon, Marshall B., Boston. 
Felton, Arthur W., West Newton. 
Fenno, Warren, Revere. 
Fisher, Sewall, Framinghara. 
Forbes, William H., Jamaica Plain. 
Foster, Joshua T\, Medford. 
Frohock, Roscoe R., Maiden. 
Frost, Artemas, Belmont. 
Frost, George, West Newton. 
Frost, Varnum, Belmont. 
Frost, Warren S., Belmont. 
Fuller, T. Otis, Needham. 



Gibbon, Mrs. James A., Brookline. 
Gilbert, Samuel, Boston. 
Gill, Mrs. E. M., Medford. 
Gleason, Herbert, Maiden. 
Goddard, Thomas, Boston. 
Grant, Charles E., Concord. 
Guerineau, Louis, Cambridge. 



Haile, Hon. William H., Springfield. 
Hall, Charles H., M.D., Boston. 
Hall, Stacy, Boston. 
Hall, William T., Revere. 
Hamlin, Delwin A., Allston. 
Hanks, Mrs. C. Stedman, Boston. 
Hargraves, William J., Jamaica 

Plain. 
Harris, Miss Ellen M., Jamaica Plain. 
Harris, Frederick L., Wellesley. 
Hartwell, Samuel, Lincoln. 
Harwood, George S., Newton. 
Hersey, Alfred H, Hingham. 
Hersey, Edmund, Hingham. 
Hews, Albert H., North Cambridge. 
Hill, Benjamin D., Peabody. 
Hill, Edwin S., Clarendon Hills. 
Hill, J. Willard, Belmont. 
Hobbs, George M., Boston. 
Hollis, George, South Weymouth. 
Houghton, George S., Auburndale. 
Hunt, Henry C, Newton. 
Huston, Miss Katharine W., Roxbury. 



Jameson, G. W., East Lexington. 
Jordan, Hon. Jediah P., Roxbury. 

Kendall, Jonas, Framingham. 
Kenrick, Miss Anna C, Newton. 
Kidder, Francis H., Medford. 

Lamprell, Simon, Marblehead. 
Lancaster, Mrs. E. M., Roxbury. 
Langmaid, Mrs. Mary, Somerville. 
Lawrence, Henry S., Roxbury. 
Lawrence, Sidney, East Lexington. 
Lee, Francis H., Salem. 
Lombard, Richard T., Jamaica Plain. 
Loring, Charles G. , Boston. 
Loring, John A., North Andover. 
Lothrop, David W., West Medford. 
Lothrop, Thornton K., Boston. 
Loud, Mrs. Mary E., Chelsea. 
Lougee, Miss Susan C, Roxbury. 
Low, Hon. Aaron, Essex. 
Lowell, John, Newton. 
Lunt, William W., Hingham. 

Manda, W. A., Short Hills, N. J. 

Manning, A. Chandler, Reading. 

Manning, J. Woodward, Reading. 

Markoe, George F. H., Roxbury. 

Martin, William J., Milton. 

Maxwell, Charles E., Boston. 

May, F. W. G., Boston. 

McDermott, Andrew, Roxbury. 

Mcintosh, Aaron S., Roxbury. 

McLaren, Anthony, Forest Hills. 

Meriam, Horatio C, D.M.D., Salem. 

Merrill, John Jay, Roxbury. 

Merrill, Capt. S. A., Wollaston 
Heights. 

Muzzey, Rev. Artemas B., Cam- 
bridge. 

Nightingale, Rev. Crawford, Dor- 
chester. 
Norton, Michael H., Boston. 
Norton, Patrick, Boston. 

Olmsted, Frederick Law, Brookline. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



371 , 



Park, William D., Boston. 
Parker, George A., Halifax. 
Parker, John, Medford. 
Peiree, George H., Concord. 
Peirce, Herbert H. D., Cambridge. 
Petremant, Robert, Dorchester. 
Pitcher, James R., Short Hills, N. J. 
Plimpton, Willard P., West Newton. 
Power, Charles J., South Framing- 
ham. 
Prichard, Joseph V., Boston. 
Purdie, George A., Wellesley Hills. 
Putnam, Charles A., Salem. 

Randall, Macey, Stoughton. 
Rich, William E. C, Roxbury. 
Rich, William P., Chelsea. 
Richards, Mrs. P. D., West Medford. 
Richardson, Horace, M.D., Boston. 
Bobbins, Oliver R. , "Weston. 
Robinson, William, North Easton. 
Ross, Charles W., Newtonville. 

Safford, Nathaniel F., Milton. 

Saunders, Miss Mary T., Salem. 

Sawtell, J. M., Fitchburg. 

Schmitt, George A., Boston. 

Scott, Augustus E., Lexington. 

Scudder, Samuel H., Cambridge. 

Seaver, Edwin P., LL.D., Newton 
Highlands. 

Sharpies, Stephen P., Cambridge. 

Shattuck, Frederick R., Roxbury. 

Shedd, Abraham B., Waltham. 

Sheppard, Edwin, Lowell. 

Snow, Eugene A., Melrose. 

Snow, Francis B., Dorchester. 

Southworth, Edward, Quincy. 

Spencer, Aaron W., Boston. 

Spooner, William H., Jamaica Plain. 

Squire, Miss Esther A., North Cam- 
bridge. 

Squire, John P., Arlington. 

Stearns, Mrs. Charles A., East 
Watertown. 

Stearns, Charles H., Brookline. 

Stone, Samuel G., Charlestown. 



Storer, Charles, Natick. 

Story, Miss Sarah W., Brighton. 

Swan, Charles W., M.D., Boston. 

Tailby, Joseph, Wellesley. 

Talbot, Josiah W., Norwood. 

Teel, William H., West Acton. 

Terry, Rev. Calvin, North Wey- 
mouth. 

Tobey, S. Edwin, Boston. 

Torrey, Bradford, Boston. 

Tousey, Prof. William G., College 
Hill. 

Turner, Nathaniel W., Boston. 

Vaughan, J. C, Chicago, 111. 

Walker, William P., Somerville. 

Way, John M., Roxbury. 

Welch, Patrick, Dorchester. 

Wellington, Miss Caroline, East 
Lexington. 

Wells, Benjamin T., Newton. 

Weston, Mrs. L. P., Danvers. 

Wheatland, Henry, M.D., Salem. 

Wheeler, James, Brookline. 

White, George A., Roxbury. 

White, W. Henry, Lowell. 

Whitney, Joel, Winchester. 

Whiton, Starkes, Hingham Centre. 

Whittier, Hon. Charles, Roxbury. 

Wilcox, George D., M.D., Provi- 
dence, R. I. 

Wilmarth, Henry D., Jamaica Plain. 

Wilson, B. Osgood, Watertown. 

Wilson, George W., Maiden. 

Winter, William C, Mansfield. 

Wolcott, Mrs. Henrietta L. T., Ded- 
ham. 

Wood, Mrs. Anna D., West Newton. 

Wood, E. W., West Newton. 

Woodford, Joseph H., Boston. 

Worthington, Roland, Roxbury. 

Young, E. Bentley, Boston. 
Zirngiebel, Denys, Needham. 



372 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS. 



SECTION XXVI. — Life Members. 

The payment of thirty dollars shall constitute a Life Membership, and 
exempt the member from all future assessments ; and any member having 
once paid an admission fee may become a Life Member by the payment of 
twenty dollars in addition thereto. 



SECTION XXVII. — Admission Fee and Annual Assessment. 

Every subscription member, before he receives his diploma, or exercises 
the privileges of a member, shall pay the sum of ten dollars as an admission 
fee, and shall be subject afterwards to an annual assessment of two dollars. 



SECTION XXIX. — Discontinuance of Membership. 

Any member who shall neglect for the space of two years to pay his annual 

ssessment shall cease to be a member of the Society, and the Treasurer 

shall erase his name from the List of Members. Any member may withdraw 

from the Society, on giving notice to the Treasurer and paying the amount 

due from him to the Society. 

The attention of Annual Members is particularly called to Section XXIX. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



Members and correspondents of the Society and all other persons who may 
know of deaths, changes of residence, or other circumstances showing that 
the following list is inaccurate in any particular, will confer a favor by 
promptly communicating to the Secretary the needed corrections. 

Information, or any clew to it, is especially desired in regard to Joseph 
Maxwell, elected in 1830, and George W. Smith, elected in 1851. The names 
of those known to be deceased are marked with a star. 



♦Benjamin Abbott, LL.D., Exeter, N. H. 

*John Abbott, Brunswick, Me. * 

*Hon. John Quincy Adams, LL.D., late President of the United States, 
Quincy. 

♦Professor Louis Agassiz, Cambridge. 

♦William T. Aiton, late Curator of the Royal Gardens, Kew, England. 

♦Thomas Allen, late President of the St. Louis Horticultural Society, 
St. Louis, Mo., and Pittsfield, Mass. 

♦Hon. Samuel Appleton, Boston. 

♦Hon. James Arnold, New Bedford. 

♦Edward Nathaniel Bancroft, M.D., late President of the Horticultural 
and Agricultural Society of Jamaica. 

♦Hon. Philip P. Barbour, Virginia. 

♦Don Angel Calderon de la Barca, late Spanish Minister at Wash- 
ington. 

♦Robert Barclay, Bury Hill, Dorking, Surrey, England. 

♦James Beekman, New York. 

♦L'Abbe" Berlese, Paris. 

♦Nicholas Biddle, Philadelphia. 

♦Dr. Jacob Bigelow, Boston. 

♦Mrs. Lucy Bigelow, Medford. 

♦Le Chevalier Soulange Bodin, late Secretaire General de la Societe 
d' Horticulture de Paris. 
Hon. George S. Boutwell, Groton. 

♦Josiah Bradlee, Boston. 

♦Hon. George N. Briggs, Pittsfield. 

♦Hon. James Buchanan, late President of the United States, Lancaster, 
Pa. 



374 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

♦Hon. Jesse Buel, late President of the Albany Horticultural Society, 

Albany, N. Y. 
♦Hon. Edmund Burke, late Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C. 
♦Augustin Ptramus de Candolle, Geneva, Switzerland. 
♦Hon. Horace Capron, late U. S. Commissioner of Agriculture, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 
*Commodore Isaac Chauncey, U. S. Navy, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
*Ward Chipman, late Chief Justice of New Brunswick, St. John. 
♦Lewis Clapier, Philadelphia. 
♦Hon. Henry Clay, Lexington, Ky. 
H. W. S. Cleveland, Minneapolis, Minn. 
*Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin, Bart., England. 
*Zaccheus Collins, late President of the Pennsylvania Horticultural 

Society, Philadelphia. 
♦Roswell L. Colt, Paterson, N. J. 
♦Caleb Cope, late President of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 

Philadelphia. 
* William Coxe, Burlington, N. J. 
*John P. Cushing, Watertown. 

*Charles W. Dabney, late U. S. Consul, Fayal, Azores. 
*Hon. John Davis, LL.D., Boston. 
*Sir Humphry Davy, London. 

*Gen. Henry Alexander Scammel Dearborn, Roxbury. , 

♦James Dickson, late Vice-President of the Horticultural Society of 

London. 
♦Mrs. Dorothy Dix, Boston. 
*Capt. Jesse D. Elliot, U. S. Navy. 
♦Hon. Stephen Elliot, LL.D., Charleston, S. C. 

*Hon. Henry L. Ellsworth, late Commissioner of Patents, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 
♦Allyn Charles Evanson, late Secretary of the King's County Agricult- 
ural Society, St. John, N. B. 
*Hon. Edward Everett, LL.D., Boston. 
♦Hon. Horace Everett, Vermont. 

*F. Faldermann, late Curator of the Imperial Botanic Garden, St. Peters- 
burg. 
♦Hon. Millard Fillmore, late President of the United States, Buffalo, N. Y. 
*Dr. F. E. Fischer, late Professor of Botany at the Imperial Botanic 

Garden, St. Petersburg, Russia. 
*Hon. Theodore Frelinghuysen, late President of the American Agricult- 
ural Society, New Brunswick, N. J. 
♦Joseph Gales, Jr., late Vice-President of the Horticultural Society, 

Washington, D. C. 
♦George Gibbs, New York. 
♦Stephen Girard, Philadelphia. 

♦Hon. Robert T. Goldsborough, Talbot County, Md. 
♦Ephraim Goodale, South Orrington, Me. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 375 



t 



♦Mrs. Rebecca Gore, Waltham. 

♦Hon. John Greig, late President of the Domestic Horticultural Society, 

Canandaigua, N. Y. 
*Mrs. Mart Griffith, Charlieshope, N. J. 
*Gen. William Henry Harrison, late President of the United States, 

North Bend, 0. 
*S. P. Hildreth, M.D., Marietta, O. 

♦Thomas Hopkirk, late President of the Glasgow Horticultural Society. 
♦David Hosack, M.D., late President of the New York Horticultural 

Society. 
♦Lewis Hunt, Huntsburg, O. 
♦Joseph R. Ingersoll, late President of the Pennsylvania Horticultural 

Society, Philadelphia. 
♦Gen. Andrew Jackson, late President of the United States, Nashville, 

Tenn. 
♦Mrs. Martha Johonnot, Salem. 

♦Jared Potter Kirtland, M.D., LL.D., East Rockport, O. 
♦Thomas Andrew Knight, late President -of the Horticultural Society of 

London. 
♦Gen. La Fayette, La Grange, France. 

♦Le Comte de Lasteyrie, late Vice-President of the Horticultural Society 
of Paris. 
Major L. A. Huguet-Latour, M. P., Montreal, Can. 
♦Baron Justus Liebig, Giessen, Germany. 
♦Professor John Lindley, late Secretary of the Royal Horticultural Society, 

London. 
♦Franklin Litchfield, late U. S. Consul at Puerto Cabello, Venezuela. 
♦Joshua Longstreth, Philadelphia. 
♦Nicholas Longworth, Cincinnati, O. 

♦Jacob Lorillard, late President of the New York Horticultural Society. 
♦John Claudius Loudon, London. 
♦Hon. John A. Lowell, Boston. 

♦Baron Charles Ferdinand Henry von Ludwig, late Vice-President of 
the South African Literary and Scientific Institution, Cape Town, 
Cape of Good Hope. 
♦Hon. Theodore Lyman, Brookline. 
Col. Theodore Lyman, Brookline. 
♦Hon. James Madison, late President of the United States, Montpelier, Va. 
♦Mrs. Charlotte Maryatt, Wimbledon, near London. 
Joseph Maxwell, Rio Janeiro. 

♦D. Smith McCauley, late U. S. Consul-General at Tripoli, Philadelphia. 
♦Hon. Isaac McKim, late President of the Horticultural Society of Mary- 
land, Baltimore. 
Rev. James H. Means, Dorchester. 
♦James Mease, M.D., Philadelphia. 
♦Lewis John Mentens, Brussels, Belgium. 
♦Hon. Charles F. Mercer, Virginia. 



376 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

♦Francois Andre" Michaux, Paris. 
Donald G. Mitchell, New Haven, Conn. 
♦Samuel L. Mitchill, M.D., LL.D., New York. 

*Hon. James Monroe, late President of the United States, Oak Hill, Va. 
♦Alfred S. Monson, M.D., late President of the New Haven Horticultural 

Society, New Haven, Conn. 
♦Hon. A. N. Morin, Montreal, Can. 
♦Theodore Mosselmann, Antwerp, Belgium. 

Baron R. Von Osten Sacken, Heidelberg, Germany. 
♦Baron Ottenfels, late Austrian Minister to the Ottoman Porte. 
♦John Palmer, Calcutta. 
♦Hon. Joel Parker, LL.D., Cambridge. 

Samuel B. Parsons, Flushing, N. Y. 
♦Hon. Thomas H. Perkins, Brookline. 

♦Antoine Poiteau, late Professor in the Institut Horticole de Fromont. 
♦Hon. James K. Polk, late President of the United States, Nashville, 

Tenn. 
♦John Hare Powel, Powelton, Pa. 
♦Henry Pratt, Philadelphia. 
♦William Prince, Flushing, N. Y. 
♦Rev. George Putnam, D.D., Roxbury. 

♦Col. Joel Rathbone, late President of the Albany and Rensselaer Horti- 
cultural Society, Albany, N. Y. 
♦Archibald John, Earl of Rosebery, late President of the Caledonian 

Horticultural Society. 
♦Joseph Sabine, late Secretary of the Horticultural Society of London. 
♦Don Ramon de la Sagra, Havana, Cuba. 
♦Henry Winthrop Sargent, Fishkill, N. Y. 
♦Sir Walter Scott, Abbotsford, Scotland. 

♦John Shepherd, late Curator of the Botanic Garden, Liverpool, England. 
♦John S. Skinner, late Editor of the American Farmer, Baltimore, Md. 

George W. Smith, Boston. 
♦Stephen H. Smith, late President of the Rhode Island Horticultural 

Society. 
♦Hon. Charles Sumner, Boston. 
♦Hon. John Taliaferro, Virginia. 
♦Gen. James Talmadge, late President of the American Institute, New 

York. 
♦Gen. Zachary Taylor, late President of the United States, Baton 

Rouge, La. 
♦James Thacher, M. D., Plymouth. 
John J. Thomas, Union Springs, N.Y. 
♦James W. Thompson, M.D., Wilmington, Del. 
♦Grant Thorburn, New York. 
♦M. Du Petit Thouars, Paris. 
♦Le Vicomte Hericart De Thury, late President of the Horticultural 

Society of Paris. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 377 

*Mons. Tougard, late President of the Horticultural Society of Rouen, 
France. 

*Gen. Nathan Towson, late President of the Horticultural Society, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

*Hon. John Tyler, late President of the United States, Williamsburg, Va. 

*Rev. Joseph Tyso, Wallingford, England. 

*Hon. Martin Van Buren, late President of the United States, Kinder- 
hook, N. Y. 

♦Federal Vanderburg, M.D., New York. 

*Jean Baptiste Van Mons, M.D., Brussels, Belgium. 

*Gen. Stephen Van Rensselaer, Albany, N. Y. 

♦Joseph. R. Van Zandt, Albany, N. Y. 

*Benjamin Vaughan, M.D., Hallowell, Me. 

♦Petty Vaughan, London. 

*Rev. N. Villeneuve, Montreal, Can. 

*Pierre Philippe Andre" Vilmorin, Paris. 

*James Wadsworth, Geneseo, N. Y. 

*Nathaniel Wallich, M.D., late Curator of the Botanic Garden, Calcutta. 

*Malthus A. Ward, M.D., late Professor in Franklin College, Athens, Ga. 

*Hon. Daniel Webster, Marshfield. 

*Hon. John Welles, Boston. 

♦Jeremiah Wilkinson, Cumberland, R. I. 
Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, Boston. 

♦Frederick Wolcott, Litchfield, Conn. 

*Ashton Yates, Liverpool, England. 

♦Lawrence Young, late President of the Kentucky Horticultural Society, 
Louisville. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



Members and, correspondents of the Society and all other persons who may 
know of deaths, changes of residence, or other circumstances showing that 
the following list is inaccurate in any particular, will confer a favor by 
promptly reporting to the Secretary the needed corrections. 

Information, or any clew to it, is especially desired in regard to Alexander 
Burton, elected in 1829, S. Reynolds, M.D., 1832, and Francis Summerest, 
1833. The names of those known to be deceased are marked with a star. 



*John Adlum, Georgetown, D. C. 

*Don Francisco Aguilar t Leal, late U. S. Vice-Consul at Maldonado, 

Banda Oriental del Uruguay. 
*Mons. Alfroy, Lieusaint, France. 

* James T. Allan, late President of the Nebraska State Horticultural 
Society, Omaha. 

A. B. Allen, New York. 
*Rev. Thomas D. Anderson, D.D., South Boston. 

Edouard Andre\ Redacteur en chef de la Revue Horticole, Paris, France. 
*Thomas Appleton, late U. S. Consul at Leghorn, Italy. 
*Col. Thomas Aspinwall, late U. S. Consul at London, Brookline. 

P. M. Augur, State Pomologist, Middlefield, Conn. 

Professor L. H. Bailey, Jr., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
*Isaac Cox Barnet, late U. S. Consul at Paris. 
*Patrick Barry, late Vice-President of the American Pomological Society, 

Rochester, N. Y. 
*Augustine Baumann, Bolwiller, Alsace. 
*Eugene Achihe Baumann, Rahway, N. J. 
*Joseph Bernard Baumann, Bolwiller, Alsace. 

Napoleon Baumann, Bolwiller, Alsace. 

D. W. Beadle, St. Catherine's, Ontario. 

Professor William J. Beal, Lansing, Michigan. 
,*Noel J. Becar, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

♦Edward Beck, Worton College, Isleworth, near London. 
*Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, Peekskill, N. Y. 
*Louis Edouard Berckmans, Rome, Ga. 

Prosper J. Berckmans, Augusta, Ga. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 379 

Charles E. Bessey, Ph.D., Industrial College of the University of 
Nebraska, Lincoln. 
'"Alexander Bivort, late Secretary of the Societe Van Mons, Fleurus, 

Belgium. 
♦Tripet Le Blanc, Paris. 
Dr. Ch. Bolle, Berlin, Prussia. 
♦Charles D. Bragdon, Pulaski, Oswego Co., N. Y. 
♦William D. Brinckle\ M.D., Philadelphia. 

♦George Brown, late U. S. Commissioner to the Sandwich Islands, Beverly. 
♦John W. Brown, Fort Gaines, Ga. 
♦Dr. Nehemiah Brush, East Florida. 

♦Arthur Bryant, Sr., late President of the Illinois State Horticultural 
Society, Princeton. 
Professor J. L. Budd, Secretary of the Towa Horticultural Society, Ames. 
♦Robert Buist, Philadelphia. 
♦Dr. E. W. Bull, Hartford, Conn. 
William Bull, Chelsea, England. 
♦Rev. Robert Burnet, Ex-President of the Ontario Fruit Growers' Asso- 
ciation, Milton. 
Alexander Burton, United States Consul at Cadiz, Spain, Philadelphia. 
Isidor Bush, Bushberg, Jefferson Co., Mo. 
George W. Campbell, President of the Ohio State Horticultural Society, 

Delaware, O. 
♦Francis G. Carnes, New York. 
♦Col. Robert Carr, Philadelphia. 
♦Rev. John O. Choules, D.D., Newport, R. I. 
♦Rev. Henry Colman, Boston. 
♦James Colvill, Chelsea, England. 
Maxime Cornu, Directeur du Jardin des Plantes, Paris, France. 
Benjamin E. Cotting, M.D., Boston. 
♦Samuel L. Dana, M.D., Lowell. 
♦J. Decaisne, late Professeur de Culture au Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, 

Jardin des Plantes, Paris. 
♦James Deering, Portland, Me. 
♦H. F. Dickehut. 

♦Sir C. Wentworth Dilke, Bart., London. 
♦Hon. Allen W. Dodge, Hamilton. 
Rev. H. Honywood D'Ombrain, Westwell Vicarage, Ashford, Kent, 

England. 
Robert Douglas, Waukegan, 111. 
♦Andrew Jackson Downing, Newburg, N. Y. 
♦Charles Downing, Newburg, N. Y. 
W. T. Thiselton Dyer, C.M.G., F.R.S., Director of the Royal Botanic 

Gardens, Kew, England. 
Parker Earle, President of the American Horticultural Society, Cobden, 
111. 



380 MASSACHUSETTS HOETICULTUEAL SOCIETY. 

*F. R. Elliott, late Secretary of the American Pomological Society, 

Cleveland, O. 
George Ellwanger, Rochester, N. Y. 
Henry John Elwes, F.L.S., F.Z.S., Preston Hall, Cirencester, England. 

*George B. Emerson, LL.D., Winthrop. 

*Ebenezer Emmons, M.D., Williamstown. 

♦Andrew H. Ernst, Cincinnati, 0. 

William G. Farlow, M.D., Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard 
University, Cambridge. 

♦Nathaniel Fellows, Cuba. 

* Henry J. Finn, Newport, R. I. 

♦Willard C. Flagg, late Secretary of the American Pomological Society, 
Moro, 111. 

♦Michael Floy, late Vice-President of the New York Horticultural Society, 
New York. 

♦John Fox, Washington, D. C. 

♦Hon. Russell Freeman, Sandwich. 
Andrew S. Fuller, Ridgewood, N. J. 

♦Henry Weld Fuller, Roxbury. 
Hon. Robert W. Furnas, President of the Nebraska State Horticultural 
Society, Brownville. 

♦Augustin Gande, late President of the Horticultural Society, Depart- 
ment of the Sarthe, France. 

♦Robert H. Gardiner, Gardiner, Me. 

♦Benjamin Gardner, late U. S. Consul at Palermo, Sicily. 

♦Capt. James T. Gerry, U. S. Navy. 

♦Charles Gibb, late Corresponding Secretary of the Fruit Growers' Associa- 
tion, Abbottsford, Quebec. 

♦Abraham P. Gibson, late U. S. Consul at St. Petersburg. 

♦R. Glendinning, Chiswick, near London. 
Professor George L. Goodale, Cambridge. 

Charles A. Goessmann, Ph.D., Director of the State Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, Amherst. 

♦George W. Gordon, late U. S. Consul at Rio Janeiro, Boston. 

♦Professor Asa Gray, Cambridge. 
Obadiah B. Hadwen, Ex-President of the Worcester County Horticultural 
Society, Worcester. 

♦Charles Henry Hall, New York. 

♦Abraham Halsey, late Corresponding Secretary of the New York Horti- 
cultural Society, New York. 

♦Dr. Charles C. Hamilton, late President of the Fruit Growers' Associa- 
tion and International Show Society of Nova Scotia, Cornwallis. 

♦Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris, D.D., Dorchester. 

♦Thaddeus William Harris, M.D., Cambridge. 

♦John Hay, late Architect of the Caledonian Horticultural Society. 

♦Bernard Henry, late U. S. Consul at Gibraltar, Philadelphia. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 381 

Dr. F. M. Hexamer, Editor of the American Agriculturist, New Rochelle, 
N. Y. 
*Shirley Hibberd, Editor of the Gardeners' Magazine, London. 
*J. J. Hitchcock, Baltimore. 

Robert Hogg, LL.D., Editor of the Journal of Horticulture, London. 
♦Thomas Hogg, New York. 

Thomas Hogg, New York. 

J. C. Holding, Ex-Treasurer and Secretary of the Cape of Good Hope 
Agricultural Society, Cape Town, Africa. 

Rev. S. Reynolds Hole, Rochester, England. 

Sir Joseph Hooker, K.C.S.I., The Camp, Sunningdale, England. 

Josiah Hoopes, West Chester, Pa. 

Professor E. N. Horsford, Cambridge. 

J. Host, Superintendent of the Botanic Garden, Trinidad. 
*Sanford Howard, Chicago, 111. 

*Dr. William M. Howsley, late President of the Kansas State Horticult- 
ural Society, Leavenworth. 
*Isaac Hunter, Baltimore, Md. 
♦Isaac Hurd, Cincinnati, O. 

George Husmann, Napa, Cal. 
♦Professor Isaac W. Jackson, Union College, Schenectady, N. Y. 
♦Thomas P. James, Cambridge. 
♦Edward Jarvis, M.D., Dorchester. 

John W. P. Jenks, Middleborough. 

William J. Johnson, M.D., Fort Gaines, Ga. 

Charles Joly, Vice-President of the Societe d'Horticulture de France, 
Paris. 

Dr. George King, Superintendent of the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta. 
♦Samuel Kneeland, M.D., Boston. 
♦Mons. Laffay, St. Cloud, near Paris, France. 

♦David Landreth, late Corresponding Secretary of the Pennsylvania Horti- 
cultural Society, Bristol. 
♦Charles C. Langdon, Mobile, Ala. 

Professor William R. Lazenby, Secretary of the Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, Columbus, O. 
♦Dr. William LeBaron, late State Entomologist, Geneva, 111. 

Max Leichtlin, Baden-Baden, Germany. 

G. F. B. Leighton, President of the Norfolk Horticultural and Pomologi- 
cal Society, Norfolk, Va. 

Victor Lemoine, Nancy, France. 
*E. S. H. Leonard, M.D., Providence, R. I. 
♦Andr£ Leroy, Author of the Dictionnaire de Pomologie, Angers, France. 

J. Linden, Ghent, Belgium. 
♦Hon. George Lunt, Scituate. 

T. T. Lyon, President of the Michigan Horticultural Society, Grand Haven. 
♦F. W. Macondray, San Francisco, Cal. 

Dr. P. MacOwan, Director of the Botanic Garden, Cape Town, Africa. 



382 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



S 



* James J. Mapes, LL.D., Newark, N. J. 

*A. Mas, late President of the Horticultural Society, Bourg-en-Bresse, 
France. 

Dr. Maxwell T. Masters, Editor of the Gardeners' Chronicle, London. 
*James Maury, late U. S. Consul at Liverpool, England. 

George Maw, Benthall, Kinley, Surrey, England. 

C. J. de Maximowicz, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

T. C. Maxwell, Geneva, N. Y. 

* William Sharp McLeat, New York. 

*James McNab, late Curator of the Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Thomas Meehan, Germantown, Pa. 
*Allan Melvill, New York. 
*John Miller, M.D., late Secretary of the Horticultural and Agricultural 

Society of Jamaica. 
♦Stephen Mills, Flushing, N. Y. 

♦Charles MTntosh, Dalkeith Palace, near Edinburgh. 
♦Joseph E. Mitchell, late President of the Pennsylvania Horticultural 
Society, Philadelphia. 

Dr. Charles Mohr, Mobile, Ala. 
♦Giuseppe Monarchini, M.D., Canea, Isle of Candia. 
♦Edouard Morren, Editor of the Belgique Horticole, Liege, Belgium. 

D. Morris, F.L.S., Assistant Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, 
Kew, England. 

Ch. Naudin, Antibes, France. 

*Horatio Newhall, M.D., Galena, 111. 

i 
George Nicholson, Curator of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England. 

♦David W. Ofelet, late U. S. Consular Agent at Smyrna, Turkey. 

*James Ombrosi, late U. S. Consul at Florence, Italy. 

*John J. Palmer, New York. 

♦Victor Paquet, Paris. 

♦John W. Parker, late U. S. Consul at Amsterdam, Holland. 

* Andre Parmentier, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

William Paul, Waltham Cross, London, N. 
*Sir Joseph Paxton, M.P., Chatsworth, England. 
*John L. Patson, late U. S. Consul at Messina, Sicily. 

Professor D. P. Penhallow, Director of the Botanic Garden, Montreal, 
Can. 
♦Commodore Matthew C. Perry, U. S. Navy, Charlestown. 
♦David Porter, late U. S. Charge d' Affaires at the Ottoman Porte, Con- 
stantinople. 
*Alfred Stratton Prince, Flushing, N. Y. 
*William Robert Prince, Flushing, N. Y. 

P. T. Quinn, Newark, N. J. 
*Rev. W. F. Radclyffe, London, England. 
*William Foster Redding, Baltimore, Md. 

D. Redmond, Ocean Springs, Miss. 

Dr. Edward Regel, St. Petersburg, Russia. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 383 

S. Reynolds, M.D., Schenectady, N. Y. 
*John H. Richards, M.D., Illinois. 

Dr. T. G. Richardson, University of Louisiana, New Orleans, La. 
Charles V. Riley, Entomologist to the U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C. 
♦Mons. J. Rinz, Jr., Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany. 
♦Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, Herts, England. 

William Robinson, Editor of The Garden, London. 
♦Bernhard Roeser, M.D., Bamberg, Bavaria. 
♦Dr. J. Smith Rogers, New York. 
*Capt. William S. Rogers, U. S. Navy. 
♦Thomas Rotch, Philadelphia. 
♦George R. Russell, Roxbury. 
John B. Russell, Indianapolis, Ind. 
♦Rey. John Lewis Russell, Salem. 

William Saunders, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 
♦William Shaler, late U. S. Consul-General at Havana, Cuba. 
♦Henry Shaw, St. Louis, Mo. 
♦William Shaw, New York. 
♦Caleb R. Smith, Burlington, N. J. 
♦Daniel D. Smith, Burlington, N. J. 

♦Gideon B. Smith, late Editor of the American Farmer, Baltimore, Md. 
♦John Jay Smith, Germantown, Pa. 
♦Horatio Sprague, late U. S. Consul at Gibraltar. 
Robert W. Starr, Port William, N. S. 
Dr. Joseph Stayman, Leavenworth, Kan. 

♦Capt. Thomas Holdup Stevens, U. S. Navy, Middletown, Conn. 
William A. Stiles, Editor of Garden and Forest, Deckertown, N. J. 
♦William Fox Strangeway, late British Secretary of Legation at Naples, 

Italy. 
♦Dr. J. Strentzel, Martinez, Cal. 
♦Judge E. B. Strong, Rochester, N. Y. 
♦James P. Sturgis, Canton, China. 
William Summer, Pomaria, S. C. 
Francis Summerest. 
♦Professor Michele Tenore, late Director of the Botanic Garden at 

Naples, Italy. 
♦James Englebert Teschemacher, Boston. 
♦Robert Thompson, Chiswick, near London. 
♦George C. Thorburn, New York. 
♦Professor George Thurber, Editor of the American Agriculturist, New 

York. 
♦John Tilson, Jr., Edwardsville, 111. 

♦Cav. Doct. Vincenzo Tineo, late Director of the Botanic Garden at 
Palermo. 
Dr. Melchior Treub, Director of the Botanic Garden, Buitenzorg, Java. 
♦Luther Tucker, late Editor of The Cultivator, Albany, N. Y. 



384 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

*Caret Tyso, Wallingford, England. 
*Louis Van Houtte, Ghent, Belgium. 
♦Alexander Vattemare, Paris. 

H. J. Veitch, Chelsea, England. 

Henry Vilmorin, Secretaire de la Societe Nationale d' Agriculture de 
France, Paris. 
*Emilien de Wael, late Secretary of the Horticultural Society, Antwerp, 

Belgium. 
*John A. Warder, M.D., late President of the Ohio State Horticultural 
Society, North Bend, O. 

Anthony Waterer, Knapp Hill, near Woking, Surrey, England. 

Sereno Watson, Ph.D., Cambridge. 
*J. Ambrose Wight, late Editor of the Prairie Farmer, Chicago, III. 
*Benjamin Samuel Williams, Upper Holloway, London, N. 
♦Professor John Wilson, Edinburgh University, Scotland. 

* William Wilson, New York. 
*Hon. J. F. Wingate, Bath, Me. 
*Gen. Joshua Wingate, Portland, Me. 

* Joseph Augustus Winthrop, Charleston, S. C. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Business Meeting, April 5, 1890; no quorum 211 

Business Meeting, May 3; Letters from Hon. Henry L. Dawes and the Hing- 

ham Agricultural and Horticultural Society, p. 211; Six Members elected . 212 

Business Meeting, June 7; Moss for Rose Boxes, p. 212; Additional Appropria- 
tion asked by Window Gardening Committee, 212; Letter on the Improve- 
ment of the Potato, by Dr. Robert P. Harris, 212-215; Four Members 
elected 215 

Business Meeting, July 5 ; Appropriation for Window Gardening Committee, 
p. 215; Amendment to Constitution and By-Laws, proposed, 215, 216; Com- 
mittee of Arrangements authorized to hire Music Hall, 216; Four Members 
elected 216 

Business Meeting, August 2; Memorial of Patrick Barry, pp. 216-218; Dele- 
gates to Convention concerning World's Columbian Exposition, 218; Moss 
for Rose Boxes, 218; Society of American Florists and Association of Cem- 
etery Superintendents to be admitted to Exhibition, 219; Committee to 
nominate Officers, 219; Invitation from the Gardeners and Florists' Club, 
219 ; Thanks to John Croumbie Brown, for Books 219 

Business Meeting, September 6; Report of Nominating Committee presented, 
p. 219; Thanks voted to Contributors of Special Prizes, 220; Acknowledg- 
ment of Memorial of Patrick Barry, 220; Thanks from the Society of 
American Florists and the Barnstable Agricultural Society, 220; Thanks 
voted to the City Government and the Press 220 

Business Meeting, October 4; Annual Election, pp. 221,222; Member added 
to Committee on Large or Interesting Trees, 221; Amendment to Constitu- 
tion and By-Laws adopted, 221; Additional Appropriation for Committee 
on Plants and Flowers, 221; Letter from the Oxford Agricultural Society, 
221; Member elected 222 

Business Meeting, November 1; Appropriation for Prizes for 1891, p. 222; 
Diploma Plate, 222; Vacancies in Committee on Plants, 222, 223; Two 
Members elected 223 

Business Meeting, December 6; Decease of Mrs. Francis B. Hayes announced, 
p. 223; Schedule for 1891 adopted, 223; Vacancies in Committee on Plants 
filled, 223, 224; Vote concerning Diploma, 224; Reports of Committee on 
Plants and Flowers and Committee on Fruits read, 224; Further Time 
granted to Committee on Vegetables, 224; Library Committee authorized 
to employ assistance, 224; Thanks from Association of American Ceme- 
tery Superintendents, 224; Four Members elected 224 

Business Meeting, December 20; Decease of Warren Heustis announced, p. 
225; Reports of Committees on Vegetables, Library, and Window Garden- 
ing read, 225; Reports of Member of Board of Control and Secretary and 
Librarian read, 225; Partial Report of Committee of Arrangements read, 
225; Committee on Memorial of Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, 225; Classifica- 
tion of Horticultural Department of World's Columbian Exhibition, 225, 
226; Preservation of Beautiful and Historical Places 226 



11 CONTENTS. 



Repobt of the Committee on Plants and Flowers; Introduction, pp. 227, 
228; Weekly Exhibitions, 228, 229, 230.231, 232, 235; Spring Exhibition, 
229, 230; May Exhibition, 230; Rhododendron Show, 230, 231; Rose Ex- 
hibition, 231, 232; Annual Exhibition, 233, 234; Chrysanthemum Exhibition, 

234,235; Prizes and Gratuities awarded 237-255 

Report of the Committee on Fruits, pp. 256-259; Prizes and Gratuities 

awarded 260-276 

Report of the Committee on Vegetables, pp. 277-281; Prizes and Gratui- 
ties awarded 282-293 

Report of the Committee on Gardens; Introduction, pp. 294-297; Orchid 
House of E. W. Gilmore, 297-299; Residence of Robert M. Pratt, 299-302 ; 
Forcing Houses of Hittinger Brothers, 302, 303; Market Strawberry Garden 
of Samuel Barnard, 303; Amateur Strawberry Garden of B. M. Smith, 

303-305; Awards 305 

Report of the Committee of Arrangements 306, 307 

Report of the Committee on Window Gardening 308-314 

Report to the State Board of Agriculture .* 315-318 

Report on the State Experiment Station 319, 320 

Report of the Committee on the Librart, pp. 321, 322; Library Ac- 
cessions, — Books purchased, 323-330; Books, etc., received by Donation 
and Exchange, 331-347; Periodicals purchased, 347; Periodicals received 

in Exchange 347, 348 

Report of the Secretary and Librarian 349-351 

Report of the Treasurer 352-356 

Report of the Finance Committee 354 

Mount Auburn Cemetery 357, 358 

Officers and Standing Committees for 1891 359-361 

Members of the Society; Life, pp. 362-368; Annual, 369-371 ; Honorary, 373- 

377; Corresponding 378-384 

Extract from the Constitution and By-Laws 372 



Experiment Station Reports Wanted. 



The Massachusetts Horticultural Society is endeavoring to collect complete 
sets of the Bulletins and other publications of all the Agricultural Experi- 
ment Stations in the United States and Canada. Those named below are 
wanting, and any person having a spare copy will confer a favor by address- 
ing the Librarian of the Society, Horticultural Hall, Boston. 

A considerable number of duplicates are on hand, which will be exchanged 
for any of those in which the Society is deficient. 

Alabama (Ag. and Mech. College Station). — Bulletins 1 to 6, inclusive, of 
First Series (1887), and 1, and all later than 5, of Second Series 
(1888). 
Arkansas. — Bulletins 1, 4, and all later than 15. 
California. — Bulletins 1, 2, 3, 5, 50, 66. Annual Reports for 1877 and 

1882. 
Colorado. — Bulletin 3. 
Connecticut (New Haven Station). —Bulletins 1 to G7, inclusive, and 

107. Annual Reports for 1877 to 1883, inclusive. 
Delaware. — Bulletin 10. 
Indiana (Purdue Univ. School of Ag.). — Bulletin 1. College Reports 

1 to 14, inclusive. 
Kentucky. — Bulletins 8 and 10. Circulars 1 and 2. 
Maine. — Bulletins 1 to 5, inclusive, of First Series, and all later than No. 2 

of Second Series. All Annual Reports previous to 1886-7. 
Maryland. — Bulletins 7 and 8. 

Massachusetts (Hatch Station). — Meteorological Bulletins 5 and 22. 
Minnesota. — Bulletin 11. All Reports previous to the Biennial Report for 

1885 and 1886. 
Missouri. — Bulletins 9, 13, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 22, 25, 26, 28, 29, and 33 of 

Old Series. 
Nevada. — All later than Bulletin 11. 
New Jersey. — Bulletins 1, 4, 5, 15, 27, and 28. 
New Mexico. — Bulletin 1. 
North Carolina.— Bulletins 1 to 56, inclusive, and 75. Meteorological 

Division, Bulletins 2, 6, and 7. 
Ohio. — All Bulletins of First Series. 
South Carolina. — All Bulletins of Old Series, and all later than No. 8 of 

present series. Third Annual Report. 
Vermont. — Bulletin 3. 
Wisconsin. — Bulletin 2. 
Ontario Ag. College, Experimental Farm. — Bulletins 2, 3, 18, and 47. 

1st, 2d, and 12th Annual Reports. 
Ottawa, Ont., Central Experimental Farm. — All Annual Reports previous 

to that for 1888. Also, Dairy Bulletin 2. 
Toronto, Ont., Bureau of Industries. —Bulletins 1 to 21, inclusive.